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What makes a good language teacher? This up-to-date, practical book addresses that question from a 'human' perspective, recognising that teachers are not just machines, but have feelings, needs and identities of their own. As the twenty-two topics of the chapters in this volume clearly indicate, language teachers are complex individuals, who are expected to have a range of personal qualities, to be able to satisfy the needs of their students and to have the knowledge and skills to provide instruction in a range of language areas. Not only that, but all of these requirements are constantly changing. The authors present new insights from the real teaching environment that will be an invaluable help to language teachers at all stages of professional development.
A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.
This work established the feasibility of flexible solution-processed radiation sensors prepared from an organic scintillator (1-phenyl-3-mesityl-2-pyrazoline) and a biocompatible semiconducting polymer (violanthrone-79). Absorbance, steady-state, and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements demonstrated a high efficiency for the transfer of absorbed energy from the scintillator to the semiconductor. Blended nanoparticles containing both materials were fabricated in order to reduce the intermolecular distance between molecules, creating a highly efficient energy transfer pathway. Radiation-sensing devices were then constructed from the materials. These exhibited successful sensitivity for gamma radiation from a 137Cs source that was not present for the control semiconducting polymer alone.
The decontamination of hazardous chemical agents from porous media is an important and critical part of the clean-up operation following a chemical weapon attack. Decontamination is often achieved through the application of a cleanser, which reacts on contact with an agent to neutralise it. While it is relatively straightforward to write down a model that describes the interplay of the agent and cleanser on the scale of the pores in the porous medium, it is computationally expensive to solve such a model over realistic spill sizes.
In this paper, we consider the homogenisation of a pore-scale model for the interplay between agent and cleanser, with the aim of generating simplified models that can be solved more easily on the spill scale but accurately capture the microscale structure and chemical activity. We consider two situations: one in which the agent completely fills local porespaces and one in which it does not. In the case when the agent does not completely fill the porespace, we use established homogenisation techniques to systematically derive a reaction–diffusion model for the macroscale concentration of cleanser. However, in the case where the agent completely fills the porespace, the homogenisation procedure is more in-depth and involves a two-timescale approach coupled with a spatial boundary layer. The resulting homogenised model closely resembles the microscale model with the effect of the porous material being incorporated into the parameters. The two models cater for two different spill scenarios and provide the foundation for further study of reactive decontamination.
Reliably estimating population parameters for highly secretive or rare animals is challenging. We report on the status of the two largest remaining populations of the Critically Endangered Bermuda skink Plestiodon longirostris, using a robust design capture–mark–recapture analysis. Skinks were tagged with passive integrated transponders on two islands and captured on 15 sampling occasions per year over 3 years. The models provided precise estimates of abundance, capture and survival probabilities and temporary emigration. We estimated skink abundance to be 547 ± SE 63.5 on Southampton Island and 277 ± SE 28.4 on Castle Island. The populations do not appear to be stable and fluctuated at both sites over the 3-year period. Although the populations on these two islands appear viable, the Bermuda skink faces population fluctuations and remains threatened by increasing anthropogenic activities, invasive species and habitat loss. We recommend these two populations for continued monitoring and conservation efforts.
In this large population study, we set out to examine the profile of mild behavioral impairment (MBI) by using the Mild Behavioral Impairment Checklist (MBI-C) and to explore its factor structure when employed as a self-reported and informant-rated tool.
A total of 5,742 participant-informant dyads participated in the study.
Both participants and informants completed the MBI-C. The factor structure of the MBI-C was evaluated by exploratory factor analysis.
The most common MBI-C items, as rated by self-reported and informants, related to affective dysregulation (mood/anxiety symptoms), being present in 34% and 38% of the sample, respectively. The least common items were those relating to abnormal thoughts and perception (psychotic symptoms) (present in 3% and 6% of the sample, respectively). Only weak correlations were observed between self-reported and informant-reported MBI-C responses. Exploratory factor analysis for both sets of respondent answers indicated that a five-factor solution for the MBI-C was appropriate, reflecting the hypothesized structure of the MBI-C.
This is the largest and most detailed report on the frequency of MBI symptoms in a nondementia sample. The full spectrum of MBI symptoms was present in our sample, whether rated by self-reported or informant report. However, we show that the MBI-C performs differently in self-reported versus informant-reported situations, which may have important implications for the use of the questionnaire in clinic and research.
My main aim in this essay is to argue that “narrative capacity” is a genuine feature of our mental lives and a skill that enables us to become full-fledged morally responsible agents. I approach the issue from the standpoint of reasons-responsiveness. Reasons-responsiveness theories center on the idea that moral responsibility requires sufficient sensitivity to reasons. I argue that our capacity to understand and tell stories has an important role to play in this sensitivity. Without such skill we would be cut off from the full range of reasons to which moral agents need access and/or we would be deficient in the ability to weigh the reasons that we recognize. After arguing for the relevance of narrative skill, I argue that understanding the connection between reasons-sensitivity and narrative confers additional benefits. It illuminates important psychological structures (sometimes said to be missing from reasons-responsive accounts) and helps to explain some cases of diminished blame.
