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Increased fat and carbohydrate intakes based on the Western diet are important lifestyle modifications that lead to hypercaloric inputs, obesity, and male fertility negative effects. Epigenetic transmission may also predispose descended generations to chronic diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, behavioral, and reproductive disorders. The present study sought to evaluate the influence of a high-fat-high-sugar (HFHS) diet supplied to Wistar rats from 25 to 90 days of life on reproductive and metabolic parameters in male generations F0, F1, and F2. The standard group received the normocaloric – Nuvilab Quimtia® –3.86 kcal/kg. The hypercaloric diet (HD) group received the HFHS diet – PragSoluções® –4.77 kcal/kg. Body weight, adiposity, F1 and F2 prepubertal age evaluations, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, organ weights, sperm count and morphology assessments, and histometric testicular analyses were performed. The HFHS diet promoted dyslipidemia, higher adiposity, lower relative organ weights, and higher mean kidney weight, decreased mean testicle and parenchyma weights and lower height of seminiferous epithelium (HE) for the F0 generation. F1 and F2 offspring of HD group displayed early preprepubertal development, although did not alter the metabolic parameters. Decreased HE and tubular testicular compartment volumetric density and increased intertubular testicular compartment volumetric density and volume in the F1 generation of HD group were observed. Alterations in histometry of intertubular testicular compartment were also noted. It is concluded that the HFHS experimental model altered only paternal metabolic parameters. However, reproductive parameters of the three generations were affected.
This work presents the synthesis and characterization of a pearylated polysiloxane material (PAP) from a polycondensation reaction, followed by functionalization with HClSO3 by an electrophilic substitution reaction. According to the characterization techniques applied, a sulfonated pearylated polysiloxane was also obtained, (SPAP). The purpose of this sulfonated material is to obtain an ionomer able to be applied in hydrogen fuel cells of the proton exchange membrane kind (PEMFC). The reaction to produce the polysiloxane precursor was carried out with the commercial reagents: PhSiCl3, Ph2SiCl2 and Ph3SiCl in anhydrous THF at 75 °C and the SPAP material was obtained by sulfonation of the precursor with chlorosulfonic acid. PAP and SPAP were characterized by 1H, NMR for liquids, 29Si NMR for solids, IR-ATR, SEM, and cyclic voltammetry. The NMR 29Si spectra show that PAP and PAPS contain crosslinking regions due to PhSiCl3, growing chain zones due to Ph2SiCl2 and polymer termination zones due to Ph3SiCl, obtaining a mixture of siloxanes. The analysis by cyclic voltammetry indicates that by integrating the area under the curve of the adsorption peaks of H2, a value of 0.062 mC/cm2 is obtained, a value close to the commercial ionomer of Nafion®.
Historically, it is known that women had an important role in computing. History lessons on computer science narrate that women were some of the first software engineers until technology and practices changed the role of women as programmers.
Quantifying the abundance of species is essential for their management and conservation. Much effort has been invested in surveys of freshwater dolphins in the Amazon basin but river dimensions and complex logistics limit replication of such studies across the region. We evaluated the effectiveness of using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveying two Amazon dolphin species, the tucuxi Sotalia fluviatilis and pink river dolphin Inia geoffrensis, in tropical rivers. In 2016 we conducted drone and visual surveys over 80 km of the Juruá River in Brazil. The aerial surveys provided higher accuracy than human observers in counting individuals detected in groups. Compared to estimates derived from visual surveys, the use of UAVs could provide a more feasible, economical and accurate estimate of Amazon river dolphin populations. The method could potentially be replicated in other important areas for the conservation of these species, to generate an improved index of river dolphin populations in the Amazon.
Pseudo-α or near-α titanium alloys are being widely used in the power generation industry due to their stability at high temperature service, good mechanical characteristics and corrosion resistance. Particularly Ti-6% Al-1.5% V-1.0Mo-0.5% Zr-0.1% C alloy is mainly used in turbines components, heat exchangers and pipes for steam conduction, among others; these are subjected to critical conditions of temperature, abrasion and corrosive environments. A good performance of such devices depends on the chemistry and of the material processing story.
Effects on microstructure and wear resistance with the addition of Ru and small variation of V and Mo amounts in the Ti-6% Al-1.5% V-1.0Mo-0.5% Zr-0.1% C alloy were analyzed. Three different alloys were melted in a vacuum induction furnace with a cooled copper skull under an argon protective atmosphere for this study
Four alloys were melted “Alloy 1” Ti-6% Al-1.5% V-1.0Mo-0.5% Zr-0.1% C-0.3% Ru, “Alloy 2” Ti-6%Al-0.5%V-1.6%Mo-0.5%Zr-0.1% C-0.3% Ru, “Alloy 3” Ti-6%Al-2.2%V-0.5%Mo-0.5%Zr-0.1%C-0.3%Ru. After melting, all alloys were homogenized at 1200°C for two hours, followed by hot rolling above β transition temperature with a reduction of 50% in thickness.
All alloys were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Vickers Micro hardness (HV). Results shown that Mo and V variations modified the micro hardness by microstructure refinement. In contrast, the addition of Ru showed no microstructure modification.
