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The current study assessed changes in children and mothers’ nutritional status before and after raising Bangladeshi households out of extreme poverty through an income-generating activities (IGA) programme.
Extreme poor households took part in the IGA programme for 2 years and recruitment took place over four waves in annual cycles. Children and mothers were measured with regarding their nutritional status before and after the IGA programme commenced.
Three-hundred and eighty-two children under 5 years of age at recruitment, and their mothers.
After 2 years of the IGA programme, the prevalence of stunting significantly declined from 40·3 % to 33·0 % (P = 0·003), anaemia declined from 51·6 % to 44·0 % (P = 0·020) while mothers’ CED (Chronic Energy Deficiency) declined from 52·0 % to 42·7 % (P < 0·001), but no significant changes were found in children’s wasting, declining from 25·4 % to 21·5 %, underweight which remained the same at 43·2 %, while mothers’ anaemia rose from 39·3 % to 42·7 %. There were also highly significant improvements in household socio-economic status. Increases in socio-economic security (especially in relation to cash savings and net income) and improvements in food quantity and quality (indicated by greater food diversity and animal food intake) were associated with normal nutritional status, and cessation of open defecation was associated with reduction in mothers’ and child anaemia.
The IGA programme was associated with increased household socio-economic security, such as asset accumulation, food security and sanitation, and with improvements in the nutritional status of children and their mothers in extreme poor households.
Breakfast skipping has become an increasing trend in the modern lifestyle and may play a role in obesity and type 2 diabetes. In our previous studies in healthy young individuals, a single incident of breakfast skipping increased the overall 24-h blood glucose and elevated the postprandial glycaemic response after lunch; however, it was difficult to determine whether this response was due to breakfast omission or the extra energy (i.e. lunch plus breakfast contents). The present study aimed to assess the postprandial glycaemic response and to measure their hormone levels when healthy young individuals had identical lunch and dinner, and the 24-h average blood glucose as a secondary outcome. Nine healthy young men (19−24 years) participated in two-meal trials: with breakfast (three-meal condition) or without breakfast (breakfast skipping condition). During the meals, each individual’s blood glucose was continuously monitored. Skipping breakfast resulted in a significantly higher (P < 0·001) glycaemic response after lunch as compared with the glycaemic response after an identical lunch when breakfast was consumed. Despite the difference in the total energy intake, the 24-h average blood glucose was similar between the two-meal conditions (P = 0·179). Plasma NEFA level was significantly higher (P < 0·05) after lunch when breakfast was omitted, and NEFA level positively correlated with the postprandial glycaemic response (r 0·631, P < 0·01). In conclusion, a single incident of breakfast skipping increases postprandial hyperglycaemia, and associated impaired insulin response, after lunch. The present study showed that skipping breakfast influences glucose regulation even in healthy young individuals.
Studies on the intake of different types of carbohydrates and long-term mortality are sparse.
We examined the association of starch, total and each type of sugar, and free sugars with the risk of total and cause-specific mortality in a cohort of the general population in Japan. Study subjects were 29,079 residents from the Takayama Study, Japan, who responded to a self-administered questionnaire in 1992. Diet was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire at the baseline. Mortality was ascertained during 16 years of follow-up. We noted 2,901 deaths (974 cancer-related and 775 cardiovascular-related) in men and 2,438 death (646 cancer-related and 903 cardiovascular-related) in women. In men, intake of starch was inversely associated with total mortality after controlling for covariates (the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI for the highest quartile versus lowest quartile: 0.71; 0.60-0.84; P-trend < 0.001). Intakes of total sugars, glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, and added and naturally occurring sugars were significantly positively associated with total mortality in men (HR and 95% CI for the highest versus lowest quartile of total sugar: 1.27; 1.12-1.45; P-trend < 0.0001). Similar relations were observed for cardiovascular mortality and non-cancer, non-cardiovascular mortality in men. In women, there was no significant association between any type of carbohydrates and mortality except that free sugars was significantly positively associated with the risk of total and non-cancer, non-cardiovascular mortality. Data suggest that the high intake of starch reduces mortality, whereas the high intake of sugars, including glucose, fructose, and sucrose, increase mortality in Japanese men.
