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Children from language minority (LM) environments speak a language at home that differs from that at school, are often from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds, and are at risk for reading impairment. We evaluated the main effects and interaction of language status and phonological memory and awareness on reading disorder in 352 children from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. A significant phonological memory by language status interaction indicated that phonological memory problems were magnified in predicting reading impairment in children from LM versus English dominant (ED) homes. Among children without reading disorder, language minority status was unrelated to phonological processing.
To: (i) understand facilitators and barriers to healthy eating practices and physical activity in younger and older urban adolescent South African boys and girls; and (ii) understand how the views of caregivers interact with, and influence, adolescent behaviours.
Semi-structured focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted in July 2018. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.
Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Seventy-five participants were stratified into eight FGD as follows: two for young boys and girls (10–12 years); two for older boys and girls (15–17 years); two for caregivers of young adolescents (boys and girls); and two for caregivers of older adolescents (boys and girls).
Unlike their caregivers, adolescents were not motivated to eat healthily and failed to appreciate the need to develop consistent patterns of both healthy eating and physical activity for their long-term health. Although adolescents gained independence with age, they commonly attributed unhealthy food choices to a lack of autonomy and, thereby, to the influence of their caregivers. Adolescents and caregivers perceived their engagement in physical activity according to distinct siloes of recreational and routine activity, respectively. Both similarities and differences in the drivers of healthy eating and physical activity exist in adolescents and caregivers, and should be targeted in future interventions.
Our study identified a complex paradigm of eating practices and physical activity in South African adolescents and their caregivers. We also highlighted the need for a new narrative in addressing the multifaceted and interrelated determinants of adolescent health within urban poor settings.
The negative symptoms of psychosis and depressive symptomatology share several features, e.g. low motivation, apathy and reduced activity. Understanding the associations between these two sets of symptoms will support improved assessment and the development of interventions targeting these difficulties in people with psychosis. This is the first large systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the relationship between these two categories of symptoms, as measured in studies to date. PsycInfo, Embase and Medline were systematically searched to identify eligible studies. Inclusion criteria ensured the studies measured both depression and negative symptoms using validated measures in a sample of over 8000 participants with non-affective psychosis diagnoses. The search led to 2020 records being screened and 56 included in the meta-analysis and review. Both meta-analyses and meta-regressions were conducted to explore the main effect and potential moderating variables. A clear pattern emerges showing that higher ratings of negative symptoms are associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, with a small effect [standardised effect size = 0.19, p < 0.05). This did not vary greatly with the measures used (SES = 0.19–0.26) and was not moderated by demographic variables or quality ratings. Interestingly, higher depressive symptoms predict a significant relationship with co-occurring negative symptoms. However, higher negative symptoms predict that it is less likely there will be a relationship with co-occurring depressive symptoms. Heterogeneity was high across these analyses. The findings support the adoption of a symptom-specific approach to understanding the interplay between negative and depressive symptoms in psychosis, to improve assessment and intervention.
The late Barbara Hardy’s chapter traces the ways in which the creative imagination allows access to the spaces between authorial design and academic interpretation, from whence new insights and ways of understanding the original text might emanate. Hardy provides authorial insight into her volume of nineteenth-century postscripts, which work precisely to tease out loose threads and weave material into ‘hidden narrative secrets’, and which act as an appropriately muted recognition and celebration of Brontë’s feminism. Hardy’s purpose, in the writing of Dorothea’s Daughter and other Nineteenth-Century Postscripts (2011), was to enable a creative rather than critical discourse as a basis of literary judgment and analysis. Hardy’s stories are well attuned to voice, lexicon, form, affect, and the sense of an ending in each work. They create space for, among other things, consideration of Jane Eyre’s Adèle Varens and Villette’s Paulina Bretton and were written not only as critique in the form of fiction but in the spirit of homage.
Atmospheric aerosol particles have been sampled near a Los Angeles freeway and analyzed by proton-induced X-ray emission, PIXE, as a sulfur baseline study in September 1974 before 1975-model auto mobiles, equipped with catalytic emission control devices, appeared in large numbers. The sampling plan was optimized a c cording to the requirements of X-ray analysis techniques, fluctuations in air flow across the freeway, and the time and particlesise resolution of the aerosol sampling equipment. During five selected two-hour intervals with cross wind conditions, particles were collected as a function of size by six cascade impactorsope rating simultaneously on three towers at 2 and 7 meters above road level 35 meters upwind and 35 meters downwind of the traffic lanes. Particles as a function of time were sampled continuously, for the 100-hour duration of the experiment, from the three 7-meter heights using time series streaker filter samplers with two-hour time resolution. Precise analyses of S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Br, and. Pb established relationships which permit estimates to be made of future increases in particulate sulfur as a consequence of increased sulfate emissions from catalytic automobiles.
