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Currently, dengue control relies largely on reactive vector control programmes. Proactive vector-control using a rational, well-balanced integrated vector management approach may prove more successful for dengue control. As part of the development of a cluster randomized controlled epidemiological trial, a study was conducted in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The study included one control site (three buildings) and three intervention sites which were treated as follows: targeted outdoor residual spraying only (TORS site, two buildings); deployment of autodissemination devices only (ADD site, four buildings); and the previous two treatments combined (TORS + ADD site, three buildings). The primary entomological measurement was per cent of positive ovitraps—ovitrap index (OI). The effect of each intervention on OI was analyzed by a modified ordinary least squares regression model. Relative to the control site, the TORS and ADD sites showed a reduction in the Aedes OI (−6.5%, P = 0.04 and −8.3%, P = 0.10, respectively). Analysis by species showed that, relative to control, the Ae. aegypti OI was lower in ADD (−8.9%, P = 0.03) and in TORS (−10.4%, P = 0.02). No such effect was evident in the TORS + ADD site. The present study provides insights into the methods to be used for the main trial. The combination of multiple insecticides with different modes of action in one package is innovative, although we could not demonstrate the additive effect of TORS + ADD. Further work is required to strengthen our understanding of how these interventions impact dengue vector populations and dengue transmission.
Group-3 medulloblastoma (MBL) is highly resistant to radiation (IR) and chemotherapy and has the worst prognosis. Hence, there is an urgent need to elucidate targets that sensitize these tumors to chemotherapy and IR. Employing standard assays for viability and sensitization to IR, we identified PRDX1 as a therapeutic target in Group-3 MBL. Specifically, targeting PRDX1 by RNAi or inhibition by Adenanthin led to specific killing and sensitization to IR of Group-3 MBL cells. We rescued sensitization of Daoy and UW228 cells by hypermorphic expression of PRDX1. PRDX1 knockdown caused oxidative DNA damage and induced apoptosis. We correlated PRDX1 expression to patient outcomes in a validated MBL tumor-microarray. Whole genome sequencing identified pathways/genes that were dysregulated with PRDX1 inhibition or silencing. Our in vivo studies in mice employing flank/orthotopic tumors from patient derived xenografts/Group-3 MBL cells confirmed in vitro observations. Animals with tumors in which PRDX1 was targeted by RNAi or Adenanthin (using mini osmotic pumps) showed decreased tumor burden and increased survival when compared to controls. Since, Adenanthin does not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) we used HAV6 peptide to transiently disrupt the BBB and deliver Adenanthin to the tumor. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that targeting PRDX1 resulted in increased oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis and decreased proliferation. In summary, we have validated PRDX1 as a therapeutic target in group-3 MBL, identified Adenanthin as a potent chemical inhibitor of PRDX1 and confirmed the role of HAV peptide (in the transient modulation of BBB permeability) in an orthotopic model of group-3 MBL.
The use of ultrasound for assessing diaphragmatic dysfunction after paediatric cardiac surgery may be under-utilised. This study aimed to evaluate the role of bedside ultrasound performed by an intensivist to diagnose diaphragmatic dysfunction and the need for plication after paediatric cardiac surgery.
We carried out a retrospective cohort study on prospectively collected data of postoperative children admitted to the paediatric cardiac ICU during 2013. Diaphragmatic dysfunction was suspected based on difficulties in weaning from positive pressure ventilation or chest X-ray findings. Ultrasound studies were performed by the paediatric cardiac ICU intensivist and confirmed by a qualified radiologist.
Out of 344 postoperative patients, 32 needed diaphragm ultrasound for suspected dysfunction. Ultrasound studies confirmed diaphragmatic dysfunction in 17/32 (53%) patients with an average age and weight of 10.8±3.8 months and 6±1 kg, respectively. The incidence rate of diaphragmatic dysfunction was 4.9% in relation to the whole population. Diaphragmatic plication was needed in 9/17 cases (53%), with a rate of 2.6% in postoperative cardiac children. The mean plication time was 15.1±1.3 days after surgery. All patients who underwent plication were under 4 months of age. After plication, they were discharged with mean paediatric cardiac ICU and hospital stay of 19±3.5 and 42±8 days, respectively.
