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Recent studies highlighted the multiple positive and negative contributions of livestock to society. Livestock production, through its direct and indirect impacts on land use, is an important driver of services provision. Although a few studies provide an account on the multiple services in different livestock systems, there is still an important knowledge gap on the drivers that contribute to the differentiation of services provisioning across areas. We investigated the hypothesis that the current level of services has derived from past intensification trajectories of livestock. The objective of this study was to understand the influences of past changes in livestock, land-use and socio-economic variables on the current provision of social, environmental and cultural services by the livestock sector in France. We combined a long-term country-wide database on livestock intensification between 1938 and 2010 and a database on services provisioning in 2010. We used a set of multivariate methods to simultaneously analyse the changes in livestock intensification from 1938 to 2010 and the current level of services provisioning. Our analysis focused on a set of 60 French departments where livestock play a significant economic role in agricultural production. Our study revealed that the provision of services was spatially structured and based on three groups of departments, characterised by different rates of change in intensification variables. In the first group, ‘Intensive livestock areas’, the high level of employment in the livestock sector was mainly associated with high rates of change in monogastric stocking rates (+1045%) and milk productivity (+451%). In the second group, ‘Extensive livestock areas’, the high levels of environmental and cultural services were mainly associated with moderate rates of change in herbivores stocking rate (+95%) and the stability of grassland area (+13%). In the third group, ‘Transition areas’, the low provision of all services was associated with the decline in livestock due to crop expansion. This study provides knowledge to understand how past changes determined the current contribution of livestock areas in providing differentiated bundles of services, which might help steer the development of the current livestock sector towards more sustainable trajectories.
Through the observations and the analysis of maser polarization it is possible to measure the magnetic field in several astrophysical environments (e.g., star-forming regions, evolved stars). In particular from the linearly and circularly polarized emissions we can determine the orientation and the strength of the magnetic field, respectively. In these proceedings the implications, on observed data, of the new estimation of the Landé g-factors for the CH3OH maser are presented. Furthermore, some example of the most recent results achieved in observing the polarized maser emission from several maser species will also be reported.
Data from the in-school sample of the PROSPER preventive intervention dissemination trial were used to investigate associations between alcohol dehydrogenase genes and alcohol use across adolescence, and whether substance misuse interventions in the 6th and 7th grades (targeting parenting, family functioning, social norms, youth decision making, and peer group affiliations) modified associations between these genes and adolescent use. Primary analyses were run on a sample of 1,885 individuals and included three steps. First, we estimated unconditional growth curve models with separate slopes for alcohol use from 6th to 9th grade and from 9th to 12th grade, as well as the intercept at Grade 9. Second, we used intervention condition and three alcohol dehydrogenase genes, 1B (ADH1B), 1C (ADH1C), and 4 (ADH4) to predict variance in slopes and intercept. Third, we examined whether genetic influences on model slopes and intercepts were moderated by intervention condition. The results indicated that the increase in alcohol use was greater in early adolescence than in middle adolescence; two of the genes, ADH1B and ADH1C, significantly predicted early adolescent slope and Grade 9 intercept, and associations between ADH1C and both early adolescent slope and intercept were significantly different across control and intervention conditions.
To analyze influential infectious diseases, antimicrobial stewardship, infection control, or medical microbiology blogs and bloggers
World wide web
We conducted a systematic search for blogs in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines in September 2015.
A snowball sampling approach was applied to identify blogs using various search engines. Blogs were eligible if they (1) focused on infectious diseases, antimicrobial stewardship, infection control, or medical microbiology; (2) were intended for health professionals; and (3) were written in English and (4) were updated regularly. We mapped blog and blogger characteristics and used an innovative tool to assess the architecture and content of the included blogs. The motivations and perceptions of bloggers and readers were also assessed.
