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The experiments reported in this research paper aimed to determine the technological properties of indigenous Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from Lait caillé, a spontaneous fermented milk, from the perspective of starter culture development. Fermentations were conducted to determine the acidification patterns. The ropy character, growth in 0.04 g/ml NaCl and citrate metabolism were additionally tested. Furthermore, the rheological properties of samples from selected strains and the impact of cold storage were evaluated. Based on the rate of acidification, the indigenous strains were divided into 2 groups depending on their fermentation time, i.e. 10–13 h (fast acidifier), and up to 72 h (slow acidifier), respectively. The physiological tests suggested that most of these strains produced exopolysaccharides but none could ferment citrate. The flow properties of the samples inoculated by the fast acidifier strains showed a time-dependent shear thinning behaviour, while their viscoelastic properties corresponded structurally to those of weak gels. Cold storage decreased the viscosity and CFU counts for most of the indigenous strains tested. This study is a step towards the definition of starter cultures for African spontaneous fermented milks such as Lait caillé.
This chapter reads Cormac McCarthy’s fiction as a twentieth-century American variant of what may be called metaphysical inquiries by literary means. I argue that what is missing in the current scholarship is a proper reexamination of the resonance between McCarthy’s fiction and the deeply philosophical traditions into which it taps. I critically approach such a reexamination, first, by showing how exemplary readings have connected nineteenth- and twentieth-century philosophy to McCarthy’s oeuvre, and, second, by proposing a recontextualization of the author’s work to the past 200 years of Western philosophical thought. I do so by presenting a new approach to the epilogue of Cities of the Plain (1998), informed by McCarthy’s recently published non-fictional essays on the origin of language, or what the writer calls “The Kekulé Problem” (2017). This approach ultimately inquires into McCarthy’s concept of nature and his notion of being human.
The spatial distribution of basal water critically impacts the evolution of ice sheets. Current estimates of basal water distribution beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) contain large uncertainties due to poorly constrained boundary conditions, primarily from geothermal heat flux (GHF). The existing GHF models often contradict each other and implementing them in numerical ice-sheet models cannot reproduce the measured temperatures at ice core locations. Here we utilize two datasets of radar-detected basal water in Greenland to constrain the GHF at regions with a thawed bed. Using the three-dimensional ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS, we iteratively adjust the GHF to find the minimum GHF required to reach the bed to the pressure melting point, GHFpmp, at locations of radar-detected basal water. We identify parts of the central-east, south and northwest Greenland with significantly high GHFpmp. Conversely, we find that the majority of low-elevation regions of west Greenland and parts of northeast have very low GHFpmp. We compare the estimated constraints with the available GHF models for Greenland and show that GHF models often do not honor the estimated constraints. Our results highlight the need for community effort to reconcile the discrepancies between radar data, GHF models, and ice core information.
As todays’ global market trends lead to an increasing demand for individualised products, manufacturers need to cope with a high degree of internal and external variety, which has a severe impact on complexity and therefore -costs. When implementing modular product architectures, it becomes obvious, that the actual Engineer-to-Order (ETO) processes cannot cope with the requirements of such a product architecture. It is crucial to develop a complying Configure-to-Order (CTO) process in order to make full use of its suppled benefits. As there is no existing approach about how to methodically change an existing ETO process into an adequate CTO process, we intend to fill this gap with this paper by showing an approach for the development of a CTO process for modular product architectures. Furthermore, we show the application and evaluation of this approach in a case study with a special equipment manufacturer (SME), that is already implementing modular architectures.
We use the full-Stokes model Elmer/Ice to investigate the present dynamics of Bowdoin Glacier, a marine-terminating outlet glacier in northwestern Greenland. Short-term speed variations of the glacier were observed, correlating with air temperature and precipitation, and with the semi-diurnal ocean tides. We use a control inverse method to determine the distribution of basal friction. This reveals that most of the glacier area is characterized by near-plug-flow conditions, while some sticky spots are also identified. We then conduct experiments to test the sensitivity of the glacier flow to basal lubrication and tidal forcing at the calving front. Reduction of the basal drag by 10–40% produces speed-ups that agree approximately with the observed range of speed-ups that result from warm weather and precipitation events. In agreement with the observations, tidal forcing and surface speed near the calving front are found to be in anti-phase (high tide corresponds to low speed, and vice versa). However, the amplitude of the semi-diurnal variability is underpredicted by a factor ~ 3, which is likely related to either inaccuracies in the surface and bedrock topographies or mechanical weakening due to crevassing.
