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Psychotropic medication use and psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy each are associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring. Commonly, studies considering medication effects do not adequately assess symptoms, nor evaluate children when the effects are believed to occur, the fetal period. This study examined maternal serotonin reuptake inhibitor and polypharmacy use in relation to serial assessments of five indices of fetal neurobehavior and Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 12 months in N = 161 socioeconomically advantaged, non-Hispanic White women with a shared risk phenotype, diagnosed major depressive disorder. On average fetuses showed the expected development over gestation. In contrast, infant average Bayley psychomotor and mental development scores were low (M = 84.10 and M = 89.92, range of normal limits 85–114) with rates of delay more than 2–3 times what would be expected based on this measure's normative data. Controlling for prenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms, prenatal medication effects on neurobehavioral development were largely undetected in the fetus and infant. Mental health care directed primarily at symptoms may not address the additional psychosocial needs of women parenting infants. Speculatively, prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure may act as a plasticity rather than risk factor, potentially enhancing receptivity to a nonoptimal postnatal environment in some mother–infant dyads.
Maternal perinatal depression exerts pervasive effects on the developing brain, as evidenced by electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns that differ between children of women who do and do not meet DSM or ICD diagnostic criteria. However, little research has examined if the same EEG pattern of right-frontal alpha asymmetry exists in newborns and thus originates in utero independent of postnatal influences, and if depressive symptoms are associated with this neural signature. Utilizing 125-lead EEG (n=18), this study considered clinician-rated maternal prenatal depressive symptoms in relation to newborn EEG. Maternal depressive symptomatology was associated with greater relative right-frontal alpha asymmetry during quiet sleep. These results suggest that even subclinical levels of maternal depression may influence infant brain development, and further support the role of the prenatal environment in shaping children’s future neurobehavioral trajectories.
Much evidence has accumulated showing that female reproductive functions are disrupted when changes in nutritional status take place in both over- and undernutrition. The peptide hormone leptin is considered a possible link between nutrition and reproduction. One objective with the present study was to investigate how different levels of feed intake during the dry period, thereby creating differences in body condition at parturition, affected the plasma leptin concentration and the reproductive function after parturition.
Commission 36 acts as a cosponsor of the following Symposia: (1) IAU Symposium No. 102 “Solar and Stellar Magnetic Fields: Origin and Coronal Effects” Zurich, Switzerland (2-6 August 1982) and (2) IAU Symposium No. 103 “Planetary Nebulae” London, UK (10-1U August 1982). The commission participates jointly with Commissions 29, 35, and 45 in the organization of a Joint Discussion at the IXth General Assembly on the topic “Mass-Loss-Phenomena”.
Radiocarbon analysis of the carbonaceous aerosol allows an apportionment of fossil and non-fossil sources of airborne particulate matter (PM). A chemical separation of total carbon (TC) into its subtractions organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) refines this powerful technique, as OC and EC originate from different sources and undergo different processes in the atmosphere. Although 14C analysis of TC, EC, and OC has recently gained increasing attention, interlaboratory quality assurance measures have largely been missing, especially for the isolation of EC and OC. In this work, we present results from an intercomparison of 9 laboratories for 14C analysis of carbonaceous aerosol samples on quartz fiber filters. Two ambient PM samples and 1 reference material (RM 8785) were provided with representative filter blanks. All laboratories performed 14C determinations of TC and a subset of isolated EC and OC for isotopic measurement. In general, 14C measurements of TC and OC agreed acceptably well between the laboratories, i.e. for TC within 0.015–0.025 F14C for the ambient filters and within 0.041 F14C for RM 8785. Due to inhomogeneous filter loading, RM 8785 demonstrated only limited applicability as a reference material for 14C analysis of carbonaceous aerosols. 14C analysis of EC revealed a large deviation between the laboratories of 28–79% as a consequence of different separation techniques. This result indicates a need for further discussion on optimal methods of EC isolation for 14C analysis and a second stage of this intercomparison.
Communication and information are cornerstones of management during major incidents and disasters. To support medical command and control, the Web-based support system called Paratus Major Incident can be used. The Paratus Major Incident system can provide management staff with online information from the incident area, and support management and patient handling at both single and mass-casualty incidents. The purpose of the Web-based information technology (IT) system is to ensure communication and information between the medical management at the scene, hospital management, and regional medical command and control (gold level).
In the region of Östergötland, Sweden, Paratus Major Incident system is used in operating topics such as: (1) information dissemination from the incident area; (2) communication between prehospital, regional, and hospital management; (3) continuous updates between the dispatch centre and medical commanders at all levels; (4) digital log-files for medical management and patient records; (4) database used for follow-up studies and quality control.
