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A set of points in d-dimensional Euclidean space is almost equidistant if, among any three points of the set, some two are at distance 1. We show that an almost-equidistant set in ℝd has cardinality O(d4/3).
We studied the pattern of personality development in a longitudinal population-based sample of 752 American adolescents. Personality was assessed reliably with the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory at 12, 14, and 16 years of age. The rank-order stability of Junior Temperament and Character Inventory traits from age 12 to 16 was moderate (r = .35). Hierarchical linear modeling of between-group variance due to gender and within-group variance due to age indicated that harm avoidance and persistence decreased whereas self-directedness and cooperativeness increased from age 12 to 16. Novelty seeking, reward dependence, and self-transcendence increased from age 12 to 14 and then decreased. This biphasic pattern suggests that prior to age 14 teens became more emancipated from adult authorities while identifying more with the emergent norms of their peers, and after age 14 their created identity was internalized. Girls were more self-directed and cooperative than boys and maintained this advantage from age 12 to 16. Dependability of temperament at age 16 was mainly predicted by the same traits at earlier ages. In contrast, maturity of character at age 16 was predicted by both temperament and character at earlier ages. We conclude that character develops rapidly in adolescence to self-regulate temperament in accord with personally valued goals shaped by peers.
We report the discovery in the Greenland ice sheet of a discrete layer of free nanodiamonds (NDs) in very high abundances, implying most likely either an unprecedented influx of extraterrestrial (ET) material or a cosmic impact event that occurred after the last glacial episode. From that layer, we extracted n-diamonds and hexagonal diamonds (lonsdaleite), an accepted ET impact indicator, at abundances of up to about 5×106 times background levels in adjacent younger and older ice. The NDs in the concentrated layer are rounded, suggesting they most likely formed during a cosmic impact through some process similar to carbon-vapor deposition or high-explosive detonation. This morphology has not been reported previously in cosmic material, but has been observed in terrestrial impact material. This is the first highly enriched, discrete layer of NDs observed in glacial ice anywhere, and its presence indicates that ice caps are important archives of ET events of varying magnitudes. Using a preliminary ice chronology based on oxygen isotopes and dust stratigraphy, the ND-rich layer appears to be coeval with ND abundance peaks reported at numerous North American sites in a sedimentary layer, the Younger Dryas boundary layer (YDB), dating to 12.9 ± 0.1 ka. However, more investigation is needed to confirm this association.
Thanks to their point-like structure and to their lack of significant proper motion, quasars represent the ideal objects for modeling quasi-inertial directions in space. For that reason the present primary conventional reference frame, the ICRF-2, is constructed from the set of the celestial coordinates of a sample of extragalactic objects, whose the very large majority are quasars. Thus any newly discovered quasar must be considered as a potential future ideal astrometric marker. Therefore compiling all the recorded quasars at a given epoch looks as a useful task. This constitutes the aim of the LQAC (Large Quasar Astrometric Catalogue). We present here the contents of the future release of this catalogue quoted as the LQAC-4, insisting on the related strategy of compilation. Preliminary results concerning the cross-identification with the Gaia DR1 catalogue are emphasized
The metrological qualities render the modified CCD solar astrolabe a very reliable instrument for the difficult conditions of solar diameter measurements. At O.N. an average value of 959”.04 ± 0”.01 is found, for λ = 563.5nm, and an effective bandpass of 168nm. To improve the signal to noise ratio, the images are treated for flat field. This includes distortions brought about by the COHU 4710 camera, the astrolabe optics, and by the system of filters that cut down the incoming solar light. The extensive series observed (over 12000 independent measures) is examined, using a CLEAN periodogram algorithm. The outcome shows periods reconcilable with the solar activity and geometry of observation.
A scalable approach for synthesis of ultra-thin (<10 nm) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) films on stretchable polymeric materials is presented. Specifically, magnetron sputtering from pure TMD targets, such as MoS2 and WS2, was used for growth of amorphous precursor films at room temperature on polydimethylsiloxane substrates. Stacks of different TMD films were grown upon each other and integrated with optically transparent insulating layers such as boron nitride. These precursor films were subsequently laser annealed to form high quality, few-layer crystalline TMDs. This combination of sputtering and laser annealing is commercially scalable and lends itself well to patterning. Analysis by Raman spectroscopy, scanning probe, optical, and transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm our assertions and illustrate annealing mechanisms. Electrical properties of simple devices built on flexible substrates are correlated to annealing processes. This new approach is a significant step toward commercial-scale stretchable 2D heterostructured nanoelectronic devices.
Currently the improvement of stand-alone PV power systems characteristics, including increase of their service life is the actual direction of ground solar power development. The analysis of stand-alone PV power systems efficiency with the use of ultra capacitors is carried out by the means of mathematical modeling. The obtained data shows that the use of ultra capacitors as additional short-term energy storage devices in stand-alone PV power systems contributes to considerable increase of storage batteries lifetime and the total system operating time.