Management journals publish research that can be divided into many fields and originate from many theories, but in one regard all are similar: the presentation of data according to professional conventions. The presentation of empirical findings expresses broad agreement across theories, fields of study, and researcher background, an agreement that is upheld by doctoral training and by scholars learning presentation conventions through reading journal articles. The agreement is most easily uncovered by examining empirical papers in other fields of study, which quickly yields two conclusions. First, the fields are different from the management field; second, many of them have greater internal diversity in evidence presentation than management does. In particular, empirical articles outside management use more graphical displays to show the data in addition to showing model estimates, and have a great variety of graphing techniques.
Patients with psychiatric conditions are often referred for a brain scan during the course of their diagnostic workup.
The aim of our study is to determine frequency and type of organic brain pathology, the relationship to age, gender and psychiatric diagnosis.
We investigated magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography brain scans from consecutively referred patients over a 10-year period (January 2002-December 2011). The reasons for referral, estimated psychiatric diagnosis, and the pathology discovered for each patient were registered.
A total of 34% of patients demonstrated organic brain pathology, of which 32.8% were considered clinically relevant. This represents a higher frequency of relevant pathology than reported in healthy subjects. Age (P < 0.001) and diagnosis (P = 0.016) were the most important determinants for frequency of pathological findings.
Brain imaging in clinical psychiatry resulted in approximately 30% positive findings mainly associated with increasing pathologies with age, but also with diagnosis.
Declaration of interest
Both T.O.D. and M.K.B. have received honorary from Novartis for scientific lectures about multiple sclerosis. M.K.B. also received honoraria from Biogen for scientific lectures. The other authors have no conflicts of interest.
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder associated with disrupted connectivity within the thalamic-cortico-cerebellar network. Resting-state functional connectivity studies have reported thalamic hypoconnectivity with the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex as well as thalamic hyperconnectivity with sensory cortical regions in SZ patients compared with healthy comparison participants (HCs). However, fundamental questions remain regarding the clinical significance of these connectivity abnormalities.
Resting state seed-based functional connectivity was used to investigate thalamus to whole brain connectivity using multi-site data including 183 SZ patients and 178 matched HCs. Statistical significance was based on a voxel-level FWE-corrected height threshold of p < 0.001. The relationships between positive and negative symptoms of SZ and regions of the brain demonstrating group differences in thalamic connectivity were examined.
HC and SZ participants both demonstrated widespread positive connectivity between the thalamus and cortical regions. Compared with HCs, SZ patients had reduced thalamic connectivity with bilateral cerebellum and anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, SZ patients had greater thalamic connectivity with multiple sensory-motor regions, including bilateral pre- and post-central gyrus, middle/inferior occipital gyrus, and middle/superior temporal gyrus. Thalamus to middle temporal gyrus connectivity was positively correlated with hallucinations and delusions, while thalamus to cerebellar connectivity was negatively correlated with delusions and bizarre behavior.
Thalamic hyperconnectivity with sensory regions and hypoconnectivity with cerebellar regions in combination with their relationship to clinical features of SZ suggest that thalamic dysconnectivity may be a core neurobiological feature of SZ that underpins positive symptoms.
Psychotic symptoms are common in children and adolescents and may be early manifestations of liability to severe mental illness (SMI), including schizophrenia. SMI and psychotic symptoms are associated with impairment in executive functions. However, previous studies have not differentiated between ‘cold’ and ‘hot’ executive functions. We hypothesized that the propensity for psychotic symptoms is specifically associated with impairment in ‘hot’ executive functions, such as decision-making in the context of uncertain rewards and losses.
In a cohort of 156 youth (mean age 12.5, range 7–24 years) enriched for familial risk of SMI, we measured cold and hot executive functions with the spatial working memory (SWM) task (total errors) and the Cambridge Gambling Task (decision-making), respectively. We assessed psychotic symptoms using the semi-structured Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia interview, Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes, Funny Feelings, and Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument – Child and Youth version.
