To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Significant investment in new capacities for experimental research at high temperatures and pressures have provided new levels of understanding about the physical properties of carbon in fluids and melts, including its viscosity, electrical conductivity, and density. This chapter reviews the physical properties of carbon-bearing melts and fluids at high temperatures and pressures and highlights remaining unknowns left to be explored. The chapter also reviews how the remote sensing of the inaccessible parts of the Earth via various geophysical techniques – seismic shear wave velocity, attenuation, and electromagnetic signals of mantle depths – can be reconciled with the potential presence of carbon-bearing melts or fluids.
This chapter reviews the geochemical and geophysical constraints on the carbon budget in the metallic core of Earth, discusses whether carbon is a dominant light element in the core, and assesses whether the core hosts the largest reservoir of carbon on Earth.
We model the future evolution of the largest glacier of the European Alps – Great Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland – during the 21st century. For that purpose we use a detailed three-dimensional model, which combines full Stokes ice dynamics and surface mass balance forced with the most recent climate projections (CH2018), as well as with climate data of the last decades. As a result, all CH2018 climate scenarios yield a major glacier retreat: Results range from a loss of 60% of today's ice volume by 2100 for a moderate CO2 emission scenario (RCP2.6) being in line with the Paris agreement to an almost complete wastage of the ice for the most extreme emission scenario (RCP8.5). Our model results also provide evidence that half of the mass loss is already committed under the climate conditions of the last decade.
Ventricular pseudoaneurysm is a rare but well-known complication after valvular endocarditis. The lesion was localised exactly where pre-operative CT scan showed lack of enhancement in the postero-lateral wall of the left ventricle. This case demonstrates how much attention must be paid to myocardial CT images and emphazises the need of close follow-up in patients with infective endocartitis.
Inclusion of additional dimensions to population projections can lead to an improvement in the overall quality of the projections and to an enhanced analytical potential of derived projections such as literacy skills and labor force participation. This paper describes the modeling of educational attainment of a microsimulation projection model of the European Union countries. Using ordered logistic regressions on five waves of the European Social Survey, we estimate the impact of mother's education and other sociocultural characteristics on educational attainment and implement them into the microsimulation model. Results of the different projection scenarios are contrasted to understand how the education of the mother and sociocultural variables may affect projection outcomes. We show that a change in the impact of mother's education on children's educational attainment may have a big effect on future trends. Moreover, the proposed approach yields more consistent population projection outputs for specific subpopulations.
Before Ṯābit b. Qurra's translation, there was a first Arabic version of Nicomachus’ Introduction to arithmetic. Full of mistakes, it was revised by an anonymous student of al-Kindī. Thanks to the part that Freudenthal and Levy have edited and translated, we are now able to identify this reviser as Aḥmad b. al-Ṭayyib al-Saraḫsī, who we also identified as the author of the Rasā᾿il Iḫwān al-Ṣafā᾿. The comparison of the gloss written by this reviser with a new fragment of Saraḫsī on one part, and with the “ Epistles of the Brethren in Purity ” on the other, corroborate Saraḫsī’s authorship of the epistles. Furthermore, studying the misunderstandings on Nicomachus’ text in this kindianised version gives a new light on al-Kindī’s attempt to unify philosophy and on the specific ontology of the Brethren in Purity.
