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Climate change makes fossil fuels unburnable, yet global coal production has almost doubled over the last 20 years. This book explores how the world can stop mining coal - the most prolific source of greenhouse gas emissions. It documents efforts at halting coal production, focusing specifically on how campaigners are trying to stop coal mining in India, Germany, and Australia. Through in-depth comparative ethnography, it shows how local people are fighting to save their homes, livelihoods, and environments, creating new constituencies and alliances for the transition from fossil fuels. The book relates these struggles to conflicts between global climate policy and the national coal-industrial complex. With coal's meaning transformed from an important asset to a threat, and the coal industry declining, it charts reasons for continuing coal dependence, and how this can be overcome. It will provide a source of inspiration for energy transition for researchers in environment, sustainability, and politics, as well as policymakers.
Edmund Burke's impeachment of Warren Hastings for his conduct as governor-general in India represented the era's most serious internal challenge to British imperialism. But the impeachment's legal and institutional implications have been neglected. The central points of contention were the nature of impeachment in Britain and the nature of law in India. Burke insisted that impeachment must override the “low” and “mean” standards of the common law, yet he celebrated India for its dense judicial institutions. Hastings took the opposite position, demanding that the impeachment adhere strictly to the common law, yet defending his conduct in India by appeal to its political expediency, rather than its lawfulness. Each found himself in a “rhetorical contradiction,” alternately arguing in praise of, and in critique of, legal reasoning and procedures. While Hastings attempted to surmount the contradiction through the discourse of realism, Burke turned to the discourse of natural law—a language of lawfulness without legalism.
Using interviews with forty formerly incarcerated people in the Greater Toronto Area, I explore how criminal record holders describe seeking work. People articulate being driven by a desire to be selective to whom, when, and how they disclose their past criminal record; they simultaneously want to talk about their past, at least to some people, some of the time. Many say they are quite selective in what types of jobs and employers they seek out, and their efforts to secure employment are driven by broader projects of stigma management. In light of these findings, I coin “selective, voluntary disclosure” (SVD) as a new set of policy configurations that aim to facilitate not only employment but also dignity, privacy, and empowerment. SVD is well attuned with what former prisoners describe doing on an everyday basis, and it accords with their goals, aspirations, and rehabilitative self-projects.
Recent research on young onset dementia (formal diagnosis at age <65) evidences emerging work around pre-diagnosis, diagnosis and the need to improve post-diagnostic support for this group. An increased awareness of young onset dementia has led to the establishment of peer-support groups, support networks and the involvement of people affected by dementia in research. However, the need to join up services at the systems level persists. Third-sector organisations that offer post-diagnostic support at the community level rely heavily on volunteers. Implications for policy and practice are that community-based commissioning of integrated services between health care, social care and the third sector would go a long way to providing the continuity and stability required in dementia support and care along the illness trajectory. This discussion document was written in collaboration with diagnostic services, the charity sector and conversations with people living with, and affected by, dementia.
This SERENITY study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) as defined by the three areas of patient functioning, efficacy and tolerability in general practice.
Between January 2007 and June 2008, 252 patients were enrolled, as planned, in this non-interventional study in Belgium. Inclusion criteria were patients 18-65 years old, willing and able to participate, diagnosed with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder and currently in a manic episode and for whom the general practitioner (GP) decided to prescribe an AAP.
Patient demographics, selection criteria, psychiatric and medical history and condition were assessed at Visit 1. Additional psychotropic drugs, name and dose of AAP, the QoL questionnaire Q-LES-Q-16, the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) for patient wellbeing, the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) scores for clinical efficacy and tolerability were assessed at Visit 1 (day 0), Visit 2 (week 4) and at Visit 3 (week 8).
A mean change of 24.62 was observed in the Q-LES-Q results. The SDS total score decreased substantially with a mean change of -9.26. Number of days lost, and the number of unproductive days, at work or school decreased with a mean change of -1.88 and -2.31, respectively. CGI-S scores decreased by a mean -1.92 and the CGI-I and PGIC scores also decreased. A weak but positive correlation was seen between the medication satisfaction and the efficacy, tolerability and patients’ well-being.
This study indicates that GP-based management of antipsychotic treatment is effective in the community.
The UNIQUE study assessed the effect of Quetiapine fumarate augmentation on the overall depression status of patients with major depressive disorder and who did not respond to any acute treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or selective noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and naïve to any atypical antipsychotics.
Between March 2006 and November 2007, 39 male and female patients, aged 18-65, were enrolled into this four-week, open label, non-comparative, multicentric, phase II prospective study. Treatment with Quetiapine fumarate began at enrolment, with a titration to a target dose of 300mg. The following scales were completed during all five visits: Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); Clinical Global Impression (CGI); Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS); Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS).
All questionnaire mean scales were significantly reduced (Friedman P< 0.0001) at the end of the study from baseline: MADRS 16.9 (12.8-21.0); CGI 1.94 (1.52-2.37); BPRS 10.3 (6.7-13.6); SDS 8.5 (5.6-11.5). Response, defined as a reduction in MADRS total score >50% was observed in 45.9% of the 37 patients completing at least 2 weeks of the study and 37.8% were considered in remission e.g. MADRS total score ≤ 12 at visit 5.