During 2,161 incidents, 746 “first incident reports” from ambulance on scene were sent to regional medical command and control within 2 minutes. Four hundred and fifty-six “verification reports” were sent within 10 minutes. During 15 incidents, the designated duty officer on regional level confirmed “major incident” directly via the digital system, thereby notifying all arriving ambulance resources and involved medical managements.
This Web-based IT system successfully has been used daily within prehospital management since 2005. The system includes medical command and control at the regional level and all involved hospitals in a major incident.
Strained layers of indirect GaAsP have been grown on the (111)B-oriented surface of GaP by Metal-Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE). These layers have been characterized by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL), electroreflectance (ER), secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and wavelength resolved imaging cathodoluminescence (CL). We have been able to follow the transition energies of the lowest X conduction band edge, as well as the higher Γ band edge of the strained layers, as a function of composition up to an As-concentration of 38 %. The experimental values of the transition energies are compared with predictions made from calculations based on deformation potential theory. CL allows us to directly observe the onset of dislocation formation, i. e. the critical thickness. The appearance and properties of the dislocation network revealed by CL are very different from those of the corresponding network when the strained layers are grown on (001)-oriented surfaces.
Accurate XRD, often in combination with ND, has long been used to study electron density features in crystalline compounds. The method is particularly successful for light-atom systems in which the valence-to-core electron ratio is high. The same method is clearly applicable to the study of (typically) lithium insertion/extraction processes in TMO compounds; the greatest hinder has been the availability of sufficiently large single crystals, which do not then disintegrate into micron-size particles during the reaction. The case of V6O13 is especially advantageous in this context, however: millimeter-size crystals can be grown by CVT methods, which do not then exhibit severe cracking on lithium insertion, probably as a result of the layer-like nature of the structure. A sequence of single-crystal phases have now been studied in this way (LixV6O13 for x= 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0) following in situ electrochemical synthesis in the composite cathode of a <Li| PE |V6O13> half-cell. The resulting structures have been solved, and their associated electron-density distributions carefully analysed by so-called Hirshfeld deformation electron density refinement. The method would appear to provide meaningful information relating to oxidation state changes occurring on lithium-ion insertion.
We present our on-going work on the determination of elemental abundances of giants in the Galactic Bulge by means of infrared spectroscopy. We show a preliminarily reduced spectrum and a synthetic spectrum fit of the Bulge giant Arp 4203 recorded with the near-infrared, high-resolution Crires spectrograph mounted on the VLT during its science verification run in August 2006. Abundances derived from this spectrum are discussed.
A phenotypic and genetic decline in dairy cattle fertility has been reported in several countries simultaneous to the increase in genetic merit for production. In addition, an increase in atypical milk progesterone (MP4) patterns, particularly extended luteal phases, has been observed by Royal et al. (2000). One such MP4 parameter; the interval from calving to commencement of luteal activity (CLA), has been studied by Royal et al. (2002a,b; 2003) and is reported to have moderate heritability (h2), an unfavourable genetic correlation (rA)to milk yield (rA; 0.36) and a favourable rA to calving interval and interval to first service, respectively (0.39, 0.53). Although CLA is a good indicator of onset of luteal activity (LA) postpartum (pp), it does not take account of subsequent ovarian activity. The objective of this study was to investigate an alternative MP4 parameter using the proportion of MP4 samples representing LA within the first 60 days pp in both British and Swedish dairy cows.
Nutrigenomics is the study of how constituents of the diet interact with genes, and their products, to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolise these constituents into nutrients, antinutrients, and bioactive compounds. Results from molecular and genetic epidemiological studies indicate that dietary unbalance can alter gene–nutrient interactions in ways that increase the risk of developing chronic disease. The interplay of human genetic variation and environmental factors will make identifying causative genes and nutrients a formidable, but not intractable, challenge. We provide specific recommendations for how to best meet this challenge and discuss the need for new methodologies and the use of comprehensive analyses of nutrient–genotype interactions involving large and diverse populations. The objective of the present paper is to stimulate discourse and collaboration among nutrigenomic researchers and stakeholders, a process that will lead to an increase in global health and wellness by reducing health disparities in developed and developing countries.
The most remarkable future possibilities of stellar spectroscopy and abundance
analysis are discussed, and their consequences for the further understanding
of stellar nucleosynthesis are commented on. It is argued that it will soon
be possible to put the exploration of the origin of the chemical elements and
the study of the chemical evolution of galaxies on a solid empirical ground,
through systematic observations of yields from AGB stars and planetary nebulae,
Wolf-Rayet stars and supernovae, and of well-determined
abundance trends in different stellar populations.
