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Three new tephras have been identified in Southeast Alaska. An 8-cm-thick black basaltic tephra with nine discrete normally graded beds is present in cores from a lake on Baker Island. The estimated age of the tephra is 13,492 ± 237 cal yr BP. Although similar in age to the MEd tephra from the adjacent Mt. Edgecumbe volcanic field, this tephra is geochemically distinct. Black basaltic tephras recovered from two additional sites in Southeast Alaska, Heceta Island and the Gulf of Esquibel, are also geochemically distinct from the MEd tephra. The age of the tephra from Heceta Island is 14,609 ± 343 cal yr BP. Whereas the tephras recovered from Baker Island/Heceta Island/Gulf of Esquibel are geochemically distinct from each other, similarities in the ages of these tephras and the MEd tephra suggest a shared eruptive trigger, possibly crustal unloading caused by retreat of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet. The submerged Addington volcanic field on the continental shelf, which may have been subaerially exposed during the late Pleistocene, is a possible source for the Southeast Alaska tephras.
Multipliers are useful in constructing difference sets as well as in impossibility proofs. The existence of a fixed set facilitates their application, so that the results of this paper should prove to be useful in numerical work concerning difference sets.
Let G be a group which we shall write multiplicatively. For any set A of elements of G, we define
Let J be an integral domain (i.e., a commutative ring without divisors of zero) with unit element, F its quotient field and J[x] the integral domain of polynomials with coefficients from J . The domain J is called integrally closed if every root of a monic polynomial over J which is in F also is in J.
Let Ω be a cyclic extension of degree l over the field Σ. Correcting an error which for some time had been haunting the literature, Hasse (1, p. 272) noted that for l = 2, the field Ω may contain a unit ξ such that
The aim of this retrospective review was to assess the overall burden and trend in spinal tuberculosis (TB) at tertiary hospitals in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. All spinal TB cases seen at the province's three tertiary hospitals between 2012 and 2015 were identified and clinical records of each case assessed. Cases were subsequently classified as bacteriologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed and reported with accompanying clinical and demographic information. Odds ratios (OR) for severe spinal disease and corrective surgery in child vs. adult cases were calculated. A total of 393 cases were identified (319 adults, 74 children), of which 283 (72%) were bacteriologically confirmed. Adult cases decreased year-on-year (P = 0.04), however there was no clear trend in child cases. Kyphosis was present in 60/74 (81%) children and 243/315 (77%) adults with available imaging. Corrective spinal surgery was performed in 35/74 (47%) children and 80/319 (25%) adults (OR 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.6–4.5, P = 0.0003). These findings suggest that Western Cape tertiary hospitals have experienced a substantial burden of spinal TB cases in recent years with a high proportion of severe presentation, particularly among children. Spinal TB remains a public health concern with increased vigilance required for earlier diagnosis, especially of child cases.
We discuss efforts to explain the dust distribution, as it was derived from the F-coronal brightness, mainly how to explain a constant number density near the Sun. It is shown that silicate particles have temperatures below the blackbody temperature if the impurity from absorbing material amounts to less than 0.1% in volume. This effect is especially significant for porous particles and may explain why particles can approach to less than 3 R⊙ from the Sun. Another effect may arise from particles on high eccentricity orbits and from the influence of collisional fragments. Whereas on the one hand heat resistant silicate particles may cause a stable dust cloud in the solar vicinity, on the other hand dynamical effects may cause a variation of the number density in the corona in short time scales.
The Mars Society is an international private organisation advocating the exploration and settlement of Mars. Part of its mission involves selecting areas for Martian analogue research, to test hardware, technology, strategies and human factors relevant to sending people to Mars. Mars Society Australia has selected an area in the Arkaroola region in the Flinders Ranges as the site for the first Australian analogue facility. The facility will be an invaluable public education and outreach tool for Australian science, focusing on astrobiology, and its role in future human Mars missions; demonstrating Australian contributions to astrobiology related science and work on terrestrial analogues to Martian environments.
It remains unclear whether the topological deficits of the white matter network documented in cross-sectional studies of chronic schizophrenia patients are due to chronic illness or to other factors such as antipsychotic treatment effects. To answer this question, we evaluated the white matter network in medication-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients (FESP) before and after a course of treatment.
We performed a longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study in 42 drug-naive FESP at baseline and then after 8 weeks of risperidone monotherapy, and compared them with 38 healthy volunteers. Graph theory was utilized to calculate the topological characteristics of brain anatomical network. Patients’ clinical state was evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) before and after treatment.
Pretreatment, patients had relatively intact overall topological organizations, and deficient nodal topological properties primarily in prefrontal gyrus and limbic system components such as the bilateral anterior and posterior cingulate. Treatment with risperidone normalized topological parameters in the limbic system, and the enhancement positively correlated with the reduction in PANSS-positive symptoms. Prefrontal topological impairments persisted following treatment and negative symptoms did not improve.
During the early phase of antipsychotic medication treatment there are region-specific alterations in white matter topological measures. Limbic white matter topological dysfunction improves with positive symptom reduction. Prefrontal deficits and negative symptoms are unresponsive to medication intervention, and prefrontal deficits are potential trait biomarkers and targets for negative symptom treatment development.
