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Inter-professional education (IPE) can support professionals in developing their ability to work collaboratively. This position paper from the European Forum for Primary Care considers the design and implementation of IPE within primary care. This paper is based on workshops and is an evidence review of good practice. Enablers of IPE programmes are involving patients in the design and delivery, providing a holistic focus, focussing on practical actions, deploying multi-modal learning formats and activities, including more than two professions, evaluating formative and summative aspects, and encouraging team-based working. Guidance for the successful implementation of IPE is set out with examples from qualifying and continuing professional development programmes.
The characterisation of proteome and peptidome of adolescent mothers’ breast milk brings important information to both mother’s and infant’s health; however, it has not been investigated. Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins have numerous functions. The bioactivity of breast milk peptides includes anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities and regulation of gastrointestinal function. We aimed to characterise the proteome and peptidome of mature breast milk of adolescent mothers and investigate whether it is affected by lactational period. We used a combination of electrophoretic and nano-scale LC-quadrupole time-of-flight MS/MS (nLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) techniques and bioinformatics to explore the proteome of human skimmed milk expressed by lactating adolescents in two groups according to postpartum period (up to 3 and over 5 weeks postpartum). This is the first study that analysed the proteome of adolescent mothers’ breast milk produced during two periods of lactation using 1D-electrophoresis combined with nLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis. Our results showed that the protein composition of adolescent milk varies independently of lactation stage and showed high inter-individual variation. A total of 424 proteins were identified in skimmed milk, of which 137 proteins were common to both groups. Most of the peptides found in adolescents’ breast milk were not derived from major proteins in milk. Association maps showed several interactions between groups of peptides that pointed to the relevance of breast milk peptides to neonatal defensive system.
The dietary inclusion of feed additives to improve the carcass characteristics of the final product is of great importance for the pork production chain. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the association of ractopamine (RAC) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance traits of finishing pigs during the last 26 days prior to slaughter. In total, 810 commercial hybrid barrows were used. Animals were distributed among treatments according to a randomised block design in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement, with three RAC levels (0, 5 or 10 ppm) and three CLA levels (0, 0.3 or 0.6%). Pigs fed the diet with 5 ppm RAC had higher average daily feed intake (ADFI) (2.83 kg; P < 0.05) when compared with those fed 10 ppm RAC and the control diet (2.75 and 2.74 kg, respectively). Lower ADFI values (P < 0.01) were observed with the diets containing CLA compared with the control diet with no CLA (2.73 and 2.75 v. 2.85 kg/day, respectively). The average daily weight gain of pigs fed 5 and 10 ppm RAC was +148 and +173 g/dayhigher (P < 0.001), respectively, than those fed the control diet. Dietary RAC levels influenced (P < 0.001) feed conversion ratio (FCR), which was reduced as RAC levels increased, with the pigs fed 10, 5 and 0 ppm RAC presenting FCR values of 2.57, 2.71 and 3.05, respectively. FCR also improved (P < 0.05) with the inclusion of 0.6% CLA relative to the control diet (2.70 v. 2.84, respectively). There was a significant interaction between CLA × RAC levels (P < 0.01) for final BW, loin eye area (LEA) (P < 0.05) and backfat thickness (BT) (P < 0.05). The treatments containing 10 ppm RAC + 0.6% or 0.3% CLA increased LEA and reduced BT. In conclusion, the level of 10 ppm inclusion of RAC increased the overall performance parameters of pigs and therefore improved production efficiency. The combined use of RAC and CLA promoted a lower feed conversion ratio as well as better quantitative carcass traits, as demonstrated by the higher LEA and lower BT. The dietary inclusion of CLA at 0.3% improved feed efficiency, however, without affecting LEA or BT yields.
