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We present the current performance of the in situ radiocarbon (14C) extraction line at the University of Bern with an improved extraction and combustion system. After three major steps of improvement, the extraction of sample CO2 gas now takes place inside a platinum crucible, supported by an outer quartz-glass crucible. This setup allows us to operate the line as a closed system for several samples without breaking the vacuum. Measurements of procedural blanks and samples from our reference strewn field, Jiddat al Harasis 073, performed in our system all show a good reproducibility and, for the strewn field samples, consistency with published data. We describe each improvement step in detail, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of all tested setups. By sharing our knowledge, we aim to inform and prevent others from making the same or similar detours in establishing 14C extraction systems for extraterrestrial samples.
This article investigates some functions of the determinative sum(e) in Old, Middle and Early Modern English. It traces, quantifies and models the diachronic development of sum(e) as a pre-head element from a usage-based, cognitive Construction Grammar perspective by postulating several semi-specified but also abstract constructional OE and ME NP-schemas and sketching the observable (changing) network (re)configurations. By analyzing texts from the Penn–Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Middle English (PPCME) and the Penn–Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Early Modern English (PPCEME), the article especially focuses on the demise of the so-called ‘individualizing’ usage with singular nouns and traces the incipient stages of sum(e) as an indefinite near-article with plural and mass nouns. R was used to calculate correlation coefficients and measures of statistical significance in univariate analyses, and for multivariate regression models to address questions involving more than one predictor variable. It is shown that the usage of sum(e) with singular nouns became marginalized because of constructional competition with the numeral ān. In Old English, the two forms were both occasionally used to mark indefiniteness before singular nouns, but ultimately ān became the default marker of indefiniteness ousting sum(e). We also show that that the usage of sum(e) as an indefiniteness marker for plural nouns increased drastically from the later ME period onwards, particularly in informal text genres. Moreover, from the earliest periods onwards, there is a strong preference for this function to occur with complex NPs with pre- and post-head modification, which seem to have acted as bridging contexts.
The new forms of the use of outer space, such as space resources activities, not only will provide a vital contribution to research and industry, but could also entail a negative impact to the space environment. The present article aims at discussing from a legal perspective crucial problems such as how we shall ensure that the entities active in the area of space resources take environmental concerns into account, how we shall ensure that they utilize the best possible and least invasive technology and whether they should restore the ‘mining’ area when finishing their tasks.
This article examines the thought and career of Nabeyama Sadachika (1901–79) from communist militant in 1920s Japan to his conversion to the emperor system in the 1930s and, finally, to his role in shaping the postwar anti-communist movement. Using Nabeyama's recently released private papers, the article shows how he brokered his anti-communist expertise to a range of postwar actors and institutions—the police, the Self-Defense Forces, business circles, politicians—as well as to foreign states, especially the Republic of China (Taiwan). These networks indicate that important sections of Japan's postwar establishment rallied behind anti-communism in the face of reforms that threatened their power at home and their vision for Japan in the world order after 1945. As a transwar history, this article adds to our understanding of Japan's transition from the age of empire to that of liberal democracy by qualifying narratives about the “progressive” nature of postwar Japanese politics. It argues that the vitality of anti-communism is symptomatic of the durability of particular political traditions, and reveals that, despite the significant reforms that Japan underwent after 1945, the Right was able to claim a space in the country's political culture that has been neglected by historians.
This article describes an atomic force microscope (AFM) that can operate in any scanning electron microscope (SEM) or SEM combined with a focused ion-beam (FIB) column. The combination of AFM, SEM imaging, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), FIB milling, and nanofabrication methods (field-emission scanning probe lithography, tip-based electron beam induced deposition, and nanomachining) provides a new tool for correlative nanofabrication and microscopy. Piezoresistive, thermo-mechanically actuated cantilevers (active cantilevers) are used for fast imaging and nanofabrication. Thus, the AFM with active cantilevers integrated into an SEM (AFMinSEM) can generate and characterize nanostructures in situ without breaking vacuum or contaminating the sample.
With the increasing importance of the concept of remedies in European private law, this book focuses on remedies as a distinctive and novel field of European legal research. It considers the common law tradition (England and Wales), as well as the civil law viewpoint (on the example of Germany), making the case for a European law of remedies. It is argued that 'remedies' are an enforcement tool influencing the scope of substantive rights. In doing so, the book analyses different mechanisms of enforcement, including the debate on private versus public enforcement as well as the perspective of criminal law. The enforcement of rights is understood as an intradisciplinary task. Remedial law is, however, distinct from procedural law, as well as from substantive law in a narrow sense. Subsequent to defining the scope of a law of remedies, this book analyses several underlying principles and common themes. For example, the proportionality test is presented as fundamental principle in European remedial law. The value gained by identifying common ground is e. g. illustrated with respect to damages in European Private Law. Especially in IP law, in turn, the CJEU rulings and secondary European legislation confirm the importance of proportionate remedies. Moreover, within the law of remedies the function of each remedy can be analysed, and respective interests can be balanced. Further examples that reveal the importance of a sophisticated enforcement are the CJEU's recent extension of the concept of communication to the public, the notice-and-take-down-procedure in intermediary liability cases and remedies for non-conformity of digital content or consumers' remedies in European contract law. In German patent law, the development of grace periods and shareholders´ rights in German corporate law can be analysed from a "remedy" perspective as well. Overall this book demonstrates that remedies are more than just an addendum and innovatively presents an emerging research area. As such it is of great relevance to all lawyers concerned with questions surrounding the enforcement of rights: international academics as well as practitioners.
Is there such a thing as a ‘Law of Remedies’? The answer probably depends on your juridical provenance. Those who were educated in England, the United States or Australia will agree that quite a few scholars in these jurisdictions devote their writing, inter alia, to questions surrounding remedies. A. Burrows, for example, covers judicial remedies in his textbook, Remedies for Torts and Breach of Contract. The focus is on principles governing the remedial law instead of substantive tort or contract law. Furthermore, the book is not restricted to remedies available, for example, for breach of contract, but ‘treat(s) the area as a coherent whole’. A. Burrows argues that this has the great advantage’ of enabling the many similarities, as well as the differences, between tortious and contractual remedies and their governing principles to be fully appreciated’. Similarly, S. Waddams points out that the ‘ Law of Remedies’ ‘is worthy of study because it enables illuminating parallels to be drawn that cross the boundaries between contract and tort, and between law and equity’. Although there might be specific principles for the assessment of damages in intellectual property (IP) law or contract law, there seems to be a value in looking at different types of remedies side by side. In either case, textbooks in, for example, the UK, the US, Canada or Australia exclusively handle remedies, such as damages, account of profits, injunctions or specific performance. Admittedly, this is a recent phenomenon. The origins of a ‘remedies scholarship’ can be found in the 1970s. It was only in 1972 that F.H. Lawson published the first scholarly work dedicated to remedies. Since then, the ‘Law of Remedies’ appears to have become an increasingly ‘stand-alone’ research area. At the beginning of this century, R. Zakrzewski tried to classify remedies. T.F. Cotter focuses on an economic and comparative analysis of remedies in patent law. Recently, a conference at the University of Cambridge explored themes and controversies with respect to commercial remedies. Previously, scholars reflected on how to justify private law remedies. More edited volumes can be located easily. And finally, J. Berryman claimed that meanwhile ‘(t)he law of remedies has truly come of age’.