A total of 88 blogs were identified. Moreover, 28 blogs (32%) focused on infectious diseases, 46 (52%) focused on medical microbiology, and 14 (16%) focused on infection control or antimicrobial stewardship. Bloggers were mainly male with medical doctorates and/or PhDs; 32 bloggers (36%) posted at least weekly; and 51 (58%) had a research purpose. The aims were considered clear for 23 blogs (26%), and the field covered was considered broad for 25 blogs (28%). Presentation was considered good for 22 blogs (25%), 51 blogs (58%) were easy to read, and 46 blogs (52%) included expert interpretation. Among the top 10 blogs, 3 focused on infectious diseases, 6 focused on medical microbiology, and 2 focused on infection control (2 were equally ranked). The bloggers we questioned were motivated to share their independent expertise and opinions. Readers appreciated the concise messages on scientific topics and practical updates.
This study describes high-level blogs in the fields of infectious diseases, infection control, and medical microbiology. Our findings suggest ways in which bloggers should build/orientate blogs for readers, and we have highlighted current gaps in blog topics such as antimicrobial stewardship.
Objectives: This study examined whether children with distinct brain disorders show different profiles of strengths and weaknesses in executive functions, and differ from children without brain disorder. Methods: Participants were children with traumatic brain injury (N=82; 8–13 years of age), arterial ischemic stroke (N=36; 6–16 years of age), and brain tumor (N=74; 9–18 years of age), each with a corresponding matched comparison group consisting of children with orthopedic injury (N=61), asthma (N=15), and classmates without medical illness (N=68), respectively. Shifting, inhibition, and working memory were assessed, respectively, using three Test of Everyday Attention: Children’s Version (TEA-Ch) subtests: Creature Counting, Walk-Don’t-Walk, and Code Transmission. Comparison groups did not differ in TEA-Ch performance and were merged into a single control group. Profile analysis was used to examine group differences in TEA-Ch subtest scaled scores after controlling for maternal education and age. Results: As a whole, children with brain disorder performed more poorly than controls on measures of executive function. Relative to controls, the three brain injury groups showed significantly different profiles of executive functions. Importantly, post hoc tests revealed that performance on TEA-Ch subtests differed among the brain disorder groups. Conclusions: Results suggest that different childhood brain disorders result in distinct patterns of executive function deficits that differ from children without brain disorder. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. (JINS, 2017, 23, 529–538)
The present research brings psychometric evidences for the Unidimensional Relationship Closeness Scale (URCS), aiming at verifying its adequacy for use in the Brazilian context. Participants were 468 university students with mean age of 21.2 years. They completed a survey composed by the URCS, the Basic Values Survey (BSV), and demographic questions. Through Exploratory (Eigenvalue = 6.61) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFI = .937, TLI = .923), the results showed that the same one-factor structure from the original version of the scale was found. These results were also invariant across gender and relationship status (∆SRMR < .03), and presented evidences of internal consistence (α = .94), temporal stability (ICC = .903, p < .001), and convergent validity (rmale = .32, rfemale = .25, p < .001). In conclusion, this measure has shown to be psychometrically adequate for use in Brazil.
Dilated cardiomyopathy in children causes heart failure and has a poor prognosis. Health-related quality of life in this patient group is unknown. Moreover, results may provide detailed information of parents’ sense of their child’s functioning. We hypothesised that health-related quality of life, as rated by parents, and the paediatric heart failure score, as assessed by physicians, have both predictive value on outcome.
Methods and results
In this prospective study, health-related quality of life was assessed by parent reports: the Infant Toddler Quality of Life questionnaire (0–4 years) or Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form 50 (4–18 years) at 3–6-month intervals. We included 90 children (median age 3.8 years, interquartile range (IQR) 0.9–12.3) whose parents completed 515 questionnaires. At the same visit, physicians completed the New York University Pediatric Heart Failure Index. Compared with Dutch normative data, quality of life was severely impaired at diagnosis (0–4 years: 7/10 subscales and 4–18 years: 8/11 subscales) and ⩾1 year after diagnosis (3/10 and 6/11 subscales). Older children were more impaired (p<0.05). After a median follow-up of 3 years (IQR 2–4), 15 patients underwent transplantation. Using multivariable time-dependent Cox regression, “physical functioning” subscale and the Heart Failure Index were independently predictive of the risk of death and heart transplantation (hazard ratio 1.24 per 10% decrease of predicted, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–1.47 and hazard ratio 1.38 per unit, 95% CI 1.19–1.61, respectively).