This paper proposes a framework to assess the influence of Offshore Wind Farms (OWFs) on maritime traffic flow based on raw Automatic Identification System (AIS) data collected before and after the installation of the offshore wind turbines. The framework includes modules for data acquisition, data filtering and statistical analysis. The statistical analysis characterises the influence of an OWF on maritime traffic in terms of minimum passing distances and lateral distribution of the ship trajectories near the OWF. The framework is applied to a specific route for which AIS data is available before and after an OWF installation. The impacts of the OWF on marine traffic are diverse and depend on the ship type categories. This paper quantitatively characterises an OWF's influence on a specific route that is probabilistically modelled, which is important for further studies on OWF site selection and maritime traffic risk assessment and management.
This project considered the deposition history of a burned structure located on the Kalispel Tribe of Indians ancestral lands at the Flying Goose site in northeastern Washington. Excavation of the structure revealed stratified deposits that do not conform to established Columbia Plateau architectural types. The small size, location, and absence of artifacts lead us to hypothesize that this site was once a non-domestic structure. We tested this hypothesis with paleoethnobotanical, bulk geoarchaeological, thin section, and experimental firing data to deduce the structural remains and the post-occupation sequence. The structure burned at a relatively low temperature, was buried soon afterward with imported rubified sediment, and was exposed to seasonal river inundation. Subsequently, a second fire consumed a unique assemblage of plant remains. Drawing on recent approaches to structured deposition and historic processes, we incorporate ethnography to argue that this structure was a menstrual lodge. These structures are common in ethnographic descriptions, although no menstrual lodges have been positively identified in the archaeological record of the North American Pacific Northwest. This interpretation is important to understanding the development and time depth of gendered practices of Interior Northwest groups.
The use of concrete-recycled aggregates to produce high-performance concrete is limited by insufficient correlation between resulting microstructure and its influence on mechanical performance reproducibility. This work addresses this issue in a sequential approach: concrete microstructure was systematically analyzed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and results were correlated with concrete compressive strength and water absorption ability. The influence of replacing natural aggregates (NA) with recycled concrete aggregates (RCA), with different source concrete strength levels, of silica fume (SF) addition and of mixing procedure was tested. The results show that the developed microstructure depends on the concrete composition and is conditioned by the distinct nature of NA, recycled aggregates from high-strength source concrete, and recycled aggregates from low-strength source concrete. SF was only effective at concrete densification when a two-stage mixing approach was used. The highest achieved strength in concrete with 100% incorporation of RCA was 97.3 MPa, comparable to that of conventional high-strength concrete with NA. This shows that incorporation of significant amounts of RCA replacing NA in concrete is not only a realistic approach to current environmental goals, but also a viable route for the production of high-performance concrete.
Este artigo apresenta um processo de ocupação de grupos construtores de cerritos no sítio arqueológico Pontal da Barra, localizado no estuário da Laguna dos Patos, sul do Brasil. Ocupado entre 2500 e 1800 anos aP como área de acampamentos e, posteriormente, entre 1800 e 1200 anos aP como área de ocupação permanente, o Pontal da Barra foi abandonado por volta de 1000 anos aP. Esse processo é evidenciado arqueologicamente pela complexificação de estruturas arquitetônicas monticulares e suas áreas adjacentes, pelo manejo de sedimento interno nos montículos, além dos aspectos multifuncionais e monumentais dos aterros. Como parte de um território regional, o banhado do Pontal da Barra se tornou um espaço significativo no domínio espacial dos grupos cerriteiros. O sítio foi sistematicamente ocupado ao longo de 1.500 anos, compondo uma comunidade de pescadores, agentes de uma história indígena de longa duração.