In total 69 (44.23%) youth reported psychotic symptoms on one or more assessments. Cold executive functioning, indexed with SWM errors, was not significantly related to psychotic symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85–2.17, p = 0.204). Poor hot executive functioning, indexed as decision-making score, was associated with psychotic symptoms after adjustment for age, sex and familial clustering (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.25–4.50, p = 0.008). The association between worse hot executive functions and psychotic symptoms remained significant in sensitivity analyses controlling for general cognitive ability and cold executive functions.
Impaired hot executive functions may be an indicator of risk and a target for pre-emptive early interventions in youth.
Misconduct, malfeasance, and corruption are all terms that describe behaviors that are against common norms and in many cases also illegal. Misconduct can be defined as “behavior in or by an organization that a social control agent judges to transgress a line separating right from wrong” (Greve, Palmer, and Pozner 2010: 56). The definition includes a social control agent, an actor with a mandate to label actions as misconduct and punish them. Accordingly, societal reactions against organizations that engage in misconduct are expected from the state and possibly also from other actors such as exchange partners, professional organizations, individual consumers, or workers. This expectation is so strong that one might wonder whether analysis of misconduct punishment is too obvious to even pursue. Are any surprises possible? In fact, research so far has uncovered a few surprises that suggest a strong need to examine the phenomenon further. First, the extent of punishment varies widely and includes cases of non-punishment. Second, the actors who do the punishment vary and include actors who should be indifferent as they are not harmed by the wrongdoing. Third, the range of organizations that get punished is broad and, as a result of stigmatization, includes organizations that did not engage in the original misconduct. Because punishment can be unrelated to misconduct, we often use the term “punished organization” rather than wrongdoer.
These surprises will remain just that – surprises – until we reach a richer understanding of the consequences of misconduct based on theory and evidence. We are some distance away from this goal, and so the aim of this chapter is not to provide answers, but instead to give a map of the task ahead and a description of the early evidence. For convenience, we divide the treatment into discussions of (1) why social control agents punish, (2) how social control agents punish, (3) who are punished by social control agents, and (4) how organizations react to punishments. These issues are interrelated but still best discussed separately. We focus on punishment by actors other than the state to avoid overlap with the criminal justice literature.
To understand the consequences of misconduct, four factors with obvious effects are the nature of the misconduct, the organization responsible for it, the actors observing and reacting to it, and the conditions of the environment of these actors.
We examine integrated luminosity relations between the IR continuum and the CO rotational ladder observed for local (ultra) luminous infra-red galaxies ((U)LIRGs, LIR ≥ 1011 M⊙) and normal star forming galaxies in the context of radiation pressure regulated star formation proposed by Andrews & Thompson (2011). This can account for the normalization and linear slopes of the luminosity relations (log LIR = α log L'CO + β) of both low- and high-J CO lines observed for normal galaxies. Super-linear slopes occur for galaxy samples with significantly different dense gas fractions. Local (U)LIRGs are observed to have sub-linear high-J (Jup > 6) slopes or, equivalently, increasing LCOhigh-J/LIR with LIR. In the extreme ISM conditions of local (U)LIRGs, the high-J CO lines no longer trace individual hot spots of star formation (which gave rise to the linear slopes for normal galaxies) but a more widespread warm and dense gas phase mechanically heated by powerful supernovae-driven turbulence and shocks.
C46 was a Commission of the Executive Committee of the IAU under Division XII (Union-Wide Activities), then after 2012 under Division C (Education, Outreach, and Heritage). It was the only commission dealing exclusively with astronomy education; a previous Commission 38 (Exchange of Astronomers), which allocated travel grants to astronomers who needed them, and a Working Group on the Worldwide Development of Astronomy, have been absorbed by Commission 46.