Physical impairment rated by parents and heart failure severity assessed by physicians independently predicted the risk of death or heart transplantation in children with dilated cardiomyopathy.
Parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) are a diverse group of pathogens that infect birds nearly worldwide. Despite their ubiquity, the ecological and evolutionary factors that shape the diversity and distribution of these protozoan parasites among avian communities and geographic regions are poorly understood. Based on a survey throughout the Neotropics of the haemosporidian parasites infecting manakins (Pipridae), a family of Passerine birds endemic to this region, we asked whether host relatedness, ecological similarity and geographic proximity structure parasite turnover between manakin species and local manakin assemblages. We used molecular methods to screen 1343 individuals of 30 manakin species for the presence of parasites. We found no significant correlations between manakin parasite lineage turnover and both manakin species turnover and geographic distance. Climate differences, species turnover in the larger bird community and parasite lineage turnover in non-manakin hosts did not correlate with manakin parasite lineage turnover. We also found no evidence that manakin parasite lineage turnover among host species correlates with range overlap and genetic divergence among hosts. Our analyses indicate that host switching (turnover among host species) and dispersal (turnover among locations) of haemosporidian parasites in manakins are not constrained at this scale.
Management and monitoring of community-based protected areas in Madagascar remain challenging because of a lack of financial, human and technical resources, and capacity. At Lake Alaotra, conversion of marshland for rice cultivation and a lack of effective habitat protection have pushed the locally endemic Alaotra gentle lemur Hapalemur alaotrensis to the brink of extinction. The highest density of the species is found in the locally managed Park Bandro, a high-priority conservation zone within the Lake Alaotra New Protected Area. We evaluated local awareness and perceptions of Park Bandro, and discussed preferred management options with local communities. Two questionnaire surveys were carried out, one with 180 participants at six sites around the lake and marsh, and another with 50 participants in the village adjacent to Park Bandro. The majority of participants knew of the existence of Park Bandro but most did not know its purpose or size. Values and perceptions of local communities were influenced by occupation and distance to the Park, with fishers being most aware of the Park. We found that local people had a high level of environmental awareness and were willing to discuss zonation and alternative resource management strategies as long as these activities could provide a tangible livelihood benefit. Lack of awareness among local resource users regarding the purpose and status of protected areas such as Park Bandro is a challenge that needs to be addressed, and one that is relevant for environmental education and management of protected areas throughout Madagascar.
Without a universal Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system in India, data on the epidemiology of patients who utilize EMS are limited. This retrospective chart review aimed to quantify and describe the burden of disease and patient demographics of patients who arrived by EMS to four Indian emergency departments (EDs) in order to inform a national EMS curriculum.
A retrospective chart review was performed on patients transported by EMS over a three-month period in 2014 to four private EDs in India. A total of 17,541 patient records were sampled from the four sites over the study period. Of these records, 1,723 arrived by EMS and so were included for further review.
A range of 1.4%-19.4% of ED patients utilized EMS to get to the ED. The majority of EMS patients were male (59%-64%) and adult or geriatric (93%-99%). The most common chief complaints and ED diagnoses were neurological, pulmonary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, trauma, and infectious disease.
Neurological, pulmonary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, trauma, and infectious disease are the most common problems found in patients transported by EMS in India. Adult and geriatric male patients are the most common EMS utilizers. Emergency Medical Services curricula should emphasize these knowledge areas and skills.
WijesekeraO, ReedA, ChastainPS, BiggsS, ClarkEG, KoleT, ChakrapaniAT, AshishN, RajhansP, BreaudAH, JacquetGA. Epidemiology of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Utilization in Four Indian Emergency Departments. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(6):675–679.