This study aimed to evaluate the longitudinal association of vitamin D status with glycaemia, insulin, homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, adiponectin and leptin. A prospective cohort with 181 healthy, pregnant Brazilian women was followed at the 5th–13th, 20th–26th and 30th–36th gestational weeks. In this cohort, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) plasma concentrations were analysed using liquid chromatography–tandem MS. Vitamin D status was categorised as sufficient or insufficient using the Endocrine Society Practice Guidelines (≥75/<75 nmol/l) and the Institute of Medicine (≥50/<50 nmol/l) thresholds. Linear mixed-effect regression models were employed to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and each outcome, considering interaction terms between vitamin D status and gestational age (P<0·1). At baseline, 70·7 % of pregnant women had 25(OH)D levels <75 nmol/l and 16 % had levels <50 nmol/l. Women with sufficient vitamin D status at baseline, using both thresholds, presented lower glycaemia than those with insufficient 25(OH)D. Pregnant women with 25(OH)D concentrations <75 nmol/l showed lower insulin (β=−0·12; 95 % CI −0·251, 0·009; P=0·069) and adiponectin (β=−0·070; 95 % CI −0·150, 0·010; P=0·085) concentrations throughout pregnancy than those with 25(OH)D levels ≥75 nmol/l. Pregnant women with 25(OH)D <50 nmol/l at baseline presented significantly higher leptin concentrations than those with 25(OH)D levels ≥50 nmol/l (β=−0·253; 95 % CI −0·044, 0·550; P=0·095). The baseline status of vitamin D influences the biomarkers involved in glucose metabolism. Vitamin D-sufficient women at baseline had higher increases in insulin and adiponectin changes throughout gestation than those who were insufficient.
The insecticide chlorantraniliprole is recommended for integrated pest management programmes of caterpillar (Lepidoptera) pest species. This insecticide is considered harmless to parasitoids, but its selectivity may vary with the species of natural enemy, few of which were subjected to testing. Furthermore, in addition to the active ingredient, formulation adjuvants may improve insecticide efficiency, but also its impact on nontargeted organisms. Here the chlorantraniliprole effect and its interaction with adjuvant on the survival and qualitative parameters of progeny of the nontarget parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Delvare and LaSalle) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were studied. The treatments used were: chrolantraniliprole (T1), chlorantraniliprole+surfactant (T2), and deionised water (T3, control). Pupae of Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were subjected to these treatments for 24 hours and offered to the adult parasitoids. Chlorantraniliprole and chlorantraniliprole+surfactant did not elicit direct toxicity to female parasitoids. However, chlorantraniliprole and its combination with surfactant reduced the head capsule width of the female progeny. This insecticide alone also reduced emergence and the progeny metatibia length. Chlorantraniliprole did not induce mortality of P. elaeisis adults, but its negative impact on the emergence and progeny size of this parasitoid suggests an important sublethal effect to be considered.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential use of titanium foil coated with sputtered silver and copper films as a novel brazing filler for joining TiAl alloys. For this purpose, a detailed microstructural characterization of the resulting brazing interfaces was carried out. The development of brazing fillers that allow the joining of TiAl alloys without compromising the service temperature is a fruitful prospect. Brazing experiments were performed in a vacuum at 900, 950, and 980°C, with a dwell time of 30 min. Microstructural characterization reveals that brazing joints can be obtained successfully at 950 and 980°C. The interface consists of a large central region of α-Ti with an amount of Al and Ti–Ag compound and thin layers, mainly composed of intermetallic compounds, formed close to the base material. A novel brazing filler consisting of Ti foil coated with sputtered Ag and Cu films inhibits the extensive formation of soft (Ag) zones or coarse brittle Ti–Al–(Cu,Ni) particles. Hence, the need for post-brazing heat treatments for the joining of TiAl alloys was avoided.
