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The Sustainable Development Report 2020 features the SDG Index and Dashboards, the first and widely used tool to assess country performance on the UN Agenda 2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals. The report shows that all countries need to strengthen the resilience of their health systems and prevention programs. Some countries have outperformed others in containing the Covid-19 pandemic, yet all remain at serious risk. The report frames the implementation of the SDGs in terms of six broad transformations. The authors examine country performance on the SDGs for 193 countries using a wide array of indicators, and calculate future trajectories, presenting a number of best practices to achieve the historic Agenda 2030. The views expressed in this report do not reflect the views of any organizations, agency or programme of the United Nations. This title is available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Detrital coesite-bearing garnet is the final product of a complex geological cycle including coesite entrapment at ultra-high-pressure conditions, exhumation to Earth’s surface, erosion and sedimentary transport. In contrast to the usual enrichment of high-grade metamorphic garnet in medium- to coarse-sand fractions, coesite-bearing grains are often enriched in the very-fine-sand fraction. To understand this imbalance, we analyse the role of source-rock lithology, inclusion size, inclusion frequency and fluid infiltration on the grain-size heterogeneity of coesite-bearing garnet based on a dataset of 2100 inclusion-bearing grains, of which 93 contain coesite, from the Saxonian Erzgebirge, Germany. By combining inclusion assemblages and garnet chemistry, we show that (1) mafic garnet contains a low number of coesite inclusions per grain and is enriched in the coarse fraction, and (2) felsic garnet contains variable amounts of coesite inclusions per grain, whereby coesite-poor grains are enriched in the coarse fraction and coesite-rich grains extensively disintegrated into smaller fragments resulting in an enrichment in the fine fraction. Raman images reveal that: small coesite inclusions of dimension < 9 µm are primarily monomineralic, whereas larger inclusions partially transformed to quartz; and garnet fracturing, fluid infiltration and the coesite-to-quartz transformation is a late process during exhumation taking place at c. 330°C. A model for the disintegration of coesite-bearing garnet enables the heterogeneous grain-size distribution to be explained by inclusion frequency. High abundances of coesite inclusions cause a high degree of fracturing and fracture connections to smaller inclusions, allowing fluid infiltration and the transformation to quartz, which in turn further promotes garnet disintegration.
The analysis of a forgotten source sheds light on the early history of the cello in seventeenth-century Naples. The manuscript MS 2-D-13, held in the library of the Montecassino Abbey, dates from around 1699 and contains two unknown cello sonatas by Giovanni Bononcini, together with passacaglias, sonatas for two ‘violas’ and elaborations over antiphons by Gaetano Francone and Rocco Greco, two prominent string performers and teachers in Naples. A study of this remarkable source helps to clarify the nomenclature of the bass violins in use in the city and offers new evidence on the practice of continuo realization at the cello, as well as on the connections with partimento practice. This collection is thus of critical importance for a discussion of the technical achievements and developments of the cello repertory in Naples before the emergence of the celebrated generation of Neapolitan cello virtuosi in the early years of the eighteenth century.
We prove the Erdős–Sós conjecture for trees with bounded maximum degree and large dense host graphs. As a corollary, we obtain an upper bound on the multicolour Ramsey number of large trees whose maximum degree is bounded by a constant.
A few years ago, extreme environments were defined as having one or more environmental parameters showing values permanently or periodically close to the limits known for life in its various forms; only specialised organisms are able to cope with such extreme environments. Such environments can be considered as end-members of a continuum of environmental conditions that constitute limits for life as we know it. Extreme environments have been identified in marine and terrestrial biomes across the globe (deep sea, hydrothermal vents, continental margins, polar regions, hot springs, high altitude and glaciers, hot arid regions and deserts, acidic and alkaline environments, continental and seafloor subsurfaces, intertidal coastal areas, hypersaline environments, atmosphere). Outer space is also an extreme environment, comprising planetary bodies, space vessels and space itself.