Estimation of survival rates is important for developing and evaluating conservation options for large carnivores. However, telemetry studies for large carnivores are often characterized by small sample sizes that limit meaningful conclusions. We used data from 10 published and 8 unpublished studies of leopards Panthera pardus in southern Africa to estimate survival rates and investigate causes of leopard mortality. Mean survival rates were significantly lower in non-protected (0.55 ± SE 0.08) compared to protected areas (0.88 ± 0.03). Inside protected areas juveniles had significantly lower survival (0.39 ± 0.10) compared to subadults (0.86 ± 0.07) and adults (0.88 ± 0.04). There was a greater difference in cause of death between protected and non-protected areas for females compared to males, with people being the dominant cause of mortality outside protected areas for both females and males. We suggest there is cause for concern regarding the sustainability of leopard populations in South Africa, as high female mortality may have severe demographic effects and a large proportion of suitable leopard habitat lies in non-protected areas. However, because a large proportion of deaths outside protected areas were attributed to deliberate killing by people, we suggest that management interventions may have the potential to increase leopard survival dramatically. We therefore stress the urgency to initiate actions, such as conflict mitigation programmes, to increase leopard survival in non-protected areas.
Melting gels are silica-based hybrid gels with the curious behavior that they are rigid at room temperature, but soften around 110°C. A typical melting gel is prepared by mixing methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) and dimethyldiethoxysilane (DMDES). MTES has one methyl group substituted for an ethoxy, and DMDES has two substitutions. The methyl groups do not hydrolyze, which limits the network-forming capability of the precursors. To gain insight into the molecular structure of the melting gels, differential scanning calorimetry and oscillatory rheometry studies were performed on melting gels before consolidation. According to oscillatory rheometry, at room temperature, the gels behave as viscous fluids, with a viscous modulus, G″(t,ω0) that is larger than the elastic modulus, G′(t,ω0). As the temperature is decreased, gels continue to behave as viscous fluids, with both moduli increasing with decreasing temperature. At some point, the moduli cross over, and this temperature is recorded as the glass transition temperature Tg. The Tg values obtained from both methods are in excellent agreement. The Tg decreases from -0.3oC to -56oC with an increase in the amount of di-substituted siloxane (DMDES) from 30 to 50 mole %. A decrease of the Tg follows an increase of the number of hydrolytically stable groups, meaning a decrease in the number of oxygen bridges between siloxane chains.
Propagation of nonlinear baroclinic Kelvin waves in a rotating column of uniformly
stratified fluid under the Boussinesq approximation is investigated. The model is
constrained by the Kelvin’s conjecture saying that the velocity component normal to the
interface between rotating fluid and surrounding medium (e.g. a seashore) is possibly zero
everywhere in the domain of fluid motion, not only at the boundary. Three classes of
distinctly different exact solutions for the nonlinear model are obtained. The obtained
solutions are associated with symmetries of the Boussinesq model. It is shown that one
class of the obtained solutions can be visualized as rotating whirlpools along which the
pressure deviation from the mean state is zero, is positive inside and negative outside of
the whirlpools. The angular velocity is zero at the center of the whirlpools and it is
monotonically increasing function of radius of the whirlpools.
Rangea is the type genus of the Rangeomorpha, an extinct clade near the base of the evolutionary tree of large, complex organisms which prospered during the late Neoproterozoic. It represents an iconic Ediacaran taxon, but the relatively few specimens previously known significantly hindered an accurate reconstruction. Discovery of more than 100 specimens of Rangea in two gutter casts recovered from Farm Aar in southern Namibia significantly expands this data set, and the well preserved internal and external features on these specimens permit new interpretations of Rangea morphology and lifestyle. Internal structures of Rangea consist of a hexaradial axial bulb that passes into an axial stalk extending the length of the fossil. The axial bulb is typically filled with sediment, which becomes increasingly loosely packed and porous distally, with the end of the stalk typically preserved as an empty, cylindrical cone. This length of the axial structure forms the structural foundation for six vanes arranged radially around the axis, with each vane consisting of a bilaminar sheet composed of a repetitive pattern of elements exhibiting at least three orders of self-similar branching. Rangea was probably an epibenthic frond that rested upright on the sea bottom, and all known fossil specimens were transported prior to their final burial in storm deposits.
We describe the growth of high quality AlN and GaN on Si(111) by gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE) with ammonia (NH3). The initial nucleation (at 1130-1190K) of an AlN monolayer with full substrate coverage resulted in a very rapid transition to two-dimensional (2D) growth mode of AlN. The rapid transition to the 2D growth mode of AlN is essential for the subsequent growth of high quality GaN, and complete elimination of cracking in thick ( > 2 μm) GaN layers. We show, using Raman scattering (RS) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements, that the tensile stress in the GaN is due to thermal expansion mismatch, is below the ultimate strength of breaking of GaN, and produces a sizable shift in the bandgap. We show that the GSMBE AlN and GaN layers grown on Si can be used as a substrate for subsequent deposition of thick AlN and GaN layers by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE).
