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In applied linguistics, being explicit about ontologies of English, and how they underpin educational ideologies and professional practices, is essential. For the first time, this volume presents a critical examination of the ways in which English is conceptualised for learning, teaching, and assessment, from both social and cognitive perspectives. Written by a team of leading scholars, it considers the language in a range of contexts and domains, including: models and targets for EFL, ESL and EAL teaching and testing, and the contested dominance of native-speaker 'standard' varieties; English as a school subject, using England's educational system as an example; English as a lingua franca, where typically several languages and cultures are in contact; and English as broader social practice in a world characterised by unprecedented mobility and destabilisation. Readers are provided with a balanced set of perspectives on ontologies of English and a valuable resource for educational research and practice.
‘You need powers of divination if you arrive amongst new customs and laws you have not been taught at home in order to deal best with your husband’, says Medea to a group of indigenous Corinthian wives with no equivalent problem (Medea 238–40). Unlike them, she is ‘alone, stateless and abused by a husband’ after being ‘carried off as plunder’ from a ‘barbarian’ land (255–6). Her mistake, she now knows, was to leave her father’s house in Colchis, ‘persuaded by the words of a Greek’ (801–2). Jason reminds her that she is from what he perceives to be the wrong side of the frontier he believes separates Greeks from barbarian, and that she should be grateful that she now lives in a land where justice and the rule of law prevail (536–8). Once his children are dead, he can only assume that when he brought her ‘to Greece from a barbarian homeland’ he had not been of sound mind (1329–31), for ‘no Greek woman’ would have been capable of filicide (1339–40). The conceptual and rhetorical polarisation of Greek and barbarian – validated and ironically subverted by turns – is a fundamental structuring principle of this mixed-race marriage and indeed of the entirety of the tragedy, as of several others by this author. But there is little equivalent to the vivid ethnographic colour which tinges earlier tragedies involving non-Greeks, Aeschylus’ Persians and Suppliants in particular, through vocabulary, vowel sounds, political attitudes, discussion of physical appearance, customs, gait, gestures and indicated costumes. Medea is from Colchis on the River Phasis which flows into the far eastern corner of the Black Sea. But in what sense, if any, is she identifiably Colchian?
Our understanding of the theatre and performance culture of the Greeks living around the Black Sea in antiquity has long suffered on account of the uneven and lacunose nature of the evidence. The great Greek cities of the southern coast, situated along what is now the northern coast of Turkey, are no exception. Although it is impossible to believe that there was no theatrical culture in these communities, the archaeological evidence is very limited before the Roman period. This chapter therefore collects and assesses the not insubstantial literary testimony for two of these cities, Sinope and Heraclea Pontica, which enjoyed lively cultural contacts with Athens and are associated by Greek authors from as early as the fifth century BC with comedy and tragedy respectively.
The Black Sea is the focus of a text by Lucian of Samosata, Toxaris: A Dialogue of Friendship, written in the second century AD. A Greek named Mnesippus converses with a Scythian named Toxaris (‘Archer’). Toxaris claims that the Scythians are better than Greeks at admiring exemplary heroes, and cites as illustration the Oresteion, a temple in Scythia to Orestes and Pylades. They are counted as honorary Scythians because of their unparalleled mutual loyalty (5–6). Their deeds are engraved on a bronze pillar, and they are honoured with sacrifices. Moreover, children in Toxaris’ country are obliged to commit the list of deeds (first dramatised in Euripides’ IT) to memory, and see the exploits of the Greeks in their country in ‘pictures by the artists of old’ hanging in the temple corridor (6).
How and why do predators sometimes fuel disease outbreaks but other times thwart them? Answering this could help explain spatial and temporal variation in disease and could explain why attempts to control disease by manipulating predators sometimes fail. We give eight mechanisms by which predators can suppress/spread disease in prey populations, exploring each generally and reviewing evidence from the study system that has been the focus of much of our research. This system focuses on Daphnia dentifera, a dominant herbivore in lake food webs in the Midwestern United States. D. dentifera is prey to bluegill sunfish and phantom midge larvae, as well as host to a virulent fungal pathogen. We review evidence for bluegill sunfish as ‘healthy herds’ predators that reduce disease, and for midge larvae as ‘predator spreaders’ that fuel disease outbreaks. We find that both predators can impact disease via multiple mechanisms. Bluegill feed selectively on infected hosts and also depress disease in Daphnia by reducing the density of midge larvae which spread disease. They also increase the abundance of Ceriodaphnia, which reduce disease. Midge larvae increase disease in their hosts, in part by releasing spores into the water column where they can be consumed by additional hosts.
Mexican Americans suffer from a disproportionate burden of modifiable risk factors, which may contribute to the health disparities in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of comorbid depression and diabetes on proteomic outcomes among community-dwelling Mexican American adults and elders.
Data from participants enrolled in the Health and Aging Brain among Latino Elders study was utilized. Participants were 50 or older and identified as Mexican American (N = 514). Cognition was assessed via neuropsychological test battery and diagnoses of MCI and AD adjudicated by consensus review. The sample was stratified into four groups: Depression only, Neither depression nor diabetes, Diabetes only, and Comorbid depression and diabetes. Proteomic profiles were created via support vector machine analyses.
In Mexican Americans, the proteomic profile of MCI may change based upon the presence of diabetes. The profile has a strong inflammatory component and diabetes increases metabolic markers in the profile.
Medical comorbidities may impact the proteomics of MCI and AD, which lend support for a precision medicine approach to treating this disease.
Self-reported activity restriction is an established correlate of depression in dementia caregivers (dCGs). It is plausible that the daily distribution of objectively measured activity is also altered in dCGs with depression symptoms; if so, such activity characteristics could provide a passively measurable marker of depression or specific times to target preventive interventions. We therefore investigated how levels of activity throughout the day differed in dCGs with and without depression symptoms, then tested whether any such differences predicted changes in symptoms 6 months later.
Design, setting, participants, and measurements:
We examined 56 dCGs (mean age = 71, standard deviation (SD) = 6.7; 68% female) and used clustering to identify subgroups which had distinct depression symptom levels, leveraging baseline Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale–Revised Edition and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) measures, as well as a PHQ-9 score from 6 months later. Using wrist activity (mean recording length = 12.9 days, minimum = 6 days), we calculated average hourly activity levels and then assessed when activity levels relate to depression symptoms and changes in symptoms 6 months later.
Clustering identified subgroups characterized by: (1) no/minimal symptoms (36%) and (2) depression symptoms (64%). After multiple comparison correction, the group of dCGs with depression symptoms was less active from 8 to 10 AM (Cohen’s d ≤ −0.9). These morning activity levels predicted the degree of symptom change on the PHQ-9 6 months later (per SD unit β = −0.8, 95% confidence interval: −1.6, −0.1, p = 0.03) independent of self-reported activity restriction and other key factors.
These novel findings suggest that morning activity may protect dCGs from depression symptoms. Future studies should test whether helping dCGs get active in the morning influences the other features of depression in this population (i.e. insomnia, intrusive thoughts, and perceived activity restriction).