Carcass data were collected from 24 kids (average live weight of 12.5±5.5 kg; range 4.5 to 22.4 kg) of Jarmelista Portuguese native breed, to evaluate bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) as a technique for prediction of light kid carcass and muscle chemical composition. Resistance (Rs, Ω) and reactance (Xc, Ω), were measured in the cold carcasses with a single frequency bioelectrical impedance analyzer and, together with impedance (Z, Ω), two electrical volume measurements (VolA and VolB, cm2/Ω), carcass cold weight (CCW), carcass compactness and several carcass linear measurements were fitted as independent variables to predict carcass composition by stepwise regression analysis. The amount of variation explained by VolA and VolB only reached a significant level (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) for muscle weight, moisture, protein and fat-free soft tissue content, even so with low accuracy, with VolA providing the best results (0.326⩽R2⩽0.366). Quite differently, individual BIA parameters (Rs, Xc and Z) explained a very large amount of variation in dissectible carcass fat weight (0.814⩽R2⩽0.862; P<0.01). These individual BIA parameters also explained a large amount of variation in subcutaneous and intermuscular fat weights (respectively 0.749⩽R2⩽0.793 and 0.718⩽R2⩽0.760; P<0.01), and in muscle chemical fat weight (0.663⩽R2⩽0.684; P<0.01). Still significant but much lower was the variation in muscle, moisture, protein and fat-free soft tissue weights (0.344⩽R2⩽0.393; P<0.01) explained by BIA parameters. Still, the best models for estimation of muscle, moisture, protein and fat-free soft tissue weights included Rs in addition to CCW, and accounted for 97.1% to 99.8% (P<0.01) of the variation observed, with CCW by itself accounting for 97.0% to 99.6% (P<0.01) of that variation. Resistance was the only independent variable selected for the best model predicting subcutaneous fat weight. It was also selected for the best models predicting carcass fat weight (combined with carcass length, CL; R2=0.943; P<0.01) and intermuscular fat weight (combined with CCW; R2=0.945; P<0.01). The best model predicting muscle chemical fat weight combined CCW and Z, explaining 85.6% (P<0.01) of the variation observed. These results indicate BIA as a useful tool for prediction of light kids’ carcass composition.
The identification, characterization, and mapping of large areas of stabilized eolian features along the tropical northeastern Brazilian coast enabled recognition of the existence of one of the largest Quaternary dune fields (16,000 km2) in South America. This paleodune system is observed inland of the Lençóis Maranhenses transgressive dune field (2.5°S, 43°W) and comprises deflation plains, stabilized parabolic dunes, and barchanoid chains developed under the action of northeast (NE) trade winds. Optically stimulated luminescence ages coupled with geomorphological analysis were used to constrain the time of dune field stabilization. Ages of stabilization of parabolic dunes and barchanoid chains throughout this paleodune system range between 19 to 14 ka showing heterogeneous dune stabilization by vegetation growth during a 5 ka time interval. Dune field stabilization is related to a decrease in NE trade wind strength and increase in precipitation as a consequence of the southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone during the Heinrich stadial 1 event (18–15 ka), which resulted in a lower eolian drift potential, less sand input by alongshore transport, and low sediment availability to eolian transport, due to an increase in moisture to support vegetation growth and rising relative sea level.
This work represents the first contribution for the application of the video image analysis (VIA) technology in predicting lean meat and fat composition in the equine species. Images of left sides of the carcass (n=42) were captured from the dorsal, lateral and medial views using a high-resolution digital camera. A total of 41 measurements (angles, lengths, widths and areas) were obtained by VIA. The variation of percentage of lean meat obtained from the forequarter (FQ) and hindquarter (HQ) carcass ranged between 5.86% and 7.83%. However, the percentage of fat (FAT) obtained from the FQ and HQ carcass presented a higher variation (CV between 41.34% and 44.58%). By combining different measurements and using prediction models with cold carcass weight (CCW) and VIA measurement the coefficient of determination (k-fold-R2) were 0.458 and 0.532 for FQ and HQ, respectively. On the other hand, employing the most comprehensive model (CCW plus all VIA measurements), the k-fold-R2 increased from 0.494 to 0.887 and 0.513 to 0.878 with respect to the simplest model (only with CCW), while precision increased with the reduction in the root mean square error (2.958 to 0.947 and 1.841 to 0.787) for the hindquarter fat and lean percentage, respectively. With CCW plus VIA measurements is possible to explain the wholesale value cuts yield variation (k-fold-R2 between 0.533 and 0.889). Overall, the VIA technology performed in the present study could be considered as an accurate method to assess the horse carcass composition which could have a role in breeding programmes and research studies to assist in the development of a value-based marketing system for horse carcass.
