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The study of nuclear weapons is dominated by a single theory - that of the nuclear revolution, or Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD). Although such theorists largely perceive nuclear competition as irrational and destined for eventual stalemate, the nuclear arms race between superpowers during the second half of the Cold War is a glaring anomaly that flies in the face of this logic. In this detailed historical account, Brendan Rittenhouse Green presents an alternate theoretical explanation for how the United States navigated nuclear stalemate during the Cold War. Motivated by the theoretical and empirical puzzles of the Cold War arms race, Green explores the technological, perceptual, and 'constitutional fitness' incentives that were the driving forces behind US nuclear competition. Green hypothesizes that states can gain peacetime benefits from effective nuclear competition, reducing the risk of crises, bolstering alliance cohesion, and more. He concludes that the lessons of the Cold War arms race remain relevant today: they will influence the coming era of great power competition and could potentially lead to an upsurge in future US government nuclear competition.
Newton's Principia is perhaps the second most famous work of mathematics, after Euclid's Elements. Originally published in 1687, it gave the first systematic account of the fundamental concepts of dynamics, as well as three beautiful derivations of Newton's law of gravitation from Kepler's laws of planetary motion. As a book of great insight and ingenuity, it has raised our understanding of the power of mathematics more than any other work. This heavily annotated translation of the third and final edition (1726) of the Principia will enable any reader with a good understanding of elementary mathematics to easily grasp the meaning of the text, either from the translation itself or from the notes, and to appreciate some of its significance. All forward references are given to illuminate the structure and unity of the whole, and to clarify the parts. The mathematical prerequisites for understanding Newton's arguments are given in a brief appendix.
Alice Dunbar Nelson’s early short stories about New Orleans’s downriver, working-class neighborhoods focus, in particular, on the way the men in this environment can suffer forms of alienation sufficiently extreme to constitute social death. In two of these stories, a literal death comes to highlight the ways the main characters are already, from the standpoint of social relations, dead, and as such highlight the problems faced by the working poor in the distinctive environment of the final years of the nineteenth century in New Orleans. These stories, however, gave Dunbar Nelson a means of escaping this world, as, soon after they were published, she left for New York and became a prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance.
Observations while attending several crime analysis meetings of a major city police department provide insight into questions of sources and importance of knowledge in policing. This observable knowledge is used by the police as they grapple with the ongoing complexities of public safety, in this case in an urban city.
At each meeting, two forms of knowledge framed discussions of crime and disorder problems. Framing as a sociological and communications theory relies on ideas associated with understanding how attitudes and behavior are shaped by the information or form of knowledge presented (Goffman, 1986; Scheufele & Iyengar, 2014).
Horseweed, also known as marestail, is a problematic weed for no-till soybean producers as it can emerge from late summer through the following spring. Over-wintering cover crops can reduce both the density and size of fall-emerged weeds such as horseweed and reduce further spring emergence, though typically they do not provide complete control. Cover crops may be integrated with additional spring herbicide applications to control emerged horseweed, and selective herbicides like 2,4-D may be used to target horseweed while maintaining small grain cover crop growth. However, cover crops may affect herbicide deposition which could reduce efficacy for weed control. The objective of this study was to determine how the amount and variability of 2,4-D ester spray solution deposition, measured with water-sensitive paper, was affected by a cereal rye cover crop and fall-applied saflufenacil. We also examined deposition at the soil surface relative to the cereal rye row position. In a year with greater cereal rye biomass accumulation, there was 44% less coverage and average deposit size was 45% smaller immediately adjacent to cereal rye rows compared to between rows and areas without cereal rye. Greater variability in these measurements was also noted in this position. Percent spray solution coverage was also 22% greater in plots that received saflufenacil in the fall, and deposits were 28% larger. In a year with less cover crop and winter weed biomass, no differences in spray deposition were observed. This suggests that horseweed plants, and other weeds immediately adjacent to cereal rye cover crop rows may be more likely to survive early spring herbicide applications.
One might not expect to find eleven immaculately painted plaster chicken heads in a museum of the history of science such as the Whipple Museum. The heads were made in the early 1930s and have been attributed to Reginald Punnett, Alfred Balfour Professor of Genetics at the University of Cambridge from 1912 to 1940. During his long career, Balfour conducted detailed breeding experiments with chickens, experiments that are themselves bound up with the invention for which he is best known today, the Punnett square, a tabular array still used in genetics to represent the outcome of a cross between two organisms. In this chapter, I investigate how both Punnett’s square and his chicken head models, qua visualisations, played different but related roles in the study and teaching of Mendelian genetics and heredity during this crucial period in the development of genetics in Britain. In so doing, I demonstrate that models and their uses in science are most clearly illuminated when their relations to and differences from other forms of visual media, including flat material such as the Punnett square, are made clear.
