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Precise instrumental calibration is of crucial importance to 21-cm cosmology experiments. The Murchison Widefield Array’s (MWA) Phase II compact configuration offers us opportunities for both redundant calibration and sky-based calibration algorithms; using the two in tandem is a potential approach to mitigate calibration errors caused by inaccurate sky models. The MWA Epoch of Reionization (EoR) experiment targets three patches of the sky (dubbed EoR0, EoR1, and EoR2) with deep observations. Previous work in Li et al. (2018) and (2019) studied the effect of tandem calibration on the EoR0 field and found that it yielded no significant improvement in the power spectrum (PS) over sky-based calibration alone. In this work, we apply similar techniques to the EoR1 field and find a distinct result: the improvements in the PS from tandem calibration are significant. To understand this result, we analyse both the calibration solutions themselves and the effects on the PS over three nights of EoR1 observations. We conclude that the presence of the bright radio galaxy Fornax A in EoR1 degrades the performance of sky-based calibration, which in turn enables redundant calibration to have a larger impact. These results suggest that redundant calibration can indeed mitigate some level of model incompleteness error.
Unit cohesion may protect service member mental health by mitigating effects of combat exposure; however, questions remain about the origins of potential stress-buffering effects. We examined buffering effects associated with two forms of unit cohesion (peer-oriented horizontal cohesion and subordinate-leader vertical cohesion) defined as either individual-level or aggregated unit-level variables.
Longitudinal survey data from US Army soldiers who deployed to Afghanistan in 2012 were analyzed using mixed-effects regression. Models evaluated individual- and unit-level interaction effects of combat exposure and cohesion during deployment on symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and suicidal ideation reported at 3 months post-deployment (model n's = 6684 to 6826). Given the small effective sample size (k = 89), the significance of unit-level interactions was evaluated at a 90% confidence level.
At the individual-level, buffering effects of horizontal cohesion were found for PTSD symptoms [B = −0.11, 95% CI (−0.18 to −0.04), p < 0.01] and depressive symptoms [B = −0.06, 95% CI (−0.10 to −0.01), p < 0.05]; while a buffering effect of vertical cohesion was observed for PTSD symptoms only [B = −0.03, 95% CI (−0.06 to −0.0001), p < 0.05]. At the unit-level, buffering effects of horizontal (but not vertical) cohesion were observed for PTSD symptoms [B = −0.91, 90% CI (−1.70 to −0.11), p = 0.06], depressive symptoms [B = −0.83, 90% CI (−1.24 to −0.41), p < 0.01], and suicidal ideation [B = −0.32, 90% CI (−0.62 to −0.01), p = 0.08].
Policies and interventions that enhance horizontal cohesion may protect combat-exposed units against post-deployment mental health problems. Efforts to support individual soldiers who report low levels of horizontal or vertical cohesion may also yield mental health benefits.
We examined demographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics of a large cohort (n = 368) of adults with dissociative seizures (DS) recruited to the CODES randomised controlled trial (RCT) and explored differences associated with age at onset of DS, gender, and DS semiology.
Prior to randomisation within the CODES RCT, we collected demographic and clinical data on 368 participants. We assessed psychiatric comorbidity using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) and a screening measure of personality disorder and measured anxiety, depression, psychological distress, somatic symptom burden, emotional expression, functional impact of DS, avoidance behaviour, and quality of life. We undertook comparisons based on reported age at DS onset (<40 v. ⩾40), gender (male v. female), and DS semiology (predominantly hyperkinetic v. hypokinetic).
Our cohort was predominantly female (72%) and characterised by high levels of socio-economic deprivation. Two-thirds had predominantly hyperkinetic DS. Of the total, 69% had ⩾1 comorbid M.I.N.I. diagnosis (median number = 2), with agoraphobia being the most common concurrent diagnosis. Clinical levels of distress were reported by 86% and characteristics associated with maladaptive personality traits by 60%. Moderate-to-severe functional impairment, high levels of somatic symptoms, and impaired quality of life were also reported. Women had a younger age at DS onset than men.
Our study highlights the burden of psychopathology and socio-economic deprivation in a large, heterogeneous cohort of patients with DS. The lack of clear differences based on gender, DS semiology and age at onset suggests these factors do not add substantially to the heterogeneity of the cohort.