Observations have been carried out using the oxygen VI multiplet ratio 1032/1038 Â from SUMER on SOHO. Analysis based on the Doppler dimming method shows that the outflow velocity in polar plumes is higher than that in the interplume region, contrary to many published suggestions. The addition of UVCS data for the interplume region, leads to a conclusion that the effective oxygen ion “temperature” in the radial direction has to rise to around 14 MK over the height range 1.5 to 1.8 R⊙.
The SOHO probe was successfully launched on December 2nd, 1995. The performances of the Atlas II flight, the trajectory and the final injection in the Halo orbit around the L1 Lagrangian point left on board a large amount of hydrazine, allowing the possibility for a mission extension later than the 2 planned years. The operations of the GOLF experiment started on January 16th for a period devoted to the initial tests and to the adjustments of the thermal settings. The effective solar observations started on February 18thand are still running. For the studies presented here below, the data set ends in mid-September. All tables and figures come from the compilation of the data analysis made in several institutes with different methods, and some complementary or additional results are displayed in the poster booklet published from this symposium.
(Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc.). Rocket observations of the EUV solar spectrum obtained during the total eclipse of 7 March 1970 showed the presence of a large coronal condensation on the NE limb (Gabriel et al., 1971). The condensation shows the existence of loop structure, which defines the local magnetic fields, and is apparent in forbidden lines including those of Si viii, Si ix, S xi, Fe ix, Fe xi and Fe xii which lie between 1200 Å and 2050 Å (Jordan, 1971). These lines are formed in the temperature range 9.3 × 105K to 2.0 × 106K. The photographic observations of the active region show clearly that the spatial distribution of material varies considerably with its temperature.
GOLF is designed to measure the Global Oscillations of the integrated solar disk, by determining the line-of-sight velocity of the photosphere as a function of time, over the frequency range 10−7 to 10−2 Hz.
As the pool of fundamental data available to astronomers continues to increase, the question of how best to promote the necessary cross-discipline interaction becomes increasingly important. Commission 14 has traditionally played an important role in this activity, by publishing triennial reports in the IAU Proceedings, as well as by responding to more specific requests for data. We are fortunate in having the support for these activities of some energetic Working-Groups and Chairmen, whos contributions to the present report are very gratefully acknowledged. With the expansion of available data it is appropriate that these reports take on more and more the form of references to review articles and other more specific data bases. The question of whether the field of activity of the Commission should be enlarged was discussed at Patras and will be reviewed again at the Delhi meeting. One possibility is to include nuclear processes and fundamental particle physics. On the other hand a rationale for limiting the scope of our activities might be the direct application to astronomical observations. Astronomical theorists are usually better placed to access the fundamental data themselves. The interaction between fundamental physics and astronomy will in general take two forms. There is the essential service role of making data available in a usable form. However, we should surely aim to stimulate the other very profitable mode, in which the two disciplines are brought together to form real scientific collaborations, in order to research the problems of astronomy.
The Commission has, since its inception, been devoted to the continually increasing needs of astronomy and astrophysics for reliable atomic and molecular data a) for diagnostic interpretation of astronomical observations, and b) for support of theoretical modelling of astrophysical situations. At the 1985 Delhi General Assembly, the Commission reviewed the scope of its subject matter, and considered whether it should be extended to include higher energy physical processes than are commonly treated by atomic and molecular data. It was concluded that there was no strong demand for this change, which, if implemented, would make the work of the Commission too diffuse. The appropriateness of the past working group structure was also carefully reviewed in the light of contemporary needs. The following working groups, which have evolved from those of past years, together with their chairmen was approved:
1:Atomic Spectra and Wavelength Standards (excluding primary standards): W.C. Martin
2:Atomic Transition Probabilities: W.L Wiese
3:Collision Processes: A. Dalgarno
4:Line Broadening: N. Feautrier
5:Molecular Structure and Transition Data: W.H. Parkinson