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Virtue epistemology is one of the most flourishing research programmes in contemporary epistemology. Its defining thesis is that properties of agents and groups are the primary focus of epistemic theorising. Within virtue epistemology two key strands can be distinguished: virtue reliabilism, which focuses on agent properties that are strongly truth-conducive, such as perceptual and inferential abilities of agents; and virtue responsibilism, which focuses on intellectual virtues in the sense of character traits of agents, such as open-mindedness and intellectual courage. This volume brings together ten new essays on virtue epistemology, with contributions to both of its key strands, written by leading authors in the field. It will advance the state of the art and provide readers with a valuable overview of what virtue epistemology has achieved.
This article presents the Illinois Work and Well-Being Model as a framework that can be applied to facilitate the career development of people with diabetes mellitus. The model emphasizes the interaction of contextual and career development domains to improve participation in the areas of work, society, community, and home. This article provides a brief discussion of the potential implications of vocational rehabilitation research, service, and policy, with the overall goal of reinforcing career development as the foundation of vocational rehabilitation services for adults with diabetes mellitus and other chronic health conditions.
We report comprehensive rock-magnetic and archaeointensity investigations from 21 well-constrained pottery fragments from the Catamarca province of northwest Argentina. The absolute ages of the studied sites are ascertained by several high-quality radiometric ages and range between 1940 to 114014C yr BP. Magnetic mineralogy experiments indicates that the remanence is carried by thermally stable Ti-poor titanomagnetites. Forty-seven samples belonging to 11 out of 98 studied potsherds yielded reliable absolute intensity determinations judging from the quality parameters associated with the Thellier double-heating experiments. Moreover, we analyzed the available absolute geomagnetic intensities associated with the radiometric ages to construct the first intensity paleosecular variation curve (PSVC) for South America using thermoremanent magnetization carried by burned archaeological artifacts obtained in the present investigation and 79 other selected archaeointensities (out of 213 published in the literature). The dataset is used to build the PSVC reference curve by combined bootstrap and temporal P-spline methods. The variation curve shows significant differences with the global prediction model SHA.DIF.14k mainly based on the GEOMAGIA database. This intensity PSVC curve shows reasonably good agreement with paleosecular variation curves for Europe between 850 through 1150 BC and for Asia between 1000 and 1500 BC. This regional curve may be used as most reliable archaeomagnetic dating tool for the major part of South America (Peru, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Bolivia) for the last two millennia.
Particle transport, acceleration and energization are phenomena of major importance for both space and laboratory plasmas. Despite years of study, an accurate theoretical description of these effects is still lacking. Validating models with self-consistent, kinetic simulations represents today a new challenge for the description of weakly collisional, turbulent plasmas. We perform simulations of steady state turbulence in the 2.5-dimensional approximation (three-dimensional fields that depend only on two-dimensional spatial directions). The chosen plasma parameters allow to span different systems, going from the solar corona to the solar wind, from the Earth’s magnetosheath to confinement devices. To describe the ion diffusion we adapted the nonlinear guiding centre (NLGC) theory to the two-dimensional case. Finally, we investigated the local influence of coherent structures on particle energization and acceleration: current sheets play an important role if the ions’ Larmor radii are of the order of the current sheet’s size. This resonance-like process leads to the violation of the magnetic moment conservation, eventually enhancing the velocity-space diffusion.
I don't feel that it is necessary to know exactly what I am. The main interest in life and work is to become someone else that you were not in the beginning.