Critical-care ultrasound assessment of diaphragmatic movement is a useful and practical bedside tool that can be performed by a trained paediatric cardiac ICU intensivist. It may help in the early detection and management of diaphragmatic dysfunction after paediatric cardiac surgery through a decision-making algorithm that may have potential positive effects on morbidity and outcome.
To utilize complementary biochemical and dietary data collected before the initiation of national flour fortification to (i) identify micronutrient insufficiencies or deficiencies and dietary inadequacies in Palestinian women and children in vulnerable communities and (ii) assess the suitability of the current wheat flour fortification formula.
Quantitative dietary intake questionnaires were administered and fasting venous blood samples collected in randomly selected households in Gaza City and Hebron. The impact of fortification was simulated by estimating the additional micronutrient content of fortified wheat flour.
Households in Gaza City and Hebron that were not receiving food aid from social programmes.
Non-pregnant women (18–49 years) and children aged 36–83 months.
The micronutrients with highest prevalence of insufficiency were vitamin D in women (84–97 % with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D <50 nmol/l) and vitamin B12 in women and children (43–82 % with serum B12 <221 pmol/l). Deficiencies of vitamin A, Fe and Zn were also of public health concern. Current levels of wheat flour fortificants were predicted to improve, but not eliminate, micronutrient intake inadequacies. Modification of fortificant concentrations of vitamin D, thiamin, vitamin B12, Zn and folic acid may be indicated.
Micronutrient insufficiencies or deficiencies and intake inadequacies were prevalent based on either biochemical or dietary intake criteria. Adjustments to the current fortification formula for wheat flour are necessary to better meet the nutrient needs of Palestinian women and children.
This study aimed to assess and compare the epidemiology of faecal carriage of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing enterobacteria (ESBL-E) in Hepatology departments of two hospitals specializing in liver diseases, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI) in Cairo (Egypt) and Beaujon Hospital (Bj) in Clichy (France). CTX-M groups were identified by PCR, and TEM and SHV derivatives with the check-point system. Phylogenetic groups of E. coli were determined by multiplex PCR, and clone ST131 by PCR of gene pabB. Prevalence of ESBL-E was 77·6% (45/58) in TBRI and 6·5% (13/199) in Bj (P < 10−7). Previous hospitalization was more common (P = 0·003) in Bj patients (93%) than in TBRI patients (45%) suggesting high prevalence of ESBL-E in the Egyptian community. The presence of E. coli B2 ST131 among ESBL-E faecal E. coli in Egypt confirms its pervasiveness in the community and raises concern regarding this highly virulent and resistant clone.
Nanowire arrays have been proposed to enhance light trapping, increase efficiencies, and reduced material cost in photovoltaic solar cells. In this work we present a new crystalline silicon nanowire array structure, inspired by fractal geometry. The array structure is assumed to be an infinite 2D array in the x and y directions, and composed of vertically aligned SiNW suspended in air. Hexagonal fractal-like geometry is adapted in arranging cylindrical SiNW in these arrays. Full-wave finite element method 3D simulation is used to compute reflectance, transmittance and absorptance of the array for a normal incidence plane wave. The proposed fractal-like distribution of SiNW arrays yield broad absorption spectrum and enhanced efficiency while using less material. The efficiency of the proposed fractal-like SiNW arrays achieve ∼100% enhancement over that of the equivalent thickness flat c-Si film, and ∼18% enhancement over an equivalent height hexagonal array. The proposed optimized structures achieved a filling ratio ∼25%, which is ∼33% less than the corresponding hexagonal array.
