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We describe the use of immobilized deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in a silica matrix as a biorecognition agent for the detection of albendazole sulfoxide (ASU), the primary metabolite of albendazole and a suspected teratogenic and embryotoxic agent. The biomaterial (DNA-containing gel) was synthesized by physical entrapment of salmon sperm in an inorganic silicate matrix by the sol-gel method. Functionality of the DNA-containing gel was evaluated by comparative offline frontal chromatography followed by HPLC analysis of ASU and caffeine (CAF, control) using DNA-containing gel and DNA-free gel. The DNA-containing gel showed relatively high specific retention for ASU, while CAF showed no retention using frontal analysis. We anticipate that the DNA-containing gel can be implemented to identify the interactions of DNA with other active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and their metabolites in a readily available, sensitive and selective frontal chromatography experiment.
A new computerized instrument (the Multimedia Behavioral Avoidance Test, or MBAT) for blood-injury-injection phobia (BII) assessment is presented. Analogous stimuli such as images and videos can also elicit anxiety responses; thus, they can be used for the assessment of phobia. The MBAT was applied to participants via computer, and subjective anxiety responses and time latency were recorded. The MBAT was composed of 30 original images and 30 videos related to blood, injury and injections. The MBAT was compared with other pencil-and-paper questionnaires for BII phobia, and heart rate was also measured with a pulsioximeter. The participants included 160 students and professionals (34.5% males, 65.6% females; mean 28.6 years old). The results showed a high reliability for internal consistency in images and videos (α = .98 both), with a single factor that groups all the items. In addition, the MBAT had high concurrent validity (r = .78 to .85) with the different anxiety scales compared. The MBAT diagnosed 12 participants with possible BII phobia. It is a useful instrument in the assessment of this kind of phobia because it is easier and quicker than pencil-and-paper questionnaires, it uses more objective measurements, and it is useful in planning subsequent exposure with images and videos.
Ducks are waterfowl belonging to the Anatidae family of cosmopolitan distribution. In duck production systems, obtaining ducklings at one-day-old is determinant for the productive chain. The egg production in some species of ducks reaches about 250 to 300 eggs per year. Obtaining one-day-old ducklings can be done by natural incubation with a broody female duck or artificially in an incubator. During artificial incubation, fertility and hatchability are the most important indicators that must be controlled, because they influence the supply of ducklings to the farm. Many factors are related to fertility and hatching, such as environmental conditions, production system, season, nutrition, management of broodstock, storage time of egg and cleaning of eggs before the incubation. According to some reports, Pekin eggs have greater hatchability than Muscovy eggs. The eggs of Muscovy have presented values lower than 22.7% of hatchability. The hatchability of Pekin duck eggs was 78.0% in the spring, while in summer it was around 46.5%. The best hatchability is observed during the winter (57.68%), as in the summer it decreases to 54.14%. The reproductive characteristics of flocks, age, external and internal quality of the egg, male female relation, and presence of lethal genes are factors that directly involve breeders. Larger sexual ratios between males and females of 1:4.3 to 1: 10 cause reduced egg fertility from 75.9% down to 49.6%. Successful production of day-old ducklings starts with the proper selection and management of breeding stock, proper post-lay handling of fertile eggs and the correct incubation process. There are different methods used to improve the hatchability such as dipping eggs in nutrients during the incubation period.
Background: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a children’s neuromuscular disorder. Although motor neuron loss is a major feature of the disease, we have identified fatty acid abnormalities in SMA patients and in preclinical animal models, suggesting metabolic perturbation is also an important component of SMA. Methods: Biochemical, histological, proteomic, and high resolution respirometry were used. Results: SMA patients are more susceptible to dyslipidemia than the average population as determined by a standard lipid profile in a cohort of 72 pediatric patients. As well, we observed a non-alcoholic liver disease phenotype in apreclinical mouse model. Denervation alone was not sufficient to induce liver steatosis, as a mouse model of ALS, did not develop fatty liver. Hyperglucagonemia in Smn2B/-mice could explain the hepatic steatosis by increasing plasma substrate availability via glycogen depletion and peripheral lipolysis. Proteomic analysis identified mitochondrion and lipid metabolism as major clusters. Alterations in mitochondrial function were revealed by high-resolution respirometry. Finally, low-fat diets led to increased survival in Smn2B/-mice. Conclusions: These results provide strong evidence for lipid metabolism defects in SMA. Further investigation will be required to establish the primary mechanism of these alterations and understand how they lead to additional co-morbidities in SMA patients.