The first case of evolved protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibitor resistance was observed in 2001 in common waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer var. rudis (Sauer) Costea and Tardif]. This resistance in A. tuberculatus is most commonly conferred by deletion of the amino acid glycine at the 210th position (ΔGly-210) of the PPO enzyme (PPO2) encoded by PPX2. In a field in Kentucky in 2015, inadequate control of Amaranthus plants was observed following application of a PPO inhibitor. Morphological observations indicated that survivors included both A. tuberculatus and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson). Research was conducted to confirm species identities and resistance and then to determine whether resistance evolved independently in the two species or via hybridization. Results from a quantitative PCR assay based on the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer confirmed that both A. tuberculatus and A. palmeri coexisted in the field. The mutation conferring ΔGly-210 in PPO2 was identified in both species; phylogenetic analysis of a region of PPX2, however, indicated that the mutation evolved independently in the two species. Genotyping of greenhouse-grown plants that survived lactofen indicated that all A. tuberculatus survivors, but only a third of A. palmeri survivors, contained the ΔGly-210 mutation. Consequently, A. palmeri plants were evaluated for the presence of an arginine to glycine or methionine substitution at position 128 of PPO2 (Arg-128-Gly and Arg-128-Met). The Arg-128-Gly substitution was found to account for resistance that was not accounted for by the ΔGly-210 mutation in plants from the A. palmeri population. Results from this study provide a modern-day example of both parallel and convergent evolution occurring within a single field.
Oxidative stress is implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia, and the antioxidant defense system may be protective in this illness. We examined the major antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in prefrontal brain, and its correlates with clinical and demographic variables, in schizophrenia.
GSH levels were measured in the dorsolateral prefrontal region of 28 patients with chronic schizophrenia using a magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequence specifically adapted for GSH. We examined correlations of GSH levels with age, age at onset of illness, duration of illness, and clinical symptoms.
We found a negative correlation between GSH levels and age at onset (r=-.46, p=.015), and a trend-level positive relationship between GSH and duration of illness (r=.34, p=.076).
Our findings are consistent with a possible compensatory upregulation of the antioxidant defense system with longer duration of illness, and suggests the antioxidant defense system may play a role in schizophrenia.
In 1881 two women who were to become part of the history of Victorian feminism met: Constance Maynard (1849–1935), graduate of one of the first cohorts of women to enter Girton College and founder in 1882 of Westfield College for Women, and Bessie Rayner Parkes Belloc (1829–1925), friend of Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon and the “Langham Place” group of feminists, and former editor of the feminist English Women's Journal. In 1873 Maynard became the first woman in England to receive a degree in “moral sciences,” from Girton, and subsequently worked for six years as a headmistress and schoolmistress at two groundbreaking girls' schools, Cheltenham Ladies' College and the new St. Leonard's School in Scotland. When she met Belloc, she was living in London with her brother, taking art classes at the Slade School, and beginning discussions that would lead to the foundation of Westfield College, formed as an explicitly Evangelical-identified parallel to ecumenical Girton and also as the first college to prepare women for the examinations and degrees offered by the University of London.
Sintered nanoparticle structures are macroscopically brittle but quite robust if deposited on a flexible substrate. The effects of a polymer substrate on the stretchability of both brittle and ductile coatings and traces are well established. Systematic effects of substrate properties on the fatigue resistance of aerosol printed nano-Ag are slightly more complex. The present work is focused on the early stages of fatigue, where the resistance increases significantly but cracks are not yet visible. Overall, the fatigue behavior is seen to vary with the combination of substrate modulus and viscoelastic deformation properties. Comparing two common polyimides, the rate of damage was seen to increase faster with increasing amplitude on the less compliant one. Consistently with this increasing the minimum strain in the cycle led to a significantly stronger reduction in damage rates. However, the damage rate remained lower on the less compliant substrate at all amplitudes and strain ranges of practical concern.