The observation of 8B solar Neutrinos in the Kamiokande-II detector is presented. Based on 450 days of data in the time period of January 1987 through May 1988, the measured flux obtained with Ee ≥ 9.3 MeV was 0.46 ± 0.13 (stat) ± 0.08 (sys) of the value predicted by the standard solar model. The detector and analysis methods were improved since June 1988 and the background level has been decreased by a factor of about three since then.
Recently, strong large amplitude magnetic field structures (SLAMS) have been observed as a common phenomenon in the vicinity of the quasi-parallel region of Earth’s bow shock. A quasi-parallel shock transition can be considered as a patchwork of SLAMS. Using the data of the AMPTE/IRM magnetometer the properties of SLAMS are studied. Within SLAMS the magnetic field is strongly deformed and, thus, the magnetic field geometry is locally swung into a quasi-perpendicular regime. Therefore, electrons can locally be accelerated to high energies within SLAMS. Assuming that SLAMS also exist in the vicinity of supercritical, quasi-parallel shocks in the solar corona, they are able to generate radio radiation via the enhanced Langmuir turbulence excited by the accelerated electrons. Since SLAMS are connected with strong density enhancements, the aforementioned mechanism can explain the multiple-lane structure often occurred in solar Type II radio bursts.
Subject headings: acceleration of particles — Earth — shock waves — Sun: corona — Sun: radio radiation
Resilience is the capacity of individuals to resist mental disorders despite exposure to stress. Little is known about its neural underpinnings. The putative variation of white-matter microstructure with resilience in adolescence, a critical period for brain maturation and onset of high-prevalence mental disorders, has not been assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Lower fractional anisotropy (FA) though, has been reported in the corpus callosum (CC), the brain's largest white-matter structure, in psychiatric and stress-related conditions. We hypothesized that higher FA in the CC would characterize stress-resilient adolescents.
Three groups of adolescents recruited from the community were compared: resilient with low risk of mental disorder despite high exposure to lifetime stress (n = 55), at-risk of mental disorder exposed to the same level of stress (n = 68), and controls (n = 123). Personality was assessed by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Voxelwise statistics of DTI values in CC were obtained using tract-based spatial statistics. Regional projections were identified by probabilistic tractography.
Higher FA values were detected in the anterior CC of resilient compared to both non-resilient and control adolescents. FA values varied according to resilience capacity. Seed regional changes in anterior CC projected onto anterior cingulate and frontal cortex. Neuroticism and three other NEO-FFI factor scores differentiated non-resilient participants from the other two groups.
High FA was detected in resilient adolescents in an anterior CC region projecting to frontal areas subserving cognitive resources. Psychiatric risk was associated with personality characteristics. Resilience in adolescence may be related to white-matter microstructure.
Restoration in Mediterranean-climate grasslands is strongly impeded by lack of native propagules and competition with exotic grasses and forbs. We report on a study testing several methods for exotic plant control combined with planting native grasses to restore prairies in former agricultural land in coastal California. Specifically we compared tarping (shading out recently germinated seedlings with black plastic) once, tarping twice, topsoil removal, herbicide (glyphosate), and a control treatment in factorial combinations with or without wood mulch. Into each treatment we planted three native grass species (Elymus glaucus, Hordeum brachyantherum, and Stipa pulchra) and monitored plant survival and cover for three growing seasons. Survival of native grass species was high in all treatments, but was slightly lower in unmulched soil removal and control treatments in the first 2 yr. Mulching, tarping, and herbicide were all effective in reducing exotic grass cover and enhancing native grass cover for the first 2 yr, but by the third growing season cover of the plant guilds and bare ground had mostly converged, primarily because of the declining effects of the initial treatments. Mulching and tarping were both considerably more expensive than herbicide treatment. Topsoil removal was less effective in increasing native grass cover likely because soil removal altered the surface hydrology in this system. Our results show that several treatments were effective in enhancing native grass establishment, but that longer term monitoring is needed to evaluate the efficacy of restoration efforts. The most appropriate approach to controlling exotics to restore specific grassland sites will depend not only on the effectiveness, but also on relative costs and site constraints.
Of late years it would appear that the subject of Papal Iconography has been singularly neglected; nor as far as we are aware has the subject been at all exhaustively treated in any monograph. Yet if its claim to importance calls for justification, it should suffice to quote the following passage in which J. A. Symonds records the impression made upon him by the busts of the Popes (Fig. I) which adorn the walls of the Duomo of Siena:
‘One most remarkable feature’ he wrote ‘of the Duomo of Siena is a line of heads of the Popes carried all round the church above the lower arches. Larger than life, white solemn faces, they lean each from his separate niche, crowned with the triple tiara, and labelled with the name he bore. Their accumulated majesty brings the whole past history of the Church into the presence of its living members. A bishop walking up the nave of Siena must feel as a Roman felt among the waxen images of ancestors renowned in council or in war. Of course these portraits are imaginary for the most part, but the artists have contrived to vary their features and expression with great skill.’