Arctic regions are inhabited by cold-adapted stenothermal or eurythermal species. Unlike in the Antarctic, eurythermal species predominate, because of opportunities for migrations to temperate latitudes. In the Antarctic sea, the modern chondrichthyan genera are scarcely represented. In contrast, in the Arctic, sharks and skates are present with about 8% of the species
In 2007, a report from the European Science Foundation on Investigating Life in Extreme Environments defined extreme environments as ‘having one or more environmental parameters showing values permanently close to lower or upper limits known for life in its various forms’ (CAREX, 2011).
From deep ocean trenches and the geographical poles to outer space, organisms can be found living in remarkably extreme conditions. This book provides a captivating account of these systems and their extraordinary inhabitants, 'extremophiles'. A diverse, multidisciplinary group of experts discuss responses and adaptations to change; biodiversity, bioenergetic processes, and biotic and abiotic interactions; polar environments; and life and habitability, including searching for biosignatures in the extraterrestrial environment. The editors emphasize that understanding these systems is important for increasing our knowledge and utilizing their potential, but this remains an understudied area. Given the threat to these environments and their biota caused by climate change and human impact, this timely book also addresses the urgency to document these systems. It will help graduate students and researchers in conservation, marine biology, evolutionary biology, environmental change and astrobiology better understand how life exists in these environments and their susceptibility or resilience to change.
Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCDs) are the main cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Demographic aging has resulted in older populations with more complex healthcare needs. This necessitates a multilevel rethinking of healthcare policies, health education and community support systems with digitalization of technologies playing a central role. The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Aging (A3) working group focuses on well-being for older adults, with an emphasis on quality of life and healthy aging. A subgroup of A3, including multidisciplinary stakeholders in health care across Europe, focuses on the palliative care (PC) model as a paradigm to be modified to meet the needs of older persons with NCCDs. This development paper delineates the key parameters we identified as critical in creating a public health model of PC directed to the needs of persons with NCCDs. This paradigm shift should affect horizontal components of public health models. Furthermore, our model includes vertical components often neglected, such as nutrition, resilience, well-being and leisure activities. The main enablers identified are information and communication technologies, education and training programs, communities of compassion, twinning activities, promoting research and increasing awareness amongst policymakers. We also identified key ‘bottlenecks’: inequity of access, insufficient research, inadequate development of advance care planning and a lack of co-creation of relevant technologies and shared decision-making. Rethinking PC within a public health context must focus on developing policies, training and technologies to enhance person-centered quality life for those with NCCD, while ensuring that they and those important to them experience death with dignity.
In this paper, we complement joint time-series and cross-section convergence results derived in a companion paper Hahn, Kuersteiner, and Mazzocco (2016, Central Limit Theory for Combined Cross-Section and
Time Series) by allowing for serial correlation in the time-series sample. The implications of our analysis are limiting distributions that have a well-known form of long-run variances for the time-series limit. We obtain these results at the cost of imposing strict stationarity for the time-series model and conditional independence between the time-series and cross-section samples. Our results can be applied to estimators that combine time-series and cross-section data in the presence of aggregate uncertainty in models with rationally forward-looking agents.
Chapter 9 includes some insights and observations from the Hon. Prof. Calabresi on the major elements of the Maimonidean theory, especially those that are similar – more or less – to contemporary tort law and economics. Calabresi discusses law, economics, and justice in our era and in Maimonides’ theory of torts, and empirical differences in the different times and their implications. Calabresi also considers the question of whether there are differences between the differential liability model presented by Maimonides, and contemporary theories of the economic analysis of tort law, expanding on deontological as opposed to utilitarian considerations according to law and economics. Calabresi deals specifically with the issue of punitive damages and discusses the innovative analysis of Maimonides compared to the multiplier approach, distributive justice as presented by Maimonides, and his optimal deterrence model. There is a great deal in Maimonides that presaged both his work in particular and sophisticated modern law and economics generally. Calabresi notes that not only can we now understand Maimonides, and the breadth of his thinking better, but we also have a clearer picture of the strengths and weaknesses of modern scholarship.