Accurate real-time simulations and forecasting of phase-revolved ocean surface waves require nonlinear effects, both geometrical and kinematic, to be accurately represented. For this purpose, wave models based on a Lagrangian steepness expansion have proved particularly efficient, as compared to those based on Eulerian expansions, as they feature higher-order nonlinearities at a reduced numerical cost. However, while they can accurately model the instantaneous nonlinear wave shape, Lagrangian models developed to date cannot accurately predict the time evolution of even simple periodic waves. Here, we propose a novel and simple method to perform a Lagrangian expansion of surface waves to second order in wave steepness, based on the dynamical system relating particle locations and the Eulerian velocity field. We show that a simple redefinition of reference particles allows us to correct the time evolution of surface waves, through a modified nonlinear dispersion relationship. The resulting expressions of free surface particle locations can then be made numerically efficient by only retaining the most significant contributions to second-order terms, i.e. Stokes drift and mean vertical level. This results in a hybrid model, referred to as the ‘improved choppy wave model’ (ICWM) (with respect to Nouguier et al.’s J. Geophys. Res., vol. 114, 2009, p. C09012), whose performance is numerically assessed for long-crested waves, both periodic and irregular. To do so, ICWM results are compared to those of models based on a high-order spectral method and classical second-order Lagrangian expansions. For irregular waves, two generic types of narrow- and broad-banded wave spectra are considered, for which ICWM is shown to significantly improve wave forecast accuracy as compared to other Lagrangian models; hence, ICWM is well suited to providing accurate and efficient short-term ocean wave forecast (e.g. over a few peak periods). This aspect will be the object of future work.
Systematic literature reviews (SRs) are a way of synthesising scientific evidence to answer a particular research question in a way that is transparent and reproducible, while seeking to include all published evidence on the topic and appraising the quality of this evidence. SRs have become a major methodology in disciplines such as public policy research and health sciences. Some have advocated that design research should adopt the method. However, little guidance is available. This paper provides an overview of the SR method, based on the literature in health sciences. Then, the rationale for SRs in design research is explored, and four recent examples of SRs in design research are analysed to illustrate current practice. Foreseen challenges in taking forward the SR method in design research are highlighted, and directions for developing a SR method for design research are proposed. It is concluded that SRs hold potential for design research and could help us in addressing some important issues, but work is needed to define what review methods are appropriate for each type of research question in design research, and to adapt guidance to our own needs and specificities.
Current healthcare delivery challenges are multi-faceted, requiring multiple perspectives to be addressed using a systems approach. However, a significant amount of healthcare systems design research work is carried out within single disciplines or at best a few disciplines working together. There appears to be little deliberate attempt to draw together a wide range of disciplines committed to working together to overcome differences and tackle some of the complex challenges in healthcare delivery. In this paper, we report on the initial outcomes of such an international initiative that, in the form of a workshop held at the University of Cambridge, brought together researchers and practitioners from a wide range of disciplines to explore the foundations of a community for Healthcare Systems Design Research and Practice.
This paper explores the question of the design activity at the shop floor level. The design activity has been confined for a large part in the design and the methods office. However, a certain form of design adapted to the factory remains. It is necessary to solve the problems which appear during the manufacturing process and to improve the productivity. However another form of design can emerge; it has a stronger impact on the factory, since the rules of the manufacturing system are modified under its effect. The paper studies 21 cases of design in the Airbus factory at Saint-Nazaire. It shows that the design activity does exist at the shop floor level. It characterizes this activity distinguishing two types of design which can co-exist in a factory. It shows that the type of results reached is not the same according to the type of design implemented.
Most research on mortality in people with severe psychiatric disorders has focused on natural causes of death. Little is known about trauma-related mortality, although bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have been associated with increased risk of self-administered injury and road accidents.
To determine if 30-day in-patient mortality from traumatic injury was increased in people with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia compared with those without psychiatric disorders.
A French national 2016 database of 144 058 hospital admissions for trauma was explored. Patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia were selected and matched with mentally healthy controls in a 1:3 ratio according to age, gender, social deprivation and region of residence. We collected the following data: sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, trauma severity characteristics and trauma circumstances. Study outcome was 30-day in-patient mortality.
The study included 1059 people with bipolar disorder, 1575 people with schizophrenia and their respective controls (n = 3177 and n = 4725). The 30-day mortality was 5.7% in bipolar disorder, 5.1% in schizophrenia and 3.3 and 3.8% in the controls, respectively. Only bipolar disorder was associated with increased mortality in univariate analyses. This association remained significant after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbidities but not after adjustment for trauma severity. Self-administered injuries were associated with increased mortality independent of the presence of a psychiatric diagnosis.
Patients with bipolar disorder are at higher risk of 30-day mortality, probably through increased trauma severity. A self-administered injury is predictive of a poor survival prognosis regardless of psychiatric diagnosis.