In 2014–2016, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in 115 sheep, 104 beef and 82 dairy cattle herds to estimate Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) prevalence, and collected data on human clinical cases of infection. Isolates were characterised (stx1, stx2, eae, ehxA) and serogroups O157 and O111 identified by PCR, and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles were determined by broth microdilution. STEC were more frequently isolated from beef cattle herds (63.5%) and sheep flocks (56.5%) than from dairy cattle herds (30.5%) (P < 0.001). A similar but non-significant trend was observed for O157:H7 STEC. In humans, mean annual incidence rate was 1.7 cases/100 000 inhabitants for O157 STEC and 4.7 for non-O157 STEC, but cases concentrated among younger patients. Distribution of virulence genes in STEC strains from ruminants differed from those from human clinical cases. Thus, stx2 was significantly associated with animal STEC isolates (O157 and non-O157), ehxA to ruminant O157 STEC (P = 0.004) and eae to human non-O157 STEC isolates (P < 0.001). Resistance was detected in 21.9% of human and 5.2% of animal O157 STEC isolates, whereas all non-O157 isolates were fully susceptible. In conclusion, STEC were widespread in ruminants, but only some carried virulence genes associated with severe disease in humans; AMR in ruminants was low but profiles were similar to those found in human isolates.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The goal of the study was to assess the acceptability of a culturally targeted narrative video and identify potential avenues for dissemination in a sample of bilingual community health workers who provide services to the Latino community in the United States. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We piloted the video in a sample of bilingual community health workers who provide services to Latinos (n=31). After watching the video, participants filled out a survey. The survey captured sociodemographic data (e.g. education), their role and experience working with Latinos (e.g. patient navigators), acceptability of the video (e.g. general satisfaction, length of the video, amount of information), and potential dissemination (e.g., dissemination channels, preferred settings to watch the video, and preferred context). Three open ended questions captured information about how the video could be useful for the Latino community, what they liked the most from the video, and suggestions for improvement. Data was entered in SPSS version 25. We used descriptive statistics to analyze the survey, and content analysis to summarize the feedback from the open-ended questions. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Participants (n = 31) had an average age of 46 years (SD=16.99), all self-identified as Hispanic or Latinos, most were female (90.3%), and worked as patient navigators (29%) or community outreach workers (25.8%). The video’s general acceptability was very high. Participants reported high ratings for overall satisfaction, how much they liked the video, enjoyed it, and considered it to be interesting (all means >9.6, range 1-10). Most participants strongly agreed or agreed that the length was adequate (80.7%), that the information presented was very helpful (100%), that the video could be useful for the Latina community (96.8%), and that they would share the video with women at-risk of HBOC (100%). The highest endorsed channels for dissemination were Facebook (90.3) and YouTube (87.1%). The highest endorsed settings were community centers (100%), churches (96.8%), and hospitals (80.6%). Most participants (90.3%) considered that the best context to watch the video would be with relatives, followed by watching with other women at-risk of HBOC (71.0%), friends (71.0%), and lastly by oneself (41.9%) DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study represents a multidisciplinary approach to intervention development that aims to reduce well-documented knowledge gaps and disparities in the use of GCRA among at-risk Latinas. A culturally targeted video has the potential to reach underserved populations with low literacy and English proficiency and it can be widely disseminated. The video was well received by community health workers who reported high acceptability. These findings are promising given that community health workers could play a key role in the dissemination of the video if it is proven to be efficacious.
Newly discovered archaeological sites in the Uribe Kosta region of northern Spain are illuminating the establishment of late prehistoric coastal farming settlements and specialised tool-production activities.