Antibody-associated disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) are divided into two broad categories: classic paraneoplastic disorders and autoimmune disorders (i.e. autoimmune encephalitis) . Autoimmune encephalitis is associated with antibodies that bind to cell surface determinants of membrane-associated proteins on neuronal cells (neuronal surface antibody syndrome –NSAb), whereas paraneoplastic syndromes are associated with intracellular neuronal antigens. It can be challenging at times to differentiate between the two syndromes. Patients with NSAb usually present with an acute or subacute symptom onset, with short duration to nadir, and a very good response to immunotherapy . Table 18.1 summarizes some of the characteristics of each. In this chapter, we will focus on the diagnosis and management of autoimmune encephalitis (AE).
Acute confusional state (ACS) is very common in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Most often, it is one of the main reasons a neurology consult is requested in the surgical or medical ICU. Acute confusional states are often used interchangeably when describing metabolic encephalopathy, delirium, ICU psychosis, or septic encephalopathy. Encephalopathy is defined as a subacute global brain dysfunction that is gradual in onset with very broad clinical symptoms, whereas delirium is often described as an acute process. The list of potential causes (Table 32.1) of ACS could be summarized using “Vitamin E” as a mnemonic. In this chapter, we will only focus on management of delirium and toxic metabolic encephalopathy.
Critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) may exhibit signs and symptoms of primary or secondary neurological disorders. Factors such as altered mental status, agitation, pain, sedation, neuromuscular blockade, hypothermia, metabolic disturbances, intubation/mechanical ventilation, and surgical or traumatic lesions of the extremities may complicate the interpretation of the neurological assessment in the ICU. Nevertheless, neurological signs in the critically ill have been established as prognostic indicators and markers of severity. Subsequently, a proper neurological assessment of the critically ill patient remains a central aspect of care, diagnosis, and prognosis .
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
In order to pursue device applications of magnetoelectric Cr2O3, we have fabricated epitaxial Cr2O3 thin films on (001), (110) and (101) oriented Nb doped TiO2 by pulsed laser deposition. The Cr2O3 films with different thicknesses (0.3 1 ¦Ìm) showed extremely smooth surfaces with rms roughness ¡Ö 0.3 nm (for 10 X 10 ¦Ìm2) as measured by AFM for all 3 different orientations. The films display robust insulating properties at room temperature with leakage current density of 8.9 X 10-6 A/cm2 at 10 kV/cm for 300 nm thick films. In order to investigate exchange bias, we fabricated bilayer films of Cr2O3/Co with all 3 orientations. The magnetic properties of the films were measured using SQUID and the magnetic optical Kerr effect (MOKE). From the Cr2O3/Co film grown on a (110) oriented TiO2, we clearly observe exchange bias of ¡Ö 13 Oe with a coercive field of 115 Oe upon cooling from 320 K to 30 K in a 1 T magnetic field. The microstructural properties of the bilayers and the effect of electric field on the exchange bias behavior were investigated using TEM, VSM and MOKE. Comparison of exchange bias with BiFeO3 and TbMnO3 multiferroic thin films will also be discussed. This work is supported by W. M. Keck Foundation, ONR grant No. N00014-01-1-0761, N00014-04-1-0085, and the NSF under grants DMR-00-94265 (CAREER), NSF DMR-00-0231291, NSF 0095166, NSF-MRSEC Award No. DMR-00-0520471. We acknowledge use of the Nanoscale Imaging, Spectroscopy, and Properties (NISP) Laboratory for TEM characterization.
Most of the water humans consume is for agriculture. Rapidly increasing water demand has led to overexploitation of water resources in many important food-producing regions. In particular, growing groundwater-based irrigation causes potentially damaging depletion. Food systems are increasingly globalized, leading to large export-oriented production. Much research has focused on quantifying the amount of water resources embedded in traded products, but less attention has been given to the role of groundwater use and the related sustainability of agriculture globally. We assess current knowledge of virtual water trade in light of groundwater use and sustainability and highlight remaining challenges in this field.
Systems engineering and design thinking have been widely seen as distinctly different processes, systems engineering being more data-driven and analytical, and design thinking being more human- centred and creative. We use the term ‘design thinking’ to encompass the plurality of human-centered design processes that seek to unpack the core values behind design decisions. With the increased awareness that both systems engineering and design thinking need each other, the effects of a possibly persisting distinction on engineers’ attitudes toward these two processes are not well understood. In this paper, we describe the development and validation of a scale for measuring individual attitudes about systems engineering and design thinking. Thematic analysis of engineering and design literature is used to derive a Likert scale reflecting these attitudes. We use exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to test and confirm this two-factor thematic representation, resulting in a 9-item Systems Engineering and Design Thinking Scale measure of attitudes.