Quetiapine fumarate augmentation improved the overall depression status of patients resistant to SSRI or SNRI treatment.
Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder. The lack of concordance on disease manifestation in monozygotic twins provides clear evidence that environmental factors are key determinants in disease aetiology. In accordance, various environmental modulators such as hormones and vitamins may well contribute to the altered expression pattern of several genes identified in post-mortem brain tissue of patients. We constructed a microarray platform containing 1,808 human genes, where 142 belong to vitamin A, thyroid hormone and estrogens’ metabolic pathways, to specifically address whether these could contribute to a molecular signature of schizophrenia in peripheral lymphocytes. We found that the genes encoding for PLP1, UGT1A6, NTRK1, THRAP1, ESR2, TRIP13, MAPK8, TGFB2, IGFBP4 are differentially expressed in lymphocytes of patients under treatment with clozapine, risperdal or haloperidol. Some of these genes have been previously reported by others to be altered in brain regions of schizophrenic patients, and all are implicated in pathways suggested to be involved in the disease. These observations further support that:
1. studies in peripheral blood lymphocytes may contribute to reveal candidate genes in schizophrenia;
2. transcription modulation of several genes may occur through the mediation of vitamin and hormones, therefore linking genes and environment in schizophrenia.
In order to understand the involvement of these genes in schizophrenia, future studies should investigate whether some of the observed changes are replicated in animal models of the disease, and how antipsychotic treatment interferes with their expression.
Levels of serotonin in the body are regulated by the serotonin transporters (SERT), which are predominantly located on the presynaptic terminals of serotonin-containing neurons. Alterations in the density of SERT have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders.
To evaluate 123-I mZIENT (2(S)-[(S)-2b-carbomethoxy-3b-[3′-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl]nortropane), a novel radiopharmaceutical for imaging SERT. The bio-distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in humans was investigated and dosimetry performed.
The study includes three healthy volunteers and three patients receiving SSRIs. Whole body images obtained on a gamma camera at 10 minutes, 1, 2, 3, 6, 24 and 48 hours post administration. Dosimetry was performed. ROIs were drawn over the brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, salivary glands, spleen, thyroid and intestines. Blood was sampled at 5, 15, & 30 minutes and 1, 2, 3, 6, 24 and 48 hours post administration. Urine was collected at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 24 and 48 hours. Brain SPECT images were obtained using a neuroSPECT scanner at 4 hours, evaluated visually and analysed using ROI analysis.
High quality SPECT images can be obtained after 100–150 MBq 123-ImZEINT. Regional brain uptake was observed in midbrain and basal ganglia in healthy volunteers, consistent with the known distribution of SERT. Biodistribution images demonstrated highest uptake in the lungs, brain, liver and intestines. The effective dose was within range of other commonly used ligands and is acceptable for clinical imaging.
123-ImZIENT is a promising agent for imaging SERT in humans with acceptable dosimetry.
Eating disorders (ED) are among the leading causes of disease burden, especially in women.
The overall aim is to explore role of parental social characteristics and family composition in the development of ED in adolescent males and females.
We investigated associations of parental socioeconomic position, family type, number of siblings and half-siblings and history of psychiatric disease in parents with the incidence of eating disorders at age 12–23 years.
The Stockholm Youth Cohort (N = 589,114) is a database created by record-linkage for all children and adolescents, 0–17 years, resident in Stockholm County during the period 2001–2007, their parents and siblings. Hazard rations were calculated using Cox regression. Cases of ED were identified in outpatient care.
A total of 3251 cases of ED (2971 females and 280 males) were recorded among 249,884 study subjects. There was an increased risk of ED in both male and female offspring of parents who had a history of alcohol and drug abuse or psychiatric ill-health. Higher parental education was a risk factors in females. Increasing number of full siblings had a protective effect (fully adjusted HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87–0.96, per sibling) while increasing number of half-siblings appeared to increase risk of eating disorders in females.
Risk factors for ED seem to differ between females and males. While parental psychiatric health is related to risk of ED in both sexes, family socioeconomic position and relationships within family appear to be of more importance for influencing risk of ED in females.
Although neuroimaging studies suggest brain regional abnormalities in depressive disorders, it remains unclear whether abnormalities are present at illness onset or reflect disease progression.
We hypothesized that cerebral variations were present in adolescents with subthreshold depression known to be at high risk for later full-blown depression.
We examined brain structural and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images of adolescents with subthreshold depression.
The participants were extracted from the European IMAGEN study cohort of healthy adolescents recruited at age 14. Subthreshold depression was defined as a distinct period of abnormally depressed or irritable mood, or loss of interest, plus two or more depressive symptoms but without diagnosis of Major Depressive Episode. Comparisons were performed between adolescents meeting these criteria and control adolescents within the T1-weighted imaging modality (118 and 475 adolescents respectively) using voxel-based morphometry and the diffusion tensor imaging modality (89 ad 422 adolescents respectively) using tract-based spatial statistics. Whole brain analyses were performed with a statistical threshold set to p< 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons.
Compared with controls, adolescents with subthreshold depression had smaller gray matter volume in caudate nuclei, medial frontal and cingulate cortices; smaller white matter volume in anterior limb