Michel Foucault, ‘Truth, power, self’
Introduction: Inheriting Foucault, Again
How to inherit Foucault? To take up the challenge of thinking the concept of subjectivity after Foucault is, first of all, to recognize that while his work remains widely debated, reinterpreted, and often critiqued, it has constituted a veritable event in the history of modern thought, in the sense of marking the difference between a ‘before’ and an ‘after’. His analyses wrested the concept of subjectivity from the dominant problematics in which it had been hitherto situated, transformed its trajectory, and reinvented the problems to which it may constitute a response. Stated in the broadest terms, Foucault proposed a genealogy of subjectivity in explicit contrast to the project of developing a philosophy of the subject as ‘the foundation for all knowledge and the principle of all signification’. This move reversed the relation that had traditionally been posited between subjectivity and the possibility of knowledge. Thereafter, subjectivity became intelligible as the product, rather than the origin, of historically specific concepts and theories embedded in the working of normative institutions. Beyond this, as we will go on to argue, Foucault's engagement with the problem of subjectivity effected an even more profound displacement, by historicizing the privilege of knowledge (and scientific knowledge in particular) as a modality of relation to the truth in the constitution of human beings as subjects. It is in light of these profound displacements that engaging with the concept of subjectivity in modern thought today – whether to endorse, interpret, criticize, or transform it – is to become, directly or indirectly, faithfully or unfaithfully, Foucault's heirs. Our aim in this chapter is to explore what inheriting Foucault may involve, what it may demand of those who think and write about subjectivity after him.
And yet, have we not inherited Foucault already? Have we not already learned the lessons that stemmed from his historical and philosophical inquiries into subjectivity?
We introduce the logic LRC, designed to describe and reason about agents’ abilities and capabilities in using resources. The proposed framework bridges two—up to now—mutually independent strands of literature: the one on logics of abilities and capabilities, developed within the theory of agency, and the one on logics of resources, motivated by program semantics. The logic LRC is suitable to describe and reason about key aspects of social behaviour in organizations. We prove a number of properties enjoyed by LRC (soundness, completeness, canonicity, and disjunction property) and its associated analytic calculus (conservativity, cut elimination, and subformula property). These results lay at the intersection of the algebraic theory of unified correspondence and the theory of multitype calculi in structural proof theory. Case studies are discussed which showcase several ways in which this framework can be extended and enriched while retaining its basic properties, so as to model an array of issues, both practically and theoretically relevant, spanning from planning problems to the logical foundations of the theory of organizations.
It is estimated that 1.5 million infants undergo surgery and anesthesia in the USA each year. However, there are serious concerns within the pediatric anesthesia community regarding the safety of anaesthesia in infants and children. There is mounting evidence from animal studies that anesthetics in common clinical use are neurotoxic to the developing brain and cause long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities. Essentials of Anesthesia for Infants and Neonates provides a comprehensive guide to the special needs of infants undergoing anesthesia. It focuses on the first year of life, the time when anesthesia mortality and morbidity is highest. Chapters are illustrated in color throughout, and include sections on newborn physiology for anesthetic management, specific procedures, pain management, and topics such as regional anesthesia and sedation. Written by nationally recognized experts, this book will become an invaluable point of reference for any physician interested in pain management in the first year of life.
Chagas disease and sleeping sickness are neglected tropical diseases closely related to poverty, for which the development of plant-derived treatments has not been a promising prospect. Thus, we systematicaly review the preclinical in vivo evidence on the applicability of plant-based products in the treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei infections. Characteristics such as disease models, treatments, toxicological safety and methodological bias were analysed. We recovered 66 full text articles from 16 countries investigating 91 plant species. The disease models and treatments were highly variable. Most studies used native (n = 36, 54·54%) or exotic (n = 30, 45·46%) plants with ethnodirected indication (n = 45, 68·18%) for trypanosomiasis treatment. Complete phytochemical screening and toxicity assays were reported in only 15 (22·73%) and 32 (48·49%) studies, respectively. The currently available preclinical evidence is at high risk of bias. The absence of or incomplete characterization of animal models, treatment protocols, and phytochemical/toxicity analyses impaired the internal validity of the individual studies. Contradictory results of a same plant species compromise the external validity of the evidence, making it difficult determine the effectiveness, safety and biotechnological potential of plant-derived products in the development of new anti-infective agents to treat T. cruzi and T. brucei infections.