Recent advances in the processing of complex-oxide materials has allowed us to monolithically grow ferroelectrics of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) and barium strontium titanate (BST) systems on a GaN/sapphire structure. High quality films of PLZT and BST were grown on GaN/c-Al2O3 in a thickness range of 0.3-5 [.proportional]m by a solgel technique. Field-induced birefringence, as large as 0.02, was measured from a PLZT layer grown on a buffered GaN/sapphire structure. UV illumination was found to result in more symmetrical electrooptic hysteresis loop. BST films on GaN demonstrated a low frequency dielectric constant of up to 800 with leakage current density as low as 5.5.10−8 A/cm2.
We report on AlN wafers fabricated by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). AlN thick layers were grown on Si substrates by HVPE. Growth rate was up to 60 microns per hour. After the growth of AlN layers, initial substrates were removed resulting in free-standing AlN wafers. The maximum thickness of AlN layer was about 1 mm. AlN free-standing single crystal wafers with a thickness ranging from 0.05 to 0.8 mm were studied by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, optical absorption, and cathodoluminescence.
Recent research on global climate changes points to three distinct sources of climate disturbance: anthropogenic; natural changes in the oceans and atmosphere; and irregularities in the solar cycles. One of the most direct ways to survey an exogenous component of the climatic variability is through the measurement of variations in the diameter and shape of the solar disk. At Observatório Nacional/MCTI, Rio de Janeiro, after several years of diameter observation using a CCD Solar Astrolabe, these measurements are now performed by a state-of-the-art Solar Heliometer. The heliometric method is one of the most successful techniques to measure small variations of angles. Its principle has been used for the latest space borne astrometric missions, aiming to milli-arcsecond precision. The success of this method relies in the fact that it minimizes the dependence of angular measurements to the thermal and mechanical stability of the instrument. However in the classic heliometer the objective is split into two halves to which is applied a linear displacement along the cut, thus still leaving room for a residual dependence with the focus, due to non-concentricity of the beams of the two images. The focus variation, as well as the effects brought by the large temperature variations during solar observations, was tackled in the Solar Heliometer by having all optical elements and their niches made on CCZ, and the telescope tube on carbon fiber, both materials of negligible thermal coefficient. Additionally, the measures are made perpendicular to the separation direction and the plate scale can be known at every time from the solar motion itself. We present the results from the first year of measurements, in special exploring the upheaval of solar activity on late 2011.
We report on the parsec program, which observed 140 L and T dwarfs on a regular basis from 2007 to 2011, using the WIFI camera on the ESO/2.2 m telescope. Trigonometric parallaxes at 5 mas precision are derived for 49 objects, and mas yr−1-level proper motions are derived for approximately 200,000 objects in the same fields. We discuss image cleaning, object centroiding, and astrometric methods, in particular three different approaches for trigonometric parallax determination.
The dark current-voltage characteristics of PIN structures are studied and analyzed for PV samples as for integral device without taking account the performance of the different elements typically used in equivalent circuit model such as diode n-factor, shunt and series resistances. The contribution of all these elements is very important in the development of devices because they determine the performance characteristics. In this work we have studied and compared the temperature dependence of current-voltage characteristics in μc-Si:H and pm-Si:H p-i-n structures having approximately the same efficiencies with emphasis on their different electronic characteristics such as shunt (Rsh) and series (Rs) resistance, ideality factor (n), and the saturation current (Is), which give us some ideas on role of these elements. In the pm-Si:H cell it was observed that the Rs increases with the increase of the temperature in contrast to the μc-Si:H structures, where the series resistance reduces with temperature change from T = 300 up to 480K. In both the pm-Si:H and μc-Si:H samples Rshreduces with temperature change from 300 up to 480 K. The ideality factor in the pm-Si:H structure shows an increase, and in μc-Si:H a reduction, when temperature increases. Saturation current in both cases increases with temperature as it was expected. From the saturation current it was obtained the build-in potential. Analysis behavior of both saturation current and n-factor with temperature shows that build-in potential increases with temperature in the pm-Si:H, but reduces in μc-Si:H structure.
We report our main results on the development of un-cooled microbolometers based on hydrogenated amorphous Germanium-Silicon (a-GexSiy:H) thermo-sensing films deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD). Our research has been conducted to improve both, the structure of the devices (pixels) and the performance characteristics of the amorphous Germanium-Silicon thermosensing films.
Our motivation is to produce microbolometers with much better performance characteristics (larger thermal coefficient of resistance, larger conductivity and better stability) than those available in commercial microbolometer arrays, based on boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H,B).
As part of our latest research, we also report the study of what we believe is the next generation of thermosensing films based on Silicon and Geranium amorphous films with embedded nanocrystals in the amorphous matrix (polymorphous films). Those materials have several advantages over amorphous, as a lower defect density, better stability and better transport properties.