Nanosized oxides of barium strontium zirconate of general formula Ba1-xSrxZrO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) have been prepared over the entire range of x for the first time by polymeric precursor route using citric acid and ethylene glycol. These solid solutions were investigated by means of powder x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscope and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface area studies. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the monophasic nature of the powders at 1000 °C. The grain size was found to be in the range of 17–52 nm for all the oxides at 1000 °C. Specific surface area of these solid solutions comes out to be in the range of 49.1–94.4 m2/g. Smallest particle size with highest surface area has been achieved for x = 0.25 and comes out to be 17 nm and 94.4 m2/g respectively. Dielectric constant (ε) and dissipation factor (D) were investigated as a function of frequency and temperature. The room temperature dielectric constant of Ba1-xSrxZrO3 was found to be maximum 105 for x = 0.20 at 1 MHz.
Male dimorphism of the subfamily Ostertagiinae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) is a well-known phenomenon, and two or more morphotypes of a single species have previously been described as different species. Two Spiculopteragia spp., S. houdemeri (syn. S. yamashitai) and S. andreevae (syn. Rinadia andreevae) recorded in Asian cervids and wild bovids, are considered to represent major and minor morphs of S. houdemeri, respectively, based solely on their co-occurrence in the same host individual along with monomorphic females. In this study, males of morph houdemeri ( = S. houdemeri) and morph andreevae ( = S. andreevae) as well as females with three different vulval ornamentations were collected from sika deer (Cervus nippon) and Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus) distributed on the mainland of Japan. Morphologically characterized worms were subjected to molecular genetic analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene and a partial region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene of mitochondrial DNA. Of 181 collected sika deer, 177 (97.8%) and 73 (40.3%) deer harboured males of morphs houdemeri and andreevae, respectively. Worm numbers of the former morph were found to range between 1 and 444 per individual, whereas only 1–25 worms per individual were detected for the latter morph. Five out of six serows harboured 47–71 or 2–9 males of morphs houdemeri and andreevae per individual, respectively. Females with one or two vulval flaps were predominant, but there was a substantial presence of flapless females in both host species. All the morphs of male and female adults had an identical genetic background, thus directly confirming the morphological polymorphism of S. houdemeri.
Solid solutions of Ba1−xPbxZrO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.75) have been synthesized successfully by polymeric citrate precursor method for the first time. The solid solutions were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and surface area studies. XRD studies reveal the monophasic nature of these highly crystalline nanoparticles (except few impurity of ZrO2 in PbZrO3). Lattice parameter of Ba1−xPbxZrO3 (0.20 ≤ x ≤ 0.75) decreases with increasing the Pb content. Dielectric properties of these nanoparticles were investigated as a function of frequency and temperature. The dielectric constant for x = 0.15 showed a maximum value of 75.5.
Its intrinsic nontoxicity makes the direct band gap InP/ZnS core/shell be one of the most promising semiconductor nanocrystals for optoelectric applications, with the advantage of tuning the optical absorption range in the desired solar spectrum region. Highly luminescent and monodisperse InP/ZnS nanocrystals were synthesized in a non-coordinating solvent under a thorough degassing process. By varying synthesis scheme, different size InP/ZnS nanocrystals were grown. For the purpose of ensuring air stability, ZnS shell was grown. This ZnS shell improves the chemical stability in terms of oxidation prevention. Measurements of absorption and emission were performed on different InP/ZnS nanocrystals with different sizes. As expected, the measurements show a red-shift as the size of the InP/ZnS nanocrystals increased.
Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) thin films have been prepared on ultrasonicated glass substrates using a specially designed chemical bath deposition technique via isochronal synthesis. The structural properties have been determined through XRD. The nanostructures have been identified in FE-SEM images. The chemical analysis has been carried out through EDAX. Optical analysis and PL studies were carried out on these films. The growth conditions and the characterization results exhibit strong dependence on the pH of the precursor solution as well as the temperature of the bath. Cu doping has been employed on the tailored films to make them low resistive and efficient for window layer applications.