To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Female Asian longhorned beetles, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), were observed rhythmically extruding their genitalia, resembling the calling behaviour observed in other species of Cerambycidae. We demonstrate that only female A. glabripennis adults perform this behaviour, which lasts up to nearly six minutes and typically includes two types: (1) extrusion of only the tip of genitalia and (2) genitalia fully extruded and deflexed. The frequency and duration of this behaviour are affected by temperature and posteclosion feeding experience, but do not vary with the female age. Anoplophora glabripennis adult males were observed flexing their abdomen downward while extruding their genitalia but only when exposed to the odour of live females with host twigs. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, the volatiles from live females or female genital extracts both attracted more males than the volatiles from live males, male genital extracts, or solvent controls, all in the presence of host-plant volatiles. These findings indicate that A. glabripennis females may produce volatile sexual attractants in association with genital extrusion.
Hyper-prolific sows nurse more piglets than less productive sows, putting a high demand on the nutrient supply for milk production. In addition, the high production level can increase mobilization from body tissues. The effect of increased dietary protein (104, 113, 121, 129, 139 and 150 g standardized ileal digestible (SID) CP/kg) on sow body composition, milk production and plasma metabolite concentrations was investigated from litter standardization (day 2) until weaning (day 24). Sow body composition was determined using the deuterium oxide dilution technique on days 3 and 24 postpartum. Blood samples were collected weekly, and milk samples were obtained on days 3, 10 and 17 of lactation. Litter average daily gain (ADG) peaked at 135 g SID CP/kg (P < 0.001). Sow BW and back fat loss reached a breakpoint at 143 and 127 g SID CP/kg (P < 0.001). Milk fat increased linearly with increasing dietary SID CP (P < 0.05), and milk lactose decreased until a breakpoint at 124 g SID CP/kg and 5.3% (P < 0.001) on day 17. The concentration of milk protein on day 17 increased until a breakpoint at 136 g SID CP/kg (5.0%; P < 0.001). The loss of body protein from day 3 until weaning decreased with increased dietary SID CP until it reached a breakpoint at 128 g SID CP/kg (P < 0.001). The body ash loss declined linearly with increasing dietary SID CP (P < 0.01), and the change in body fat was unaffected by dietary treatment (P=0.41). In early lactation (day 3 + day 10), plasma urea N (PUN) increased linearly after the breakpoint at 139 g SID CP/kg at a concentration of 3.8 mmol/l, and in late lactation (day 17 + day 24), PUN increased linearly after a breakpoint at 133 g SID CP/kg (P < 0.001) at a concentration of 4.5 mmol/l. In conclusion, the SID CP requirement for sows was estimated to 135 g/kg based on litter ADG, and this was supported by the breakpoints of other response variables within the interval 124 to 143 g/kg.
Sow litter sizes have increased, subjecting more small piglets to intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). Research on the development and growth of IUGR pigs is limited. The objective of this study was to compare the body composition and organ development of IUGR pigs at weaning, and to estimate their growth performance from birth to 30 kg. A total of 142 IUGR and 142 normal piglets were classified at birth based on their head morphology. At weaning, 20 IUGR and 20 normal piglets were collected, a whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorption scan was performed, and the piglets were euthanized for organ measurements. Body weight (BW) was measured weekly from birth to 30 kg, rectal temperature and whole-blood glucose levels were measured weekly from birth to weaning, and blood samples were collected at days 7, 14 and 21 for IGF-1 analysis. Results showed that IUGR pigs have a similar percentage of adipose tissue (P > 0.05) compared to normal pigs at 24 days of age. Organs were smaller (P < 0.001) in IUGR pigs than in normal pigs, whereas brain, liver, lungs and adrenal glands were relatively larger (P < 0.05) in relation to the BW of IUGR pigs. Average birth weight (BiW) of normal pigs was greater (P < 0.001) compared with IUGR pigs (1.38 v. 0.75 kg), and the average daily gain (ADG) of IUGR pigs was reduced from day 0 to 14, day 0 to 28 (weaning) and from weaning to 30 kg compared to normal pigs. From birth to weaning at day 28, IUGR piglets had a 72.9 g/day greater fractional ADG (FADG) in relation to their BiW (P < 0.05), but FADG did not differ (P > 0.05) from weaning to 30 kg. Rectal temperature of IUGR piglets was greater (P < 0.05) on day 7 compared with normal piglets, and, even though blood glucose levels were decreased (P < 0.001) in IUGR piglets at day 0, neither glucose nor IGF-1 concentrations differed (P > 0.05) between IUGR and normal piglets. In conclusion, IUGR piglets exhibited some relatively larger organs at weaning compared to normal pigs, but body composition was similar between IUGR and normal pigs. In addition, IUGR pigs had a reduced ADG from birth to 30 kg, and, although they exhibited a greater FADG during nursing, IUGR pigs still require six additional days to reach a BW of 30 kg in comparison to normal pigs.