Oocytes of B6D2F1 (BDF1) mice are often used as recipients for intracytoplasmic sperm injection because of their cell membrane resistance against capillary penetration. It is assumed that oocytes of BDF1 mice have superior traits because of their hybrid vigour. However, the mechanisms of hybrid vigour are unclear. In this study, we focused on the membrane resistance of MII stage oocytes against changes in extracellular osmotic pressure. As a result, MII stage oocytes of inbred C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice showed high tolerance in either a hypertonic or a hypotonic environment. Conversely, MII stage oocytes of hybrid BDF1 and D2B6F1 mice showed high tolerance in both hypertonic and hypotonic environments. Therefore, it is considered that MII stage oocytes of hybrid mice have superior traits than those of inbred mice. Our findings demonstrated that the hybrid vigour exists in the form of resistance to extracellular osmotic environment in hybrid MII stage oocytes.
In this cohort of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp hospital-onset bacteremia, isolated fluoroquinolone resistance had a larger relative impact on mortality than other phenotypic resistance patterns. This finding may support stewardship efforts targeting unnecessary fluoroquinolone use and increased attention from infection prevention and control departments.
We investigated the effects of microparticles and grain size on the microstructural evolutions and mechanical properties of polycrystalline ice. Uniaxial compression tests were conducted using fine-grained pure ice and silica-dispersed ice under various conditions. Deformation behavior of fine-grained ice was found to be characterized by stress exponent n ≈ 2 and activation energy Q ≈ 60 kJ mol−1. The derived strain rates of fine-grained ice were ≈ 1 order of magnitude larger than those of coarse-grained ice obtained in previous studies, and they were found to be independent of particle dispersion and dependent on the mean grain size of ice, with grain size exponent p ≈ 1.4. Work hardening was observed in dislocation creep, while the strain rate continued to decrease. These results indicate that the deformation mechanism of fine-grained ice is different from typical dislocation creep, often associated with n = 3. Although microparticles restricted grain growth, there was little direct effect on the deformation of fine-grained ice. Microstructural observations of the ice samples indicated that the grain boundaries were straight and that the subgrain boundary densities increased after deformation. Our experiments suggest that grain size and boundaries play important roles in the deformation processes of polycrystalline ice.
Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a membrane receptor expressed on a wide variety of human cells. CD36 polymorphisms are reportedly associated with oral fat perception, dietary intake and metabolic disorders. The present study examined associations of two CD36 polymorphisms (rs1761667 and rs1527483) and dietary fat intake, and metabolic phenotypes in a Japanese population. This cross-sectional study was conducted based on clinical information collected from health check-ups in Japan (n 495). Dietary nutrient intake was estimated from a validated short FFQ and adjusted for total energy intake using the residual method. Mean blood pressure was calculated from systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Hypertension was defined as SBP ≥ 130 mmHg and/or DBP ≥ 85 mmHg, or use of antihypertensive drugs. Genotyping was performed using PCR with confronting two-pair primers method. Mean age was 63·4 (sd 9·9) years. Individuals with the AA genotype showed higher total fat and MUFA intake (standardised β = 0·110 and 0·087, P = 0·01 and 0·05, respectively) compared with the GG and GA genotypes. For metabolic phenotypes, the AA genotype of rs1761667 had a lower blood pressure compared with the GG genotype (standardised β = –0·123, P = 0·02). Our results suggested that the AA genotype of rs1761667 in the CD36 gene was associated with higher intake of total fat and MUFA and lower risk of hypertension in a Japanese population.
Epidemiological studies suggest that coffee consumption is inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Evidence from studies targeting non-white, non-Western populations is still sparse, although coffee is popular and widely consumed in Asian countries.
Population-based, prospective cohort study. We used Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for dietary and lifestyle factors to estimate associations between coffee consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Dietary intake including coffee consumption was assessed only at baseline using a validated FFQ.
A Japanese city.
Individuals aged 35 years or older without cancer, CHD and stroke at baseline (n 29 079) and followed from 1992 to 2008.
From 410 352 person-years, 5339 deaths were identified (mean follow-up = 14·1 years). Coffee consumption was inversely associated with mortality from all causes and CVD among all participants, but not from cancer. Compared with the category of ‘none’, the multivariate hazard ratio (95 % CI) for all-cause mortality was 0·93 (0·86, 1·00) for <1 cup/d, 0·84 (0·76, 0·93) for 1 cup/d and 0·81 (0·71, 0·92) for 2–3 cups/d. The multivariate hazard ratio (95 % CI) for cardiovascular mortality were 0·87 (0·77, 0·99) for <1 cup/d, 0·76 (0·63, 0·92) for 1 cup/d and 0·67 (0·50, 0·89) for 2–3 cups/d. Inverse associations were also observed for mortality from other causes, specifically infectious and digestive diseases.