Introduction: Recent evidence shows an increase in alcohol-related emergency department (ED) visits among youth. Highly publicized collegiate rituals such as Homecoming may create a climate for problematic alcohol use. This study describes the frequency of youth alcohol-related ED visits per year and during pre-specified ritualized drinking dates in one academic centre. Methods: This was a chart review of patients aged 12-24 with alcohol-related ED presentations between Sept 2013-Aug 2017. The National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS) database was searched for visits with ICD-10 codes related to alcohol. The Canadian Hospital Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) database was also searched using the keyword alcohol. Duplicate visits were removed. Visits were excluded if patients had a history of psychosis, were held in the ED for involuntary psychiatric assessment, were homeless, were inmates from a correctional institute, if alcohol use was not mentioned and for complaints of sexual assault/domestic violence. Data abstraction by two reviewers used a standard form with variables predetermined. Differences were resolved with third party adjudication. Interrater reliability of the reviewers was assessed through duplicate review of 10% of randomly selected charts. A further 10% were assessed by a 3rd reviewer for extraction accuracy. Results: A total of 3,256 ED visits were identified with 777 meeting exclusion criteria. The remaining 2,479 visits were reviewed and subclassified into injury (51.8%), acute intoxication (45.1%) and mental health issue (3.2%). Interrater agreement was high for extracted variables with Kappa scores > 0.8. Despite a decrease in the region's youth population during the study period (28,325 to 25,125), overall standardized ED visits by youth increased by 12% (66,538 to 78,129). Adjusted for population, youth alcohol-related visits increased by 86.4% from 1,557 in 2013-14 to 2,902 in 2016-17. Co-ingestion of other substances was reported in 292 (11.8%) of visits, with cannabis the most common (57%). The 17 pre-specified ritualized days saw 578 (23.3%) of ED visits. Conclusion: Alcohol-related ED visits in youth are increasing in our region. Ritualized drinking dates appear to be particularly risky for youth with high rates of observed ED utilization. Strategies to manage high volume ritual days are being piloted, including temporary diversion to an in-hospital sobriety centre.
Introduction: Recent evidence shows an increase in alcohol-related emergency department (ED) visits among youth. We sought to quantify the impact of ED visits (type and frequency, patient characteristics and resource use) related to alcohol in our centre. Methods: This was a chart review of patients aged 12-24 with alcohol-related ED visits between Sept 2013-Aug 2017. The National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS) database was searched for visits alcohol related ICD-10 codes. The Canadian Hospital Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) database was also searched using the keyword alcohol. Duplicate visits were removed. Visits were excluded if patients had a history of psychosis, were held in the ED for psychiatric assessment, were homeless, were inmates from a correctional institute, if alcohol use was not mentioned and for complaints of sexual assault/intimate partner violence. Data was abstracted by two reviewers using a standard form with predetermined variables. Differences were resolved with third party adjudication. Interrater reliability of the reviewers was assessed with Kappa scores through duplicate review of 10% of randomly selected charts. A further 10% were assessed by a 3rd reviewer for extraction accuracy. Results: 3,256 ED visits were identified with 777 removed via predefined exclusion criteria. 2,479 visits were reviewed with a male predominance (54.3%). More than half of all patients (50.9%) arrived via ambulance. Assigned CTAS levels were Resuscitation: 1% Emergent: 9.9% Urgent: 48.2% Less Urgent: 35.7% Non-Urgent: 4.2% (missing 1%). The median LOS was 2.9 hrs (IQR 1.8-4.6). All visits were subclassified into mutually exclusive categories: injury (51.8%), acute intoxication (45.1%) and mental health issue (3.2%). Males were more likely to present with injury (62.4% vs 42.6%, p < 0.01). Females were more likely to present with acute intoxication (53.3% vs 46.7%, p <0.01) and mental health issues (59.5% vs 40.5%, P = 0.01). ED resource use was notable: 483 (19.4%) had imaging tests and 1216 (49.1%) had some medical intervention (blood test, fluids or medication). 57 (2.3%) patients were admitted and there was one death from an alcohol related MVC. Conclusion: Alcohol-related ED visits by youth are common in our centre and utilize substantial prehospital and in-hospital resources. Identification of effective harm reduction strategies should be a research priority.