Recent data suggest that organic broilers often score worse on footpad lesions than conventional broilers but also that the current scoring of organic broiler feet may be misleading. In order to characterise footpad lesions in organic broilers, this study assessed and compared footpad lesions in a sample of 2987 conventional and 3578 organic broiler feet obtained from a large Danish abattoir during summer and winter. The feet were scored according to two scoring systems: the modified Danish surveillance scoring system and a histopathology-based new scoring system specifically developed to target the ability to differentiate between broiler feet with hyperkeratosis and ulcers. For both systems, all broiler feet with visible lesions were cross-sectionally incised. Significant differences between the two production systems were found for both scoring systems (χ2 = 710; P < 0.001 and χ2 = 247; P < 0.001 for the new and the surveillance systems, respectively), showing that a larger proportion of the organic feet compared to conventional feet – summer and winter – exhibited signs of hyperkeratosis. In addition, a smaller fraction of the organic feet than of the conventional feet were given the outermost scores, that is, normal or ulcerated; 13.4% v. 25.3% broiler feet were given score 0 for organic v. conventional production systems, respectively (χ2 = 152; P < 0.001), and 18.4% v. 23.8% feet were given score 4 for organic v. conventional production systems, respectively (χ2 = 308; P < 0.001). Thus, the results suggest that surveillance scoring systems such as the one used in Denmark are useful for the examination of footpad lesions in broilers from both types of production systems. However, the results have also raised attention to a typical characteristic of the feet of organic broilers, that is, profound hyperkeratosis, which may underlie potential misclassifications in surveillance scoring systems like the one used in Denmark. Among the possible solutions to this challenge to the correctness and fairness of the scoring system are improved procedures (such as mandatory incision), training of technicians and calibration of results (especially for the organic footpads).
This article engages with a wide range of existing literature relevant to understanding the artist persona in popular music, and advocates a view of personae as multiply constructed through sound recordings, music videos, live performances, interviews, social media posts, and a variety of other means. In an initial effort to theorize pop personae as transmedial phenomena, I merge a critical musicological understanding of the performative potential of aesthetics with perspectives from celebrity studies and media studies to produce new insights into how personae are articulated across a variety of disparate but intersecting spaces. Through a case study of Sam Smith, I demonstrate how the signs and symbols scattered across numerous platforms are aggregated in the pop persona, and elucidate the interpretive possibilities afforded by different points of contact between artist and audience. I conclude that the task of reading pop personae amounts to an assessment of the conglomerate of texts and contexts that shape both the production and the reception of pop expressions.
In the mid-1980s, the Anthropology Division of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) began the creation of digital resources as a means of collections access. Much of the database work was a secondary component of projects funded by outside grants and driven by new accountability mandates. The ongoing upgrading process was sporadic in its progress, but it still accomplished the primary goals of improved housing for collections and an exhaustive database. This paper discusses how the historical complications of the data, the scale of the database, its irregular schedule of funding, and deadline-driven projects resulted in inconsistency in data and difficulty in use. Although the examples provided will be specific to the AMNH Anthropology database, the circumstances and issues are common to many databases and the approaches presented broadly applicable. The discussion includes the practices used to mitigate the negative impact of these problems and the way the Division is positioning itself for the future, even as the database continues to provide unprecedented public and institutional access to and utility for the AMNH Anthropology collections.