Dans une constellation de textes entourant Spectres de Marx, Derrida procède à un geste qui semble contraire à la «déconstruction» et qui paraît s’apparenter plutôt à la méthode phénoménologique. En érigeant la messianicité au statut de structure universelle indéconstructible, ces textes donnent lieu en effet à une radicalisation et une transcendantalisation de la temporalité propre aux messianismes historiques. Cet article entend d’abord mettre en évidence le caractère phénoménologique de cette approche et ensuite en questionner la légitimité et le sens à la lumière de textes ultérieurs, où Derrida analyse le rapport entre médias et christianisme.
Robust and persistent links between early-life adversities and later-life mental distress have previously been observed. Individual and social resources are associated with greater mental health and resilience. This study aimed to test these resources as moderators and mediators of the association between childhood psychosocial adversity and later-life mental distress.
Participant data came from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally-representative birth cohort study. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) captured mental distress at ages 53, 60–64, and 68–69. An eight-item cumulative psychosocial adversity score was created (0, 1, 2, ≥3 adversities). Individual (i.e., education, occupational status, physical activity) and social (i.e., social support, neighborhood cohesion) resources were examined as mediators and moderators of CPA and GHQ-28 in longitudinal multilevel models.
Greater adversity was associated with an average GHQ-28 score increase of 0.017, per unit adversity (β = 0·017, p < 0·001, 95% CI 0·011, 0·022). Lower mental distress was associated with higher levels of physical activity, occupational status, education, social support, and neighborhood cohesion. There was no evidence that resources moderated the relationship between GHQ-28 and adversity. All resources, save for physical activity and occupational status, partly mediated this relationship.
Individual and social resources were associated with lower mental distress. They did not modify, but partly mediated the association between childhood adversity and adult mental distress. Social support was the most important mediator, suggesting that interventions to promote greater social support may offset psychosocial adversities experienced in childhood to foster better mental health in older adults.
The expansion of age-related degenerative spine pathologies has led to increased referrals to spine surgeons. However, the majority of patients referred for surgical consultation do not need surgery, leading to inefficient use of healthcare resources. This study aims to elucidate preoperative patient variables that are predictive of patients being offered spine surgery.
We conducted an observational cohort study on patients referred to our institution between May 2013 and January 2015. Patients completed a detailed preclinic questionnaire on items such as history of presenting illness, quality-of-life questionnaires, and past medical history. The primary end point was whether surgery was offered. A multivariable logistical regression using the random forest method was used to determine the odds of being offered surgery based on preoperative patient variables.
An analysis of 1194 patients found that preoperative patient variables that reduced the odds of surgery being offered include mild pain (odds ratio [OR] 0.37, p=0.008), normal walking distance (OR 0.51, p=0.007), and normal sitting tolerance (OR 0.58, p=0.01). Factors that increased the odds of surgery include radiculopathy (OR 2.0, p=0.001), patient’s belief that they should have surgery (OR 1.9, p=0.003), walking distance <50 ft (OR 1.9, p=0.01), relief of symptoms when bending forward (OR 1.7, p=0.008) and sitting (OR 1.6, p=0.009), works more slowly (OR 1.6 p=0.01), aggravation of symptoms by Valsalva (OR 1.4, p=0.03), and pain affecting sitting/standing (OR 1.1, p=0.001).
We identified 11 preoperative variables that were predictive of whether patients were offered surgery, which are important factors to consider when screening outpatient spine referrals.
The nutrition environment, including food store type, may influence dietary choices, which in turn can affect risk of obesity and related chronic diseases such as CHD, diabetes and cancer. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the extent to which healthy foods are available and affordable in various rural food outlets. A subset of the nutrition environment was assessed using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S). The NEMS-S instrument assessed the availability and price of healthy foods (e.g. low-fat/non-fat milk, lean meats and reduced-fat dinner entrées) compared with less healthy counterparts (e.g. whole milk, non-lean meats and regular dinner entrées). The NEMS-S also assessed the quality of fresh fruits and vegetables. Availability, prices and quality of healthy foods were compared between grocery stores (n 24) and convenience stores (n 67) in nine rural counties in Alabama. Mean availability subscale score (possible range 0 to 30; higher score indicates a greater number of healthier foods were available) for grocery stores was 22·6 (sd 8·1), compared with 6·6 (sd 5·2) in convenience stores (P < 0·0001); and mean price subscale score (possible range −9 to 18; higher score indicates that healthier options were less expensive than the less healthy options) for grocery stores was 2·4 (sd 2·7), compared with 0·7 (sd 1·2) in convenience stores (P = 0·0080). Mean total NEMS-S score (possible range −9 to 54) in grocery stores was 29·8 (sd 10·9) compared with 7·3 (sd 7·1) in convenience stores (P < 0·0001). Both grocery and convenience stores could be strategic points of intervention to improve the nutrition environment in the counties that were surveyed.