What is philosophy? How is it possible? This essay constitutes an attempt to contribute to a better understanding of what might be a good answer to either of these questions by reflecting on one particular characteristic of philosophy, specifically as it presents itself in the philosophical practice of Socrates, Plato and Wittgenstein. Throughout this essay, I conduct the systematic discussion of my topic in parallel lines with the historico-methodological comparison of my three main authors. First, I describe a certain neglected aspect of the Socratic method. Then, exploring the flipside of this aspect, I show that despite the fact that both Socrates and Wittgenstein understand their philosophical approaches as being essentially directed at the particular problems and modes of understanding that are unique to single individuals, they nevertheless aspire to philosophical understanding of the more ‘mundane’ kind that is directed at the world. Finally, interpreting parts of Plato's dialogues Phaedrus and Laches, I further develop my case for seeing the role of mutual understanding in philosophy as fundamentally twofold, being directed both at the individual and what they say (the word), and at things that are ‘external’ to this human relation at any particular moment of philosophical understanding (the world).
Cluster analysis is widely applied to identify dietary patterns. A new method based on Gaussian mixture models (GMM) seems to be more flexible compared with the commonly applied k-means and Ward’s method. In the present paper, these clustering approaches are compared to find the most appropriate one for clustering dietary data.
The clustering methods were applied to simulated data sets with different cluster structures to compare their performance knowing the true cluster membership of observations. Furthermore, the three methods were applied to FFQ data assessed in 1791 children participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants) Study to explore their performance in practice.
The GMM outperformed the other methods in the simulation study in 72 % up to 100 % of cases, depending on the simulated cluster structure. Comparing the computationally less complex k-means and Ward’s methods, the performance of k-means was better in 64–100 % of cases. Applied to real data, all methods identified three similar dietary patterns which may be roughly characterized as a ‘non-processed’ cluster with a high consumption of fruits, vegetables and wholemeal bread, a ‘balanced’ cluster with only slight preferences of single foods and a ‘junk food’ cluster.
The simulation study suggests that clustering via GMM should be preferred due to its higher flexibility regarding cluster volume, shape and orientation. The k-means seems to be a good alternative, being easier to use while giving similar results when applied to real data.
We estimate the sea-ice extent and basal melt of Antarctic ice shelves at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) using a coupled ice-shelf-sea-ice-ocean model. The shape of Antarctic ice shelves, ocean conditions and atmospheric surface conditions at the LGM are different from those in the present day; these are derived from an ice-shelf-ice-sheet model, a sea-ice-ocean model and a climate model for glacial simulations, respectively. The winter sea ice in the LGM is shown to extend up to ∼7° of latitude further equatorward than in the present day. For the LGM summer, the model shows extensive sea-ice cover in the Atlantic sector and little sea ice in the other sectors. These modelled sea-ice features are consistent with those reconstructed from sea-floor sedimentary records. Total basal melt of Antarctic ice shelves in the LGM was ∼2147 Gt a–1, which is much larger than the present-day value. More warm waters originating from Circumpolar Deep Water could be easily transported into ice-shelf cavities during the LGM because the full glacial grounding line extended to shelf break regions and ice shelves overhung continental slopes. This increased transport of warm water masses underneath an ice shelf and into their basal cavities led to the high basal melt of ice shelves in the LGM.
This essay analyzes blogs, sermons, videos, and published interviews to examine the religious rhetoric of Christian practitioners of mixed martial arts as well as pastors who promote or reference the sport in their sermons. In the tradition of muscular Christianity (the Bible-based manhood movement of the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries), these fighters and pastors argue that MMA teaches Christian virtues such as discipline and self-control. Linking a healthy physical body with a healthy mind and spirit, they suggest that athletes enact and embody Christian values and ideals of manliness. Some scholars (such as Tony Ladd and James Mathisen) have argued that modern incarnations of muscular Christianity preach a mere “folk theology”—that is, essentially a locker-room pep talk with a touch of Jesus thrown in. Drawing on the field of lived religion, however, I argue that practitioners of Christian MMA experience a close connection between the sport and their religious beliefs. Though the theology may take the language of the “folk,” certain values (discipline and self-sacrifice), theological positions (premillennialism, life as a struggle, Jesus as the focus of religion), and social agendas (addressing masculine aggression and religious and cultural effeminacy) characterize both turn-of-the-century muscular Christianity and Christian MMA today. Athletes strive to imitate Christ and embody Christian values—aided, perhaps, by the bodily practice of their sport. Their focus on Jesus at the expense of doctrine does not indicate a lack of theology. Rather, the image of a manly Christ who will not give up represents a strong, assertive, masculine ideal that fits clearly into an evangelical worldview.