We investigate claims about the frequency of “know” made by philosophers. Our investigation has several overlapping aims. First, we aim to show what is required to confirm or disconfirm philosophers’ claims about the comparative frequency of different uses of philosophically interesting expressions. Second, we aim to show how using linguistic corpora as tools for investigating meaning is a productive methodology, in the sense that it yields discoveries about the use of language that philosophers would have overlooked if they remained in their “armchairs of an afternoon”, to use J.L. Austin's phrase. Third, we discuss facts about the meaning of “know” that so far have been ignored in philosophy, with the aim of reorienting discussions of the relevance of ordinary language for philosophical theorizing.
To explore how a palliative approach to care is operationalized in primary care, through the description of clinical practices used by primary care clinicians to identify and care for patients with progressive life-limiting illness (PLLI).
Increasing numbers of people are living with PLLI but are often not recognized as needing a palliative approach to care. To meet growing needs, generalists such as family physicians will need to adopt a palliative approach to care in their own setting. Practical descriptions of a palliative approach in non-specialist settings have been lacking.
We conducted a qualitative descriptive study design using in-depth semi-structured interviews with 11 key informant participants (6 physicians, 3 nurse practitioners, 1 registered nurse, and 1 registered practical nurse) known to be providing comprehensive care to patients with PLLI in family practices in Ontario, Canada. We asked about their approach to identifying patients with PLLI and the strategies used in their care. We employed content analysis to develop themes.
Participants identified patients by functional decline, change in needs, increased acuity, and the specifics of a condition/diagnosis. Care strategies included concretizing commitment to care, eliciting goals of care, shifting care to the home, broadening team members including leveraging the support of family and community resources, and shifting to a ‘proactive’ approach involving increased follow-up, flexibility, and intensity.
Primary care providers articulated strategies for identifying and providing care to patients with PLLI that illuminate an upstream approach tailored to their setting.
A low-energy diet (LED) is an effective approach to induce a rapid weight loss in individuals with overweight. However, reported disproportionally large losses of fat-free mass (FFM) after an LED trigger the question of adequate protein content. Additionally, not all individuals have the same degree of weight loss success. After an 8-week LED providing 5020 kJ/d for men and 4184 kJ/d for women (84/70 g protein/d) among overweight and obese adults, we aimed to investigate the relationship between protein intake relative to initial FFM and proportion of weight lost as FFM as well as the individual characteristics associated with weight loss success. We assessed all outcomes baseline and after the LED. A total of 286 participants (sixty-four men and 222 women) initiated the LED of which 82 % completed and 70 % achieved a substantial weight loss (defined as ≥8 %). Protein intake in the range 1·0–1·6 g protein/d per kg FFM at baseline for men and 1·1–2·2 g protein/d per kg FFM at baseline for women was not associated with loss of FFM (P = 0·632). Higher Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) hunger at baseline and reductions in TFEQ disinhibition and hunger during the LED were associated with larger weight loss (all P ≤ 0·020); whereas lower sleep quality at baseline predicted less successful weight loss using intention to treat analysis (P = 0·021), possibly driven by those dropping out (n 81, P = 0·067 v. completers: n 198, P = 0·659). Thus, the protein intakes relative to initial FFM were sufficient for maintenance of FFM and specific eating behaviour characteristics were associated with weight loss success.
The evolution of glaciers and ice sheets depends on processes in the subglacial environment. Shear seismicity along the ice–bed interface provides a window into these processes. Such seismicity requires a rapid loss of strength that is typically ascribed to rate-weakening friction, i.e., decreasing friction with sliding or sliding rate. Many friction experiments have investigated glacial materials at the temperate conditions typical of fast flowing glacier beds. To our knowledge, however, these studies have all found rate-strengthening friction. Here, we investigate the possibility that rate-weakening rock-on-rock friction between sediments frozen to the bottom of the glacier and the underlying water-saturated sediments or bedrock may be responsible for subglacial shear seismicity along temperate glacier beds. We test this ‘entrainment-seismicity hypothesis’ using targeted laboratory experiments and simple models of glacier sliding, seismicity and sediment entrainment. These models suggest that sediment entrainment may be a necessary but not sufficient condition for the occurrence of basal shear seismicity. We propose that stagnation at the Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica may be caused by the growth of a frozen fringe of entrained sediment in the ice stream margins. Our results suggest that basal shear seismicity may indicate geomorphic activity.