Drinking coffee, even 1 cup/d, was inversely associated with all-cause mortality and mortality from cardiovascular, infectious and digestive diseases.
The number of products that have to be inspected in pre-service and/or in service is increasing. Not only inspection for flaws are required increasingly, using the ordinary non-destructive testing, but also inspection of material characteristics, such as material strength evaluation and/or damage detection. For such inspection, X-ray diffraction has great possibilities as one of the most promising techniques, because it is (a) noncontact, (b) very sensitive to changes in parameters of the crystalline structure, and (c) suitable for surface observation.
In this paper, three topics are introduced which will be useful in the field of material strength evaluation and damage detection using X-ray diffraction.
The microstructures and mechanical properties of Ni-Al system intermetallic compounds used as heat resisting materials have been investigated by many researchers[l,2], but there are few studies applying X-ray stress measurement to these materials. Two problems make it difficult: One is the comparatively coarse grain size, the other is the strong preferred orientation along the direction of the solidification. Therefore, it become possible to evaluate mechanical behavior in these materials, if we can measure the residual stresses correctlv by X-rays.
In this paper, Ni-25mol%AI(Ni3Al) made by the arc-melting method was employed. It consists of comparatively coarse grains and has strong preferred orientation along the direction of the solidification.
Recently some of the above authors determined the structure of an unsolved organic compound employing X-rays from a Synchrotron, an Imaging Plate, and a large radius camera. It would be more desirable if the high quality powder diffaction data could be obtained by a diffractometer or a camera of laboratory use. Therefore a multimode X-ray powder diffractometer which can be used for various experimental geometries such as Bragg-Brentano mode, Guinier mode and parallel beam mode was constructed in order to find the highest resolution geometry. In this paper wc present the results of the measurements employing these three modes.
Residual stress is inevitably introduced into composites because of the mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion, and it is different for each phase. The x-ray method can detect separately the stress in each phase, so will yield useful information for analyzing the toughening mechanisms of composites.
To understand the generation mechanism of a hierarchy of multiscale vortices in a high-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer, we conduct direct numerical simulations and educe the hierarchy of vortices by applying a coarse-graining method to the simulated turbulent velocity field. When the Reynolds number is high enough for the premultiplied energy spectrum of the streamwise velocity component to show the second peak and for the energy spectrum to obey the
power law, small-scale vortices, that is, vortices sufficiently smaller than the height from the wall, in the log layer are generated predominantly by the stretching in strain-rate fields at larger scales rather than by the mean-flow stretching. In such a case, the twice-larger scale contributes most to the stretching of smaller-scale vortices. This generation mechanism of small-scale vortices is similar to the one observed in fully developed turbulence in a periodic cube and consistent with the picture of the energy cascade. On the other hand, large-scale vortices, that is, vortices as large as the height, are stretched and amplified directly by the mean flow. We show quantitative evidence of these scale-dependent generation mechanisms of vortices on the basis of numerical analyses of the scale-dependent enstrophy production rate. We also demonstrate concrete examples of the generation process of the hierarchy of multiscale vortices.
We aimed to examine missing data in FFQ and to assess the effects on estimating dietary intake by comparing between multiple imputation and zero imputation.
We used data from the Okazaki Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study. A self-administered questionnaire including an FFQ was implemented at baseline (FFQ1) and 5-year follow-up (FFQ2). Missing values in FFQ2 were replaced by corresponding FFQ1 values, multiple imputation and zero imputation.
A methodological sub-study of the Okazaki J-MICC study.
Of a total of 7585 men and women aged 35–79 years at baseline, we analysed data for 5120 participants who answered all items in FFQ1 and at least 50% of items in FFQ2.
Among 5120 participants, the proportion of missing data was 3·7%. The increasing number of missing food items in FFQ2 varied with personal characteristics. Missing food items not eaten often in FFQ2 were likely to represent zero intake in FFQ1. Most food items showed that the observed proportion of zero intake was likely to be similar to the probability that the missing value is zero intake. Compared with FFQ1 values, multiple imputation had smaller differences of total energy and nutrient estimates, except for alcohol, than zero imputation.
