To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Wearable devices are fast evolving to address mobility and autonomy needs of elderly people who would benefit from physical assistance. Recent developments in soft robotics provide important opportunities to develop soft exoskeletons (also called exosuits) to enable both physical assistance and improved usability and acceptance for users. The XoSoft EU project has developed a modular soft lower limb exoskeleton to assist people with low mobility impairments. In this paper, we present the design of a soft modular lower limb exoskeleton to improve person’s mobility, contributing to independence and enhancing quality of life. The novelty of this work is the integration of quasi-passive elements in a soft exoskeleton. The exoskeleton provides mechanical assistance for subjects with low mobility impairments reducing energy requirements between 10% and 20%. Investigation of different control strategies based on gait segmentation and actuation elements is presented. A first hip–knee unilateral prototype is described, developed, and its performance assessed on a post-stroke patient for straight walking. The study presents an analysis of the human–exoskeleton energy patterns by way of the task-based biological power generation. The resultant assistance, in terms of power, was 10.9% ± 2.2% for hip actuation and 9.3% ± 3.5% for knee actuation. The control strategy improved the gait and postural patterns by increasing joint angles and foot clearance at specific phases of the walking cycle.
Jaap Kunst (1891-1960) schreibt zu Beginn seines Buches Musicologica:
“To the question what is the study-object of comparative musicology, the answer must be: mainly the music and the musical instruments of all non-European peoples, including both the so-called primitive peoples and the civilized Eastern nations. Although this science naturally makes repeated excursions into the field of European music, the latter is, in itself, only an indirect object of its study. The name of our science is, in fact, not quite characteristic; it does not ‘compare’ any more than any other science. A better name, therefore, is that appearing on the title page of this book: ethnomusicology.”
The European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) includes a comprehensive pre-site survey on the inland ice plateau of Dronning Maud Land. This paper focuses on the investigation of the 18O content of shallow firn and ice cores. These cores were dated by profiles derived from dielectric-profiling and continuous flow analysis measurements. the individual records were stacked in order to obtain composite chronologies of 18O contents and accumulation rates with enhanced signal-to-noise variance ratios. These chronologies document variations in the last 200 and 1000 years. The18O contents and accumulation rates decreased in the 19th century and increased during the 20th century. Using the empirical relationships between stable isotopes, accumulation rates and the 10 m firn temperature, the variation of both parameters can be explained by the same temperature history. But other causes for these variations, such as the build-up of the snow cover, cannot be excluded. A marked feature of the 1000 year chronology occurs during the period AD 1180–1530 when the 18Ocontents remains below the long-term mean. Cross-correlation analyses between five cores from the Weddell Sea region and Dronning Maud Land show that 18O records can in some periods be positively correlated and in others negatively correlated, indicating a complex climatic history in time and space.
The paper focuses on studies of snow-pit samples and shallow firn cores taken during the 1995-96 and 1996-97 field seasons at Amundsenisen, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The dating of the firn is based on the artificial tritium distribution in the snow cover and on several reference horizons identified by electrical measurements. The early 1964 through 1965 horizon is marked by the deposition of sulfate released to the atmosphere during the eruption of the Agung volcano in March 1963; this horizon was detected by dielectric profiling and electrical conductivity measurements: the proof by chemical analysis has still to be seen. At the ten investigated sites on Amundsenisen the 1964-65 horizon was identified 4.1-5.7 m below the surface. The accumulation rates on Amundsenisen are 41-91kg m-2 a−1 The cores are up to 100 years old A relationship between isotope content and the mean air temperature on a regional scale can be based on measurements of firn temperature at 10 m depth at the drilling sites Between Neumayer station at the coast and Heimefrontfiella, the temperature gradient of the deuterium content is 9.6%0 K−1. South of Heimefrontfiella, on the Amundsenisen plateau, it is only 5.5‰ K−1. Time series of yearly accumulation rates show no significant trend For the isotope records a significant trend to higher values with gradients of 0.1-0.2 δ2H‰a−1 can be seen in five of the ten time series
The European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) focuses on the drilling of two deep ice cores, the first at Dome C and the second at Kohnen station (75°00’ S, 0°04’ E) in Dronning Maud Land (DML). This paper deals with stable-isotope records from ice cores drilled in DML. In the first season, the deep EPICA DML core reached a depth of 450 m, recovering ice approximately 7000 years old. Generally, the δ18O record indicates a stable Holocene climate and shows low variability. However, during the last 4000 years (based on a preliminary time-scale) the δ18O values decrease continuously by about 0.6%, and the deuterium excess values increase by about 0.5%. The correlation between δ18O and the deuterium excess d is investigated for a 50m long core section and the near-surface snow. High-pass filtered profiles are positively correlated, whereas the correlation between low-pass filtered profiles is negative. A post-depositional effect due to diffusion processes can be seen in a sub-annually resolved profile from snow-pit samples. Changes in the seasonality of the evolution of the snow cover and the consequences for stable-isotope content are demonstrated with data from ice core B31.
Two medium-depth ice cores were retrieved from Berkner Island by a joint project between the Alfred-Wegener-Institut and the British Antarctic Survey in the 1994/95 field season. A 151m deep core from the northern dome (Reinwarthhöhe) of Berkner Island spans 700 years, while a 181 m deep core from the southern dome (Thyssenhöhe) spans approximately 1200 years. Both cores display clear seasonal cycles in electrical conductivity measurements, allowing dating by annual-layer counting and the calculation of accumulation profiles. Stable-isotope measurements (both δ18O and δD), together with the accumulation data, allow us to estimate changes in climate for most of the past millennium: the data show multi-decadal variability around a generally stable long-termmean. In addition, a full suite of major chemistry measurements is available to define the history of aerosol deposition at these sites: again, there is little evidence that the chemistry of the sites has changed over the past six centuries. Finally, we suggest that the southern dome, with an ice thickness of 950 m, is an ideal site from which to gain a climate history of the late stages of the last glacial and the deglaciation for comparison with the records from the deep Antarctic ice cores, and with other intermediate-depth cores such as Taylor Dome and Siple Dome.