Heat shock may disrupt oocyte function by increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We evaluated the capacity of the antioxidant melatonin to protect oocytes using two models of oxidative stress – heat shock and the pro-oxidant menadione. Bovine cumulus–oocyte complexes (COC) were exposed in the presence or absence of 1 µM melatonin to the following treatments during maturation: 38.5°C, 41°C and 38.5°C+5 µM menadione. In the first experiment, COC were matured for 3 h with 5 µM CellROX® and analyzed by epifluorescence microscopy to quantify production of ROS. The intensity of ROS was greater for oocytes exposed to heat shock and menadione than for control oocytes. Melatonin reduced ROS intensity for heat-shocked oocytes and oocytes exposed to menadione, but not for control oocytes. In the second experiment, COC were matured for 22 h. After maturation, oocytes were fertilized and the embryos cultured for 7.5 days. The proportion of oocytes that cleaved after fertilization was lower for oocytes exposed to heat shock and menadione than for control oocytes. Melatonin increased cleavage for heat-shocked oocytes and oocytes exposed to menadione, but not for control oocytes. Melatonin tended to increase the developmental competence of embryos from heat-shocked oocytes but not for embryos from oocytes exposed to menadione or from control oocytes. In conclusion, melatonin reduced production of ROS of maturing oocytes and protected oocytes from deleterious effects of both stresses on competence of the oocyte to cleave after coincubation with sperm. These results suggest that excessive production of ROS compromises oocyte function.
Human resource development (HRD) approaches aim to increase service users’ labour market prospects through training and upskilling. However, research on activation policy implementation suggests that individualised, tailored measures may be difficult to implement because of organisational structures, standardised procedures, contradictory professional interests, and broad framework laws. This qualitative study explored the institutional framing of the Norwegian Qualification Programme and how that framing created barriers in service users’ trajectories towards labour market inclusion. The study applied a bottom-up perspective to analyse how these barriers are entangled in a multidimensional web of interrelated and sometimes contradictory relations. Highlighting the service users’ perspective, the study aimed to examine how institutional framing may interfere with the activation policy goal of qualifying service users for the labour market. The results point to how institutional framing governs local practice and creates barriers that ultimately may impede activation policy goals.
Plant biodiversity is threatened by habitat loss, fragmentation and invasion by exotic species, but the effects of these disturbances on individual plant species are rarely quantified. Since the 1950s, brigalow Acacia harpophylla forests in Australia have been extensively cleared and converted to pastures dominated by exotic grasses. Here we assess the habitat requirements, population numbers and threats for four poorly known bush tomato species, Solanum adenophorum, Solanum dissectum, Solanum elachophyllum and Solanum johnsonianum. Herbarium records and surveys demonstrated a strong association of all four species with brigalow habitat, although S. elachophyllum also occurred in other habitat. We derived historical and current population estimates from plant densities at current sites and the area of mapped brigalow habitat. Density estimates are imprecise because the survey data vary greatly, but the assessment indicates the populations of all four species have declined > 93%. Solanum dissectum and S. johnsonianum did not persist in cleared brigalow habitat, whereas S. adenophorum and S. elachophyllum had some capacity to persist in clearings. None of the species occur where the exotic grass cover is > 40%. Between 27% and 57% of the records of the four species are in brigalow remnants with a high edge-to-area ratio or open canopy (< 50% cover), making them highly vulnerable to invasive grasses. We recommend the categorization of S. dissectum and S. johnsonianum as Critically Endangered, S. adenophorum as Vulnerable and S. elachophyllum as Near Threatened.