Our results indicate that missing values due to zero intake, namely missing not at random, in FFQ can be predicted reasonably well from observed data. Multiple imputation performed better than zero imputation for most nutrients and may be applied to FFQ data when missing is low.
A new class of high-temperature materials based on refractory elements was investigated with an aim to improve the energy efficiency of thermal power plants. Alloys based on Nb and Mo composed of BCC solid solution (BCCss) (Nb-Mo) and T2-silicide (Nb,Mo)5(Si,B)3 are promising candidates as high-temperature materials. Further investigation on the alloy phase equilibria of this system is required to improve the mechanical properties and oxidation resistance through optimization of the phase compositions. Cr is one candidate to modify the properties of the alloy because Cr is expected to stabilize the T2 compound phase along with B. Here, the phase equilibria among BCCss and the T2 compound are widely investigated in the Cr-Mo-Nb-Si-B system, and a BCCss-T2 two-phase microstructure is found in Mo-rich alloys. The B/Si ratio in the T2 phase increases with the Cr content, while almost no B solubility was found in BCCss. As the Si content increases in alloys, the A15 silicide phase ((Cr, Mo, Nb)3Si) and/or Laves phase appear.
Nanoindentation tests were conducted to investigate the mechanical properties of the BCCss phase of the alloys in the Cr-Mo-Nb-Si-B system. The nanohardness and reduced elastic modulus of these alloys tended to be higher with an increase in Cr.
A conjecture of Huneke and Wiegand claims that, over one-dimensional commutative Noetherian local domains, the tensor product of a finitely generated, non-free, torsion-free module with its algebraic dual always has torsion. Building on a beautiful result of Corso, Huneke, Katz and Vasconcelos, we prove that the conjecture is affirmative for a large class of ideals over arbitrary one-dimensional local domains. Furthermore, we study a higher-dimensional analogue of the conjecture for integrally closed ideals over Noetherian rings that are not necessarily local. We also consider a related question on the conjecture and give an affirmative answer for first syzygies of maximal Cohen–Macaulay modules.
Although most hospitals report very high levels of hand hygiene compliance (HHC), the accuracy of these overtly observed rates is questionable due to the Hawthorne effect and other sources of bias. In the study, we aimed (1) to compare HHC rates estimated using the standard audit method of overt observation by a known observer and a new audit method that employed a rapid (<15 minutes) “secret shopper” method and (2) to pilot test a novel feedback tool.
Quality improvement project using a quasi-experimental stepped-wedge design.
This study was conducted in 5 acute-care hospitals (17 wards, 5 intensive care units) in the Midwestern United States.
Sites recruited a hand hygiene observer from outside the acute-care units to rapidly and covertly observe entry and exit HHC during the study period, October 2016–September 2017. After 3 months of observations, sites received a monthly feedback tool that communicated HHC information from the new audit method.
The absolute difference in HHC estimates between the standard and new audit methods was ~30%. No significant differences in HHC were detected between the baseline and feedback phases (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.84–1.01), but the standard audit method had significantly higher estimates than the new audit method (OR, 9.83; 95% CI, 8.82–10.95).
HHC estimates obtained using the new audit method were substantially lower than estimates obtained using the standard audit method, suggesting that the rapid, secret-shopper method is less subject to bias. Providing feedback using HHC from the new audit method did not seem to impact HHC behaviors.
In this single-center study, the standardized antimicrobial administration ratio (SAAR) for total antimicrobial use decreased in response to a stewardship intervention. Antimicrobial prescribing and clinical outcomes were stable or improved during the period of lower SAARs. Our findings suggest that SAAR values of ~0.8 can be safely achieved.
We analyzed the impact of a fluoroquinolone patient safety initiative on the weekly fluoroquinolone prescription rate in Veterans Affairs community-based outpatient clinics. We observed a significant initial but unsustained reduction. Such an initiative can function as an antimicrobial stewardship intervention; however, strategies to promote sustainability should be explored.
The electrochemical catalytic effects of the NiO islands and layer on n-type GaN were investigated. The NiO islands covered some parts of the GaN surface and were seen to improve photoanodic current and prevent photoanodic corrosion. However, the NiO layer was found to worsen the photoanodic current. Hole transportation is thought to occur from the GaN valence band edge to the NiO valence band edge in their surface plane direction due to the band alignment. In addition, the electron capture for water oxidation is expected to be the valence band edge of the NiO instead of the intermediate state.