We piloted a pedagogical experiment to find out whether students can benefit from explicit demonstrations on critical thinking skills through live debates between two instructors on current political issues that are relevant to but not necessarily a specific part of the curriculum. The empirical results show that, through a series of interventions in the form of explicit demonstrations and debriefs on critical thinking skills in these issue-based live debates, students’ academic performance can significantly improve over a relatively short period of time. Training students’ critical skills through explicit, engaging pedagogy is not only economical in practical and pragmatic terms but also has significant and immediate short-term effects in a setting where there is a high proportion of first-generation undergraduate students of varying abilities and backgrounds.
We determined how pasture and grazing management practices affected the number of days hay was fed to cattle by season. Data were collected from a survey of Tennessee cattle producers. Days of cattle on hay varied across seasons because of variations in forage production and weather. The number of days hay was fed to cattle varied with pasture-animal management practices such as rotating pastures, forage mixtures, and weed management strategies. Having mixtures of cool- and warm-season grasses reduced the number of days on hay in the winter, spring, and summer months indicating benefits from diversified forages.
Gaming disorder is set to be included in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems alongside other behavioural addictions (gambling disorder) and substance-related addictions. Given the popularity of online gaming, this is set to become an increasingly common presentation to general mental health professionals, addiction specialists, and general practitioners. This article briefly examines online gaming and describes the characteristics of gaming disorder. Some features of online gaming that have addictive potential and similarities to other addictive behaviours such as gambling disorder are discussed. Finally, the article examines treatment options available for gaming disorder and treatment going forward from an Irish perspective.
Only one-third of patients with major depressive disorder achieve remission. One new and promising treatment, ketamine, may prove challenging to implement because of its abuse potential. Although clinicians' views have been sought, we need patients' views before large scale roll-out is considered.
To explore patients’ and carers' views to inform policy and practical decisions about the clinical use of ketamine.
We carried out a mixed-methods study using data from 44 participants in 21 focus groups in three sessions and an online survey with patients, carers and advocates during a consultation day. Focus groups explored participant's views about ketamine as a form of treatment and the best way for ketamine to be prescribed and monitored. The qualitative data were analysed by two patient–researchers using an exploratory framework analysis and was supplemented by a survey.
The ten themes generated were monitoring, information, effect on daily life, side-effects, recreational use, effectiveness, appropriate support, cost, stigma and therapy. Participants wanted better evidence on the safety of ketamine after long-term use and felt that monitoring was required. Collecting this information would provide evidence for ketamine's safe use and administration. There were, however, concerns about the misuse of this information. Practical issues of access were important: repeated travelling to clinics and a lack of sufficiently informed medical staff were key barriers.
Clinicians have some similar and some different views to those of patients, carers and advocates, which need to be considered in any future roll-out of ketamine.
Declaration of interest
R.M. has had UK National Institute for Health Research grant funding to study ketamine, is participating in trials of esketamine, runs a clinic that provides ketamine treatment, and has consulted for Johnson & Johnson and Eleusis.
The above article (Griffiths et al., 2019) published with an incorrect abstract.
The correct abstract is as follows:
Behaviours associated with agitation are common in people living with dementia. The Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) is a 29-item scale widely used to assess agitation completed by a proxy (family carer or staff member). However, proxy informants introduce possible reporting bias when blinding to the treatment arm is not possible, and potential accuracy issues due to irregular contact between the proxy and the person with dementia over the reporting period. An observational measure completed by a blinded researcher may address these issues, but no agitation measures with comparable items exist.
Development and validation of an observational version of the CMAI (CMAI-O), to assess its validity as an alternative or complementary measure of agitation.
Fifty care homes in England.
Residents (N = 726) with dementia.
Two observational measures (CMAI-O and PAS) were completed by an independent researcher. Measures of agitation, functional status, and neuropsychiatric symptoms were completed with staff proxies.
The CMAI-O showed adequate internal consistency (α = .61), criterion validity with the PAS (r = .79, p = < .001), incremental validity in predicting quality of life beyond the Functional Assessment Staging of Alzheimer’s disease (β = 1.83, p < .001 at baseline) and discriminant validity from the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Apathy subscale (r = .004, p = .902).
The CMAI-O is a promising research tool for independently measuring agitation in people with dementia in care homes. Its use alongside the CMAI could provide a more robust understanding of agitation amongst residents with dementia.
We develop a general model to describe a network of interconnected thin viscous sheets, or viscidas, which evolve under the action of surface tension. A junction between two viscidas is analysed by considering a single viscida containing a smoothed corner, where the centreline angle changes rapidly, and then considering the limit as the smoothing tends to zero. The analysis is generalized to derive a simple model for the behaviour at a junction between an arbitrary number of viscidas, which is then coupled to the governing equation for each viscida. We thus obtain a general theory, consisting of
partial differential equations and
algebraic conservation laws, for a system of
viscidas connected at
junctions. This approach provides a framework to understand the fabrication of microstructured optical fibres containing closely spaced holes separated by interconnected thin viscous struts. We show sample solutions for simple networks with
or 3. We also demonstrate that there is no uniquely defined junction model to describe interconnections between viscidas of different thicknesses.