Altered neurocognitive function in schizophrenia could reflect both genetic and illness-specific effects.
To use functional magnetic resonance imaging to discriminate between the influences of the genetic risk for schizophrenia and environmental factors on the neural substrate of verbal fluency, a candidate schizophrenia endophenotype using a case control twin design.
We studied 23 monozygotic twin pairs: 13 pairs discordant for schizophrenia and 10 pairs of healthy volunteer twins. Groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, level of education, parental socio-economic status, and ethnicity. Behavioural performance and regional brain activation during a phonological verbal fluency task were assessed.
Relative to healthy control twins, both patients and their non-psychotic co-twins produced fewer correct responses and showed less activation in the medial temporal region and inferior frontal gyrus. Twins with schizophrenia showed greater activation than both their non-psychotic co-twins and controls in right lateral temporal cortex, reflecting reduced deactivation during word generation while their non-psychotic co-twins showed greater activation in the left temporal cortex.
Both genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia and schizophrenia were associated with impaired verbal fluency performance, reduced engagement of the medial temporal region and dorsal inferior frontal gyrus. Schizophrenia was specifically associated with an additional reduction in deactivation in the right temporal cortex.
Few studies of the effects of postnatal depression on child development have considered the chronicity of depressive symptoms. We investigated whether early postnatal depressive symptoms (PNDS) predicted child developmental outcome independently of later maternal depressive symptoms.
In a prospective, longitudinal study, mothers and children were followed-up from birth to 2 years; repeated measures of PNDS were made using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS); child development was assessed using the Bayley Scales II. Multilevel modelling techniques were used to examine the association between 6 week PNDS, and child development, taking subsequent depressive symptoms into account.
Children of mothers with 6 week PNDS were significantly more likely than children of non-symptomatic mothers to have poor cognitive outcome; however, this association was reduced to trend level when adjusted for later maternal depressive symptoms.
Effects of early PNDS on infant development may be partly explained by subsequent depressive symptoms.
Subjects with family history of psychosis and with prodromal symptoms are at risk for schizophrenia. The aim was to study whether adolescents with familial risk have more commonly prodromal features.
Members (N= 9,215) of the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort, an unselected general population cohort, were invited to participate in a field survey conducted during 2001-2002. At the ages of 15-16 years, the study included a 21-item PROD-screen questionnaire developed for screening prodromal psychotic symptoms with 12 specific questions for psychosis (Heinimaa et al. 2003). The scale measured symptoms for last six months. The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register was used to find out parental psychoses during 1972-2000.
Of the males 24% and 37% of the females were screen positives for prodromal features at the age of 15-16 years. Of the offspring, 1.8% had parents with psychosis. The prevalence of screen positives was 26% in males and 36% in females with familial risk for psychosis.
Prodromal features of psychosis are prevalent in adolescence. It may be difficult to screen adolescent subjects at risk for developing schizophrenia with a questionnaire in a general population, especially as these symptoms do not appear to be more common among subjects with familial risk.
The Academy of Finland, the National Institute of Mental Health, the Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation and the Thule Institute, Finland.
Why patients with psychosis use cannabis remains debated. The self-medication hypothesis has received some support but other evidence points towards an alleviation of dysphoria model. This study investigated the reasons for cannabis use in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and whether strength in their endorsement changed over time.
FEP inpatients and outpatients at the South London and Maudsley, Oxleas and Sussex NHS Trusts UK, who used cannabis, rated their motives at baseline (n = 69), 3 months (n = 29) and 12 months (n = 36). A random intercept model was used to test the change in strength of endorsement over the 12 months. Paired-sample t-tests assessed the differences in mean scores between the five subscales on the Reasons for Use Scale (enhancement, social motive, coping with unpleasant affect, conformity and acceptance and relief of positive symptoms and side effects), at each time-point.
Time had a significant effect on scores when controlling for reason; average scores on each subscale were higher at baseline than at 3 months and 12 months. At each time-point, patients endorsed ‘enhancement’ followed by ‘coping with unpleasant affect’ and ‘social motive’ more highly for their cannabis use than any other reason. ‘Conformity and acceptance’ followed closely. ‘Relief of positive symptoms and side effects’ was the least endorsed motive.