Acetone concentration in milk is correlated with subclinical and clinical ketosis and also with milk yield and reproductive efficiency. The purpose of this study was to assess a threshold of milk acetone at which cows tend to be adversely affected. The critical values were estimated on data from 11690 lactations where the change in daily milk yield from weeks 1 to 2 to weeks 5 to 6 of lactation was evaluated in relation to different milk acetone concentrations. Daily milk yield tended to be reduced in cows with acetone concentrations between 0·7 and 1·4 mmol/l, but responses were not entirely consistent. At concentrations >l·4 mmol/l, daily milk yield was clearly reduced. Long-term milk yield (day 0 to 100 and day 0 to 200) was about 190 kg of 40 g/kg fat-corrected milk (FCM) less in cows with acetone concentrations >l·4 vis-à-vis <0·7 mmol/l. Reproductive efficiency was also impaired in cows with acetone concentrations >l·4 mmol/l; 4·9 days longer interval from calving to first service (first parity and parity 2+ cows) and 5·7 times a greater risk of cystic ovaries (parity 1), compared with cows with milk acetone <0·7 mmol/l. However, no significant effects on long-term milk yield or on reproductive efficiency were found in cows with acetone concentrations 0·7 to 1·4 vis-à-vis <0·7 mmol/l. The results suggest that 1·4 mmol/l acetone in milk may be used as the most important critical value, as higher concentrations are detrimental to productivity. The interval 0·7 to 1·4 mmol acetone per I milk may be used as a warning class, since early lactation yield may be reduced.
The effects of acetone concentration in milk, feeding frequency, and intake of concentrates and energy in total diet on milk yield were studied in 38624 lactations from 474 herds during 3 years. Herd-related data on feeding factors were collected once per indoor feeding period. Milk acetone concentrations higher than 0·40 mmol/l were deemed to denote hyperketonaemia, whether subclinical or clinical. The lactation curves of ketotic cows had an abnormal shape, with an inverted peak in early lactation. Most of the reduction in milk yield took place during the first 100 days of lactation with an estimated loss of proportionately 0·085 (acetone concentration ≤0·40 v. >2·00 mmol/l). The loss in 200-day milk yield was estimated to 328 kg 40 g/kg fat-corrected milk (FCM) at an overall mean of 5056 kg. If a herd's performance is monitored by lactation curves, a low peak — and hence an apparently high persistency – can indicate a ketosis problem. More frequent feeding of concentrates was correlated with a proportionately 0·033 to 0·074 higher milk yield in multiparous cows, but inconsistent between years. A more variable proportional response (−0·035 to 0·131) was observed in primiparous cows depending on interactions with, for example, breed. A greater total energy supply, including a larger amount of concentrate (maximum in lactation), was correlated with a higher milk yield, about 0·06 kg FCM per day per MJ metabolizable energy and 0·5 kg FCM per day per kg concentrate, respectively. However, increased feeding of concentrates at calving (parity 1) and 15 days after calving (multiparous cows) was correlated with decreased milk yield, by about −0–3 and −0–5 kg FCM per day per kg concentrate, respectively.
A case is presented of multiple acinic cell carcinoma, occurring synchronously in the left parotid gland and in the right submaxillary gland of a 75-year-old male patient. Fourteen cases of primary multiple acinic cell carcinoma have previously been reported, all bilateral parotid gland tumours. To our knowledge this is the first report of extraparotid localization of an acinic cell carcinoma in a patient presenting multiple salivary gland tumours. The histologic and ultrastructural characteristics of the tumours are described and a review of the literature is given.
1. Lipid-lowering diets enriched in polyunsaturated fat decrease the serum cholesterol in hyperlipoproteinaemia, usually by reducing both the low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the effects on LDL could be maintained but those on HDL cholesterol be diminished by reducing the ratio, polyunsaturated: saturated fat (P:S) of the diet.
2. Twenty hyperlipoproteinaemic patients (six with type IIa, eight with type IIb and six with type IV) in a metabolic ward were given two fat-modified diets during two consecutive 3–week periods in a randomized order. The diets were identical with regard to nutrient composition but differed with regard to the P:S values, which were 2.0 and 1.3 respectively.
3. The lipoprotein-lipid composition and serum apolipoprotein concentrations were similar at the end of the two dietary periods in type IIa and type IV patients but in type IIb patients a more pronounced reduction of the LDL-cholesterol concentration by 9% (P < 0·05) was achieved on the diet with the higher P:S value. The HDL-cholesterol did not differ significantly.
4. The results indicate that increasing the P:S value of lipid-lowering diets from 1.3 to 2·0 does not offer a great advantage with regard to the lipoprotein-lipid reductions achieved in moderate hyperlipoproteinaemia.
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