The present study investigated the differences in patterns of social information processing (SIP) among adolescents with two trajectories of offending: group 1 (G1) composed of adolescents with a trajectory of major persistent offenses, which includes illegal acts considered violent; group 2 (G2) composed of individuals with a trajectory of minor persistent offenses, in which there is no escalation of the gravity of the offenses; and a comparison group (G3) with adolescents without involvement in offenses. SIP is one of the theoretical models most widely evoked to study and explain violent behavior in children/adolescents, in regarding the psychological processes that underlie behavior, specifically the cognitive nature. The participants answered a self-report delinquency interview and a SIP measure protocol. The results showed differences between the groups of offenders (G1 and G2) and the comparison group (G3) on the SIP pattern related to the competent responses. G1 and G2 revealed a SIP pattern poorly associated with socially competent behavior. However, G1 presented an SIP pattern more associated with the emission of aggressive behaviors. This pattern, although also present in G2, is more evident for those adolescents who reported committing crimes with the use of violence against people.
Leishmaniasis are diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania and transmitted to humans by the bite of infected insects of the subfamily Phlebotominae. Current drug therapy shows high toxicity and severe adverse effects. Recently, two oligopeptidases (OPBs) were identified in Leishmania amazonensis, namely oligopeptidase B (OPB) and oligopeptidase B2 (OPB2). These OPBs could be ideal targets, since both enzymes are expressed in all parasite lifecycle and were not identified in human. This work aimed to identify possible dual inhibitors of OPB and OPB2 from L. amazonensis. The three-dimensional structures of both enzymes were built by comparative modelling and used to perform a virtual screening of ZINC database by DOCK Blaster server. It is the first time that OPB models from L. amazonensis are used to virtual screening approach. Four hundred compounds were identified as possible inhibitors to each enzyme. The top scored compounds were submitted to refinement by AutoDock program. The best results suggest that compounds interact with important residues, as Tyr490, Glu612 and Arg655 (OPB numbers). The identified compounds showed better results than antipain and drugs currently used against leishmaniasis when ADMET in silico were performed. These compounds could be explored in order to find dual inhibitors of OPB and OPB2 from L. amazonensis.
Analysing the stability and adaptation of cultivars to different environments is always necessary before recommending them for planting on large areas. Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) models have been used to analyse genotype-by-environment interactions (G × E). AMMI models require data with homogeneous variance, normal errors and additive effects. However, agronomic data do not always conform to these statistical assumptions. The objective of the present study was to analyse G × E interactions for severity and incidence of grey leaf spot, a foliar disease in maize caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis, using a generalized AMMI model. Data were collected and evaluated for 36 maize cultivars from experiments carried out in nine Brazilian regions in 2010/11 by the Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA – Milho e Sorgo). Only two of three stable genotypes defined by a quasi-likelihood model with a logistic link function could be recommended for their desirable agronomic characteristics. Four growing locations in which the genotypes were stable were identified, but in only one of these was stability associated with very severe grey leaf spot disease. Cultivars adapted to specific locations with low percentage disease severity were also identified.
Archeological records attest the early association of Sitophilus with stored cereals from the beginning of agriculture on Asia. The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) became particularly damaging to maize, a cereal crop domesticated on Mesoamerica. We investigated the late evolutionary history of the maize weevil to gain insights on its origin, timing of association with maize, and genealogical relationship to the almost morphologically indistinguishable rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae). Two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome oxidase subunit II) and the nuclear ribosomal gene region were partially sequenced. Analyses showed that the maize weevil shared no haplotypes with the rice weevil; instead, each species exhibited distinct mitogroups and ribogroups. The two weevil species likely split about 8.7 million years ago (95% highest posterior density: 4.0–15.0). Microsatellite data analyses sorted the 309 specimens from 15 populations of the maize weevil into three genotypic groups, which displayed low genetic differentiation and widespread occurrence worldwide. The maize weevil and the rice weevil are each a distinct species; both of which emerged prior to the onset of agriculture. The maize–maize weevil association took place after maize became widespread as a global crop. The maize weevil populations lack spatial genetic structure at the regional, continental, and intercontinental scales.