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Avilamycin (antibiotic growth promoter) and zinc oxide are both included in the diets of newly weaned piglets to enhance growth performance and reduce the incidence of diarrhoea (MLC, 2000). It is thought that both compounds positively influence the bacterial populations residing in the gastrointestinal tract. However, growing concerns regarding antibiotic resistance and environmental pollution are likely to result in the banning of these dietary additives within the EU. This experiment, therefore, aimed to investigate what effect removing both avilamycin and zinc oxide from the post-weaning diet would have on the growth performance of weaned piglets.
Two reversal theory-based studies investigated dancers' psychological experience at final rehearsal, and at three performances in an annual competition. In Study 1, 23 Japanese modern dance specialists completed the Tension and Effort Stress Inventory immediately before and after performance. Pre-study expectations that dancers would experience higher levels of unpleasant emotions (including performance anxiety or stage fright) and stress pre-competition than pre-final rehearsal were not confirmed. Dancers experienced significantly higher levels of unpleasant emotions before final rehearsal than before competition. Also contrary to expectations, competing was found not to be more stressful and not to require greater efforts to cope, than rehearsing. Study 2 set out to investigate dancers' basic motives for dancing and to show whether the anxiety-to-excitement reversal phenomena could be discerned during dance performance. Using the same experimental procedure as Study 1, a similar group of 15 dancers completed a dance performance experience questionnaire. The results indicated that, for the majority of dancers, the primary reason for dancing was either the paratelic, telic, arousal-seeking, or alloic-sympathy meta-motivational categories, and that many dancers experienced anxiety to excitement reversals.
The purpose of the present study was to extend international comparative research on the Telic and Paratelic Dominance Scales (TDS & PDS) to include data from 560 Japanese individuals. Statistical analyses to check the factor structure, reliability and relationship between Japanese scores on the two scales were carried out. In addition, test-retest reliability was also examined. The results indicated stronger support for the factor structure of the PDS than the TDS. Coefficient alpha statistics produced weaker alpha values for the TDS than the PDS and the relationship between Japanese scale scores were significant and in the expected direction. Test-retest reliability was found to be strong for both scales. Based on the present results, future work on the development of an international scale of telic-paratelic dominance should focus on the PDS, rather than the TDS.
Mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) are a common cause of familial frontotemporal dementia. We used a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to investigate whether early cognitive changes could be detected in GRN mutation carriers before dementia onset. Twenty-four at-risk members from six families with known GRN mutations underwent detailed neuropsychological testing. Group differences were investigated by domains of attention, language, visuospatial function, verbal memory, non-verbal memory, working memory and executive function. There was a trend for mutation carriers (n=8) to perform more poorly than non-carriers (n=16) across neuropsychological domains, with significant between group differences for visuospatial function (p<.04; d=0.92) and working memory function (p<.02; d=1.10). Measurable cognitive differences exist before the development of frontotemporal dementia in subjects with GRN mutations. The neuropsychological profile of mutation carriers suggests early asymmetric, right hemisphere brain dysfunction that is consistent with recent functional imaging data from our research group and the broader literature. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–10)
Cerebral palsy is not a specific disease but a clinical syndrome caused by a non-progressive injury to the developing brain that results in a disorder of movement and posture that is permanent but not unchanging. It is the most common cause of physical disability affecting children in developed countries. The incidence is steady in most countries at approximately 2 per 1000 live births. The prevalence of cerebral palsy is much higher in children with birth weight under 1500 g and in those born earlier than 28 weeks of gestation. The location, timing and severity of the brain lesion are extremely variable, which results in many different clinical presentations. Despite the static nature of the brain injury, the majority of children with cerebral palsy develop progressive musculoskeletal problems such as posturing and muscle contractures (Koman et al., 2004). Additionally, as pointed out in an expert consensus on cerebral palsy, it is important to recognize that there are also frequent yet inconsistent disturbances of sensation, cognition, communication and perception; abnormalities of behavior; and seizures (Bax et al., 2005).
Cerebral palsy may be classified according to the cause of the brain lesion (when this is known), and the location of the brain lesion as noted on imaging such as MRI or CT. Clinically more useful classification schemes are based on the type of movement disorder, the distribution of the movement disorder (Box 15.1) and the gross motor function of the child.
In addition to the hundreds of known visual-wavelength Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs), a number of DIBs in the near-infrared (NIR) are now also known to exist. We present here high-resolution UKIRT echelle spectroscopy of two of the NIR DIBs toward sightlines exhibiting a range of visual extinctions. Variations in the strengths and profile shapes of the bands are considered in the context of known properties of the narrow DIBs at visual wavelengths.
Present soil moisture and ocean salinity maps retrieved by remote sensing are characterized by a coarse spatial resolution. Hydrological, meteorological and climatological applications would benefit greatly from a better spatial resolution. Owing to the dimensions of the satellite structure and to the degradation of the instrument’s radiometric sensitivity, such improvement cannot be achieved with classical interferometry. Then, in order to achieve this goal an original concept for passive interferometric measurements is described. This concept should allow to achieve a much finer spatial resolution, which can be further improved with the application of disaggregation methods. The results will then allow the integration of global soil moisture maps into hydrological models, a better management of water resources at small scales and an improvement in spatial precision for various applications.
Positron lifetime measurements show that electron irradiation produces indium vacancy related defects in InP. Divacancies are also found in semi-insulating and lightly doped p and n-type materials. Temperature investigations show a change in the divacancy charge state.