Rhinonyssids are obligate haematophagous mites that parasitize the nasal cavity of vertebrates, and occur in a wide range of birds worldwide. Two species of nasal mites are known to occur in penguins: Rhinonyssus sphenisci, which has been recorded from Humboldt and Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus humboldti and S. magellanicus, respectively), and Rhinonyssus schelli, which has been recorded in Adélie and Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae and P. papua, respectively). We examined the nasal cavity of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) that died while under care at a rehabilitation centre (N = 40) or that were found dead at breeding colonies (N = 67). Nasal mites were found in the nasal cavity and/or paranasal of sinuses of 21 penguins, some of which had signs of mild-to-moderate sinusitis. Prevalence was higher in juveniles (29%) and adults (27%) than in chicks (10%). Mean intensity was 5.9 ± 12.9 mites per infected host (range 1–60). The mites presented morphological characteristics that were at times consistent with either R. sphenisci or R. schelli, and therefore we conservatively classified them as ‘R. sphenisci sensu lato’. Our morphometric results raise the question of whether the specific status of R. schelli is justified.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The overall goal of this project is to enhance the use of GCRA in Latina breast cancer survivors at high risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer to reduce disparities in GCRA uptake. The aims of the study are to (1) develop a cultural adaptation of an evidence-based TGC intervention that consists of phone genetic counseling and a booklet, (2) evaluate the impact of TGC Versus Usual Care, and (3) explore the communication patterns in TGC and genetic counseling sessions with an interpreter. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We are conducting a 2-phase, mixed methods study. In Phase I we will develop a cultural adaption of an evidence-based intervention (TGC) for high-risk Latina breast cancer survivors using the Learner Verification and Revision Framework (n=15). In Phase II we will use a cluster randomized design with four community sites randomized to Spanish TGC (n=2 sites) or usual care (n=2 sites) (n=60; 15 per site). The primary outcome is genetic counseling uptake. Among women who receive genetic counseling either through TGC (n~30) or with an interpreter (n~15), we will assess counseling quality by reviewing 20 randomly selected audiotaped sessions (10 TGC; 10 interpreters). We will evaluate women’s HBOC knowledge and satisfaction with counseling. Communication processes and outcomes will be assessed using gold standard RIAS quantitative coding system and qualitative discourse analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We elicited input from transdisciplinary team members to develop an initial adaptation of a TGC print booklet and intervention protocol for use with high-risk Latina breast cancer survivors with limited English proficiency. The booklet contains low-literacy information about HBOC, risk factors, pros and cons of testing, and management strategies. Based on these materials and prior work, we anticipate TGC will consist of one 1 hour or less TGC session by phone. Participants interested in pursuing testing will receive a saliva kit and will participate in a second TGC session (30 min) to discuss test results and management options. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Given access barriers and the shortage of Spanish-speaking genetic counselors, adapting and translating TGC intervention is a promising strategy that could reduce disparities by broadening the reach and accessibility to genetic counseling while enhancing the quality of the service for Latinas with limited English proficiency.
The Pampas cat Leopardus colocolo occurs in a variety of habitats from northern Ecuador to southern Argentina, yet the species has been poorly studied. There is scant information about its northern distribution or about populations in desert and dry forest. We aimed to determine the presence of the Pampas cat in the Sechura Desert and seasonally dry forest of north-western Peru and south-western Ecuador, identify threats to the species, and describe people's perceptions of it. Using 32 camera traps and compiling confirmed and unpublished records, we mapped the species’ distribution and identified 12 new localities, three in the Sechura Desert and nine in the dry forest. The first records of the Pampas cat in the Ecuadorian dry forest are reported from La Ceiba Natural Reserve and Jorupe Reserve; the northernmost record in the dry forest is from Cerros de Amotape National Park, Peru. In 56 semi-structured interviews with local people we found that most of them (76.8%) did not know the species; 61.5% of those who knew the species had a neutral perception and did not think the cat affected their personal activities. Here we update the northern distribution of the Pampas cat, describe threats to the species in arid ecosystems, and highlight the need for further studies to identify other possible threats and mitigation methods.
The study of orthographic errors in a transparent language such as Spanish is an important topic in relation to writing acquisition because in Spanish it is common to write pseudohomophones as valid words. The main objective of the present study was to explore the possible differences in activation patterns in brain areas while processing pseudohomophone orthographic errors between participants with high (High Spelling Skills (HSS)) and low (Low Spelling Skills (LSS)) spelling orthographic abilities. We hypothesize that (a) the detection of orthographic errors will activate bilateral inferior frontal gyri, and that (b) this effect will be greater in the HSS group. Two groups of 12 Mexican participants, each matched by age, were formed based on their results in a group of spelling-related ad hoc tests: HSS and LSS groups. During the fMRI session, two experimental tasks were applied involving correct and pseudohomophone substitution of Spanish words. First, a spelling recognition task and second a letter searching task. The LSS group showed, as expected, a lower number of correct responses (F(1, 21) = 52.72, p <.001, η2 = .715) and higher reaction times compared to the HSS group for the spelling task (F(1, 21) = 60.03, p <.001, η2 = .741). However, this pattern was reversed when the participants were asked to decide on the presence of a vowel in the words, regardless of spelling. The fMRI data showed an engagement of the right inferior frontal gyrus in HSS group during the spelling task. However, temporal, frontal, and subcortical brain regions of the LSS group were activated during the same task.