With the aim to elucidate gonococcal antimicrobial resistance (AMR)–risk factors, we undertook a retrospective analysis of the molecular epidemiology and AMR of 104 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from clinical samples (urethra, rectum, pharynx and cervix) of 94 individuals attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Madrid (Spain) from July to October 2016, and explored potential links with socio-demographic, behavioural and clinical factors of patients. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by E-tests, and isolates were characterised by N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing. Penicillin resistance was recorded for 15.4% of isolates, and most were susceptible to tetracycline, cefixime and azithromycin; a high incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance (~40%) was found. Isolates were grouped into 51 different sequence types (STs) and 10 genogroups (G), with G2400, ST5441, ST2318, ST12547 and G2992 being the most prevalent. A significant association (P = 0.015) was evident between HIV-positive MSM individuals and having a ciprofloxacin-resistant strain. Likewise, a strong association (P = 0.047) was found between patient age of MSM and carriage of isolates expressing decreased susceptibility to azithromycin. A decrease in the incidence of AMR gonococcal strains and a change in the strain populations previously reported from other parts of Spain were observed. Of note, the prevalent multi-drug resistant genogroup G1407 was represented by only three strains in our study, while the pan-susceptible clones such as ST5441, and ST2318, associated with extragenital body sites were the most prevalent.
Pregnant individuals who overeat are more likely to predispose their fetus to the development of metabolic disorders in adulthood. Physical training is a prevention and treatment interventional strategy that could treat these disorders, since it improves metabolism and body composition. This study assessed the protective effect of physical exercise against possible metabolic changes in generations F1 and F2, whose mothers were subjected to a high-sugar/high-fat (HS/HF) diet. Wistar rats belonging to generation F0 were distributed into four groups (n = 10): sedentary control (CSed), exercised control (CExe), sedentary HS/HF diet (DHSed) and exercised HS/HF diet (DHExe). From 21 to 120 days of age, maintained during pregnancy and lactation period, CSed/CExe animals received standard feed and DHSed/DHExe animals a HS/HF diet. Animals from the CExe/DHExe underwent physical training from 21 to 120 days of age. Male and female F1 and F2 received a normocaloric feed and did not perform any physical training, categorized into four groups (n = 10) according to the maternal group to which they belonged to. An increase in body weight, adiposity and glucose, and a change in lipid profile in F0 were observed, while exercise reduced the biochemical parameters comparing DHSed with DHExe. Maternal exercise had an effect on future generations, reducing adiposity, glucose and triglyceride concentrations, and preventing deleterious effects on glucose tolerance. Maternal overeating increased health risks both for mother and offspring, demonstrating that an HS/HF diet intake promotes metabolic alterations in the offspring. Importantly, the physical training performed by F0 proved to be protective against such effects.
The regulatory framework of the red octopus (Octopus maya) fishery includes total allowable catches (TAC), which are based on studies conducted on the population that occurs in shallow waters. In fact, most of the biological studies of this species refer to the fraction of the population that occupies waters less than 30 m deep; however, O. maya can occur up to a 60 m depth. The aim of this study is to assess the stock of O. maya that occupies waters between 30 m and 60 m deep. Four research cruises were carried out during the closed and fishing seasons, from May 2016 to January 2017. An average of 29 sampling sites were surveyed in each cruise (±2 sampling sites) using a commercial vessel with a uniform sampling effort. In each sampling site, the swept area, the total number of octopuses captured, the total weight of the catch, and the individual weight of octopuses were recorded. Biomass was obtained with four methods: stratified random method, swept area method, geostatistical biomass model, and an unpublished method of weighted swept area. The four methods provided consistent results. The distribution pattern of species was in patches, although before the fishing season started it was more homogeneous. The fraction of the population that occurs between 30 m and 60 m deep consisted mostly of adult organisms, so it could be contributing significantly to the recruitment of the entire population, even to the fraction that is exploited.
Overweight/obesity has become a worldwide epidemic, and factors such as a sedentary lifestyle and inadequate eating habits directly contribute to the development of this condition. Studies indicate that rapid weight gain at critical development stages, such as the lactation period, is associated with the development of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes in the long term. In addition to metabolic changes during adulthood, overweight/obesity may influence reproductive function of the population. In this context, the present study aimed to evaluate postnatal overfeeding effects on male and female Wistar rat reproductive parameters. Postnatal overfeeding was induced by applying the litter reduction method for both sexes. Forty animals were used, divided into four groups: two with normal litters (NL♂ and NL♀) and two with small litters (SL♂ and SL♀). The males were euthanized at 90 days of age, on the same date the females were mated. Females were also euthanized after the 20-day gestation. Metabolic and reproductive variables were analyzed. Regarding males, SL animals showed increased body weight, adiposity, and decreased relative weight of the seminal vesicle, prostate, and epididymis as well as changes in the ITT and OGTT glycemic tests. Concerning females, SL animals presented increased body weight, relative perigonadal fat weight, glucose intolerance as well as modify the vaginal opening and increased weight of female pup. The litter reduction method was efficient in leading to metabolic and reproductive alterations in male and female Wistar rat.
Ground-dwelling ants are active foragers that may extend their foraging area into the vegetation, although the factors affecting their diversity in the suspended litter of understorey plants remain overlooked. To evaluate the influence of the distance between strata, litter biomass and plant size on the ant fauna, the litter ant assemblage of the suspended stratum was compared with the ground immediately below the understorey treelet Erythrochiton brasiliensis (Rutaceae) in an Atlantic Forest, south-eastern Brazil. We collected 1364 ants from 26 ant species. The suspended litter ant assemblage represented a subset of the ground-dwelling ants present in soil litter. The beta diversity results primarily from the high ant species turnover among individual suspended-litter samples, and among ground-litter samples, while species turnover among suspended-ground pairs is lower. Additionally, plant height was not important in determining the species turnover between strata. However, plant height positively correlated with ant species richness, probably because of the increased number of microhabitats. These results suggest that suspended litter in the forest understorey can provide the conditions for ground-dwelling ants to forage and nest, functioning as a vertical extension of resources and microhabitat conditions present in the ground litter.