Patients endorsed their reasons for use at 3 months and 12 months less strongly than at baseline. Little support for the self-medication or alleviation of dysphoria models was found. Rather, patients rated ‘enhancement’ most highly for their cannabis use.
High potency cannabis has been associated with greater risk, and earlier onset of psychosis. However, its effect on brain structure, particularly white matter (WM), has never been explored.
Objectives and Aims
To elucidate the interplay between cannabis potency, pattern of use (frequency and age of first use) and CC microstructure; in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and healthy controls.
56 FEP and 43 healthy controls underwent Diffusion-Tensor Imaging combined with WM mapping-tractography. CC was virtually dissected and segmented to calculate Fractional Anisotropy (FA), Mean Diffusivity (MD), Axial Diffusivity (AD) and Radial Diffusivity (RD) for each CC segment.
High potency cannabis users had higher Total CC MD and Total CC AD than both low potency users and those who never used (p=0.009 and p=0.02 respectively). Daily users also had higher Total CC MD and Total CC AD than both occasional users and those who never used (p=0.02 and p=0.01 respectively). Furthermore, daily/highpotency users had higher Total CC MD than those who never used or used weekly [F(2,57)=4.7, p=0.01]. There was no effect of diagnosis or diagnosis X potency/patterns of use interactions; neither differences between users who started before the age of 15 and those who started later were detected, in any diffusivity measures.
Frequent use of high-potency cannabis significantly affects callosal microstructure, regardless of the presence of a psychotic disorder. Given the increased availability and use of high potency preparations in Europe, raising awareness about some of their detrimental effects is an important avenue to pursue.
The impact of cannabis use on brain structure, particularly white matter (WM), is poorly understood. The CC is the largest WM structure in the brain. Abnormalities revealed in the CC may underlie functional anomalies of cannabis use. This is the largest study to explore the effect of cannabis on callosal WM connectivity among first episode psychosis (FEP) and controls.
To investigate the relationship between cannabis use and WM micro-structural integrity of the CC, in FEP and healthy controls.
We evaluated 56 FEP patients (67% current cannabis users), and 43 healthy controls (44% current cannabis users). We used Diffusion Tensor Imaging combined with a WM mapping-tractography technique to investigate the microstructural integrity of the CC.
Total CC Fractional anisotropy (FA) was lower in patients than controls (p=0.05). Cannabis-using patients had lower FA of the total CC than cannabis-using controls (p=0.04). There were no differences in FA between cannabis-using patients and those who had never used. However, cannabis-using patients had higher mean diffusivity (MD) of total CC (p= 0.02), Rostral-Body (p=0.003), Anterior Mid-Body (p=0.03) and the Splenium (p=0.06) than patients who never used cannabis. There were no differences in MD between patient users who started before the age of 16 and those who started later.
Cannabis is associated with a significant effect on callosal WM integrity only in patients with psychosis. Disturbed callosal connectivity may explain some of the abnormalities with regard to the functional and clinical outcomes in FEP cannabis users, including measures of cognitive impairment.
There are limited amount of studies comparing time trends of incidence and risk factors of psychosis.
To compare time trends of incidence of psychosis in two population samples.
To study 1) onset age and cumulative incidence of psychoses in two Northern Finland Birth Cohorts (NFBC), 2) changes in type of diagnosis and risk factors.
The NFBC 1966 (N=12,058) and NFBC 1986 (N=9,432) are prospective cohorts of the two provinces of Finland with the live born children followed since pregnancy. The data for psychosis and risk factors were collected from variety of nationwide registers and earlier collected data of the NFBCs. The follow-up time was in both cohorts in average 26.5 years.
Proportion of all psychoses was higher in NFBC 1986 than in the NFBC 1966 (1.81% vs 1.0%). There were more affective psychoses in NFBC 1986 (0.5% vs 0.1%), but incidence of schizophrenia was the same (0.4%) in both cohorts. The age of onset was lower in NFBC 1986 than in NFBC 1966 and majority of this cases were females. Only parental psychosis was a significant risk factor predicting psychosis (Hazard Ratios >3.0) in both cohorts.