The relationship between δ18O and air temperature at Neumayer station, Ekstrmisen, Antarctica, was investigated using fresh-snow samples from the time period 1981–2000. A trajectory model that calculated 5 day-backward trajectories was used to study the influence of different synoptic weather situations and thus of different moisture sources on this correlation. Generally a high correlation between air temperature and δ18O was found, but the quality of the δ18O–T relationship varied with the different trajectory classes. Additionally, the sea-ice coverage on the travel path of the moist air was considered. The amount of open ocean water underneath the trajectory has a large influence on the δ18O–T relationship. For trajectories that lead completely above open water, no significant correlation between δ18O and T was found, because mixing with air masses containing additionally evaporated water vapour from the ocean influences the isotope ratio of precipitation. A very high correlation, however, was found for transports over the completely ice-covered Weddell Sea.
This paper presents new data, derived from an analysis of 16 firn cores, on the distribution of the accumulation rate and 18O content of near-surface layers in the eastern part of the Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica. The firn cores were drilled along the traverse route of the Filchner-V-Campaign in 1995. The traverse followed an ice flowline of the Foundation Ice Stream and reached the margin of the inland ice, an area which has not yet been investigated. On the ice shelf the accumulation rates decrease with distance from the coast. Ascending to the inland ice the accumulation rates again reach almost coastal values. This regional distribution is in agreement with the temperature gradient along the traverse. The 18 content of the near-surface layers is closely related to the 10 m firn temperature. They strongly decrease from the grounding line towards the inland ice. At the southernmost site at 1100 ma.s.l, the mean δ18O value of the firn decreases to –40‰. Ice with that isotopic signature was found in cores from the central part of the Ronne Ice Shelf just above the marine ice layer, indicating that it originates from this area. All ice deposited as snow further south was melted beneath the ice shelf after passing the grounding-line area. The time series of accumulation rate and 18O content reveal no climatic trend during the last 30-50 years.
The European Programme for Ice Coring in Antarctica includes a comprehensive pre-site survey on the inland ice plateau of Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The German glaciological programme during the 1997/98 field season was carried out along a 1200 km traverse on Amundsenisen and involved sampling the snow cover in pits and by shallow firn cores. This paper focuses on the accumulation studies. The cores were dated by dielectric-profiling and continuous-flow analysis. Distinct volcanogenic peaks and seasonal signals in the profiles served to establish a depth time-scale. The eruptions of Krakatoa, Tambora, an unknown volcano, Kuwae and El Chichon are well-documented in the ice. Variations of the accumulation rates over different times were inferred from the depth time-scales. A composite record of accumulation rates for the last 200 years was produced by stacking 12 annually resolved records. According to this, accumulation rates decreased in the 19th century and increased in the 20th century. The recent values are by no means extraordinary, as they do not exceed the values at the beginning of the 19th century. Variations in accumulation rates are most probably linked to temperature variations indicated in δ18O records from Amundsenisen.
A 181 m deep ice core drilled in 1994/95 on the south dome of Berkner Island, Antarctica, was analyzed for stable isotopes, major ions and microparticle concentrations. Samples for ion chromatography were prepared by using a novel technique of filling decontaminated sample from a device for continuous ice-core melting directly into the sample vials. The core was dated through identification of volcanic horizons and interpolative layer counting. The core, together with a similar core from the north dome, reveals a 1000 year history of relatively stable climate. Temporal variations in the two cores deviate from each other owing to changing patterns of regional-scale circulation; the best correspondence between them is found for MSA–. δ18O, accumulation rate and a sea-salt proxy show only negligible correlation, which suggests a complex meteorological setting. Increasing annual accumulation is observed for the last 100 years. A period of increased sea-salt concentrations started around AD 1405, as has also been observed in other cores. Microparticle concentrations are on average 1220 particles (>1.0 μm diameter) mL–1; they are enhanced from AD 1200 to 1350, possibly because of a higher atmospheric mineral dust load or because local volcanic activity was stronger than previously thought. Microparticles and NH4+ show marked but multiple and very irregular sub-annual peaks; long-term stacking of 1 year data intervals yields seasonal maxima in austral spring or mid-summer, respectively. Post-depositional redistribution was observed for MSA, NO3– and F– at volcanic horizons.
Four firn cores were retrieved in 2007 at two ridges in the area of the Ekström Ice Shelf, Dronning Maud Land, coastal East Antarctica, in order to investigate the recent regional climate variability and the potential for future extraction of an intermediate-depth core. Stable water-isotope analysis, tritium content and electrical conductivity were used to date the cores. For the period 1981–2006 a strong and significant correlation between the stable-isotope composition of firn cores in the hinterland and mean monthly air temperatures at Neumayer station was (r = 0.54−0.71). No atmospheric warming or cooling trend is inferred from our stable-isotope data for the period 1962–2006. The stable-isotope record of the ice/firn cores could expand well beyond the meteorological record of the region. No significant temporal variation of accumulation rates was detected. However, decreasing accumulation rates were found from coast to hinterland, as well as from east (Halvfarryggen) to west (Søråsen). The deuterium excess (d) exhibits similar differences (higher d at Søråsen, lower d at Halvfarryggen), with a weak negative temporal trend on Halvfarryggen (0.04‰ a−1), probably implying increasing oceanic input. We conclude that Halvfarryggen acts as a natural barrier for moisture-carrying air masses circulating in the region from east to west.