In conclusion, two birth cohorts within 20 years covering altogether about 40 years showed changes in terms of incidence, age of onset, and type of psychosis.
The effects of long-term antipsychotic medication on cognition in schizophrenia are unclear (Husa A.P. et al., Schizophr. Res. 2014).
Understanding how long-term antipsychotic treatment affects cognition is crucial for the development of safe, evidence-based treatment of schizophrenia.
To analyse the association between cumulative lifetime antipsychotic dose and cognition in schizophrenia at age 43 years in a general population sample.
Sixty (33 males) schizophrenia spectrum subjects from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were assessed at age 43 years by California Verbal Learning Test, Visual Object Learning Test, Abstraction Inhibition and Working Memory task, Verbal fluency, Visual series, Vocabulary, Digit Span and Matrix reasoning. Cumulative lifetime antipsychotic dose-years were collected from treatment records and interviews. A factor analysis based on the cognitive tests resulted in one cognitive factor. The association between this cognitive composite score and antipsychotic dose-years was analysed by linear regression.
Higher lifetime antipsychotic dose-years were statistically significantly associated with poorer cognitive composite score at age 43 years (B=-0.32, p>0.001), also when adjusted for gender, onset age, remission and number of hospital treatment days (B=-0.42, p=0.008).
To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between cumulative lifetime antipsychotic dose and cognition in midlife in schizophrenia. Based on this data, the use of high antipsychotic doses may relate to poorer cognitive functioning in schizophrenia after twenty years of illness. These results do not support the view that antipsychotics prevent cognitive decline or promote cognitive recovery in schizophrenia.
Cognitive deficits, such as verbal memory dysfunction, are a core feature of schizophrenia. Yet the longitudinal course and associations of cognitive deficits with antipsychotic medication remain unclear.
Our aim was to analyze how lifetime antipsychotic dosage associates with the change of verbal learning and memory in individuals with schizophrenia during a 9-year follow-up.
Forty-two subjects with schizophrenic psychoses (22 males) from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort went through diagnostic interviews and cognitive assessment including California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) at the ages of 34 and 43 years. Data of the subjects’ lifetime antipsychotic doses in chlorpromazine equivalents were collected from patient history records, interviews and national registers. The association between verbal learning and memory (immediate free recall of trials 1-5 and free recall after long delay) and dose-years of antipsychotics was analyzed by logistic regression model.
Higher dose-years of any and typical antipsychotics, but not atypical antipsychotics, associated statistically significantly to worse verbal learning and memory in cross-sectional analyses at age 34 years, even when onset age, sex, and severity of symptoms were controlled for. However, there was no statistically significant association between lifetime antipsychotic use and verbal learning and memory change between ages 34 and 43 years.
High lifetime antipsychotic dose did not associate to decrease in verbal learning and memory in schizophrenia in 9 years of follow-up. To our knowledge, this is a first report on association between cumulative lifetime antipsychotic use and change in cognition in a long-term naturalistic follow-up.
Our aim was to investigate how age of achieving early motor developmental milestones differ among subjects with and without a history of parental psychosis and whether parental psychosis may alter the effects of the age of achievement on the risk of schizophrenia.
The study sample comprised 10,307 individuals from the prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. A total of 139 (1.3%) cohort members suffered from schizophrenia by the age of 46 years. Out of them 19 (13.7%) had a parent with a history of psychosis, while among the non-psychotic cohort members this figure was 524 (5.2%).
Out of eight different motor milestones investigated, parental psychosis associated (p>0.05) with later learning of holding head up, grabbing object, and walking without support. In the parental psychosis group, significant risk factors for schizophrenia included later learning of holding head up and touching thumb with index finger. In the non-parental psychosis group risk estimates were lower and statistical significant milestones were different i.e. turning over, sitting without support, standing up, standing and walking without support. Interactions between parental psychosis and touching thumb with index finger and walking without support was found.
Although parental psychosis associated with delays in motor milestones in the first year of life, it does not explain the association between late achievement of motor milestones and later risk for schizophrenia
Higher lifetime antipsychotic exposure has been associated with poorer cognition in schizophrenia. The cognitive effects of adjunctive psychiatric medications and lifetime trends of antipsychotic use remain largely unclear. We aimed to study how lifetime and current benzodiazepine and antidepressant medications, lifetime trends of antipsychotic use and antipsychotic polypharmacy are associated with cognitive performance in midlife schizophrenia.
Sixty participants with DSM-IV schizophrenia from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were examined at 43 years of age with an extensive cognitive test battery. Cumulative lifetime and current use of psychiatric medications were collected from medical records and interviews. The associations between medication and principal component analysis-based cognitive composite score were analysed using linear regression.
Lifetime cumulative DDD years of benzodiazepine and antidepressant medications were not significantly associated with global cognition. Being without antipsychotic medication (for minimum 11 months) before the cognitive examination was associated with better cognitive performance (P = 0.007) and higher lifetime cumulative DDD years of antipsychotics with poorer cognition (P = 0.020), when adjusted for gender, onset age and lifetime hospital treatment days. Other lifetime trends of antipsychotic use, such as a long antipsychotic-free period earlier in the treatment history, and antipsychotic polypharmacy, were not significantly associated with cognition.
Based on these naturalistic data, low exposure to adjunctive benzodiazepine and antidepressant medications does not seem to affect cognition nor explain the possible negative effects of high dose long-term antipsychotic medication on cognition in schizophrenia.
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a planned large radio interferometer designed to operate over a wide range of frequencies, and with an order of magnitude greater sensitivity and survey speed than any current radio telescope. The SKA will address many important topics in astronomy, ranging from planet formation to distant galaxies. However, in this work, we consider the perspective of the SKA as a facility for studying physics. We review four areas in which the SKA is expected to make major contributions to our understanding of fundamental physics: cosmic dawn and reionisation; gravity and gravitational radiation; cosmology and dark energy; and dark matter and astroparticle physics. These discussions demonstrate that the SKA will be a spectacular physics machine, which will provide many new breakthroughs and novel insights on matter, energy, and spacetime.
The ‘Tartan Curtain’, ‘Balmoralisation’, ‘Scotch Myths’ and so on are all terms which have been used to emphasise the scope and profundity of the influence of the tartan cult after 1800, or more precisely 1822, the occasion of George IV's visit to Scotland. They are also words which have been used as a currency of scorn, indicative of the perceived factitiousness of the process they are describing. It is said that presenting Scotland as essentially ‘Highland’ is a nineteenth-century fabrication; that such fabrication trivialised Scottish history, and, by trivialising it, marginalised it. To reclaim the underlying historicity of Scotland, it is thus necessary to exorcize the influence of the villains who invented this particular system of cultural representation, shortbread-tin Scotland. The usual suspects are Stewart of Garth, the Sobieski Stuarts and, of course, Sir Walter Scott.
This tartan cult stressed particular aspects of Scottish experience: royalism, Highland dress, militarism, hardihood, physical strength and virility. It had little to say of the covenants, mercantilism, industrialisation, the ideas of the Scottish Enlightenment or the culture of urban Scotland. Politically, it was closely linked to the Jacobite century (1688— 1788), and sought (particularly in the version essayed by Sir Walter Scott) to finally rehabilitate the losing side, on condition that its apparatus of representation would in future always be displayed severed from any political content. Scottish (misplaced) loyalty to the Stuarts would be the symbolic avatar of their (appropriate) loyalty to the Georges; the Wrong but Wromantic exploits of the Jacobites would become the right-thinking heroics of Scottish troops in the Napoleonic Wars. Instead of being ashamed of the Jacobite century, it could be acknowledged in terms of a continuing tradition of loyalty and valour, now happily transferred to a better cause. It is this historical turn to which Scott returned again and again in his fiction: in The Antiquary, for example, the Catholic earl of Glencairn comes out of his reclusive broodings on the past to lead the militia against the French.
Imagine that a researcher approached you about enrolling your child in a new study he wished to undertake. Your child – who might be as young as 3 1/2 months old – was about to have surgery for congenital heart disease. While your daughter was under anaesthesia, the researcher wanted permission to remove her thymus gland and stitch a full-thickness skin graft from an unrelated adult to her chest. The scientist was curious about the role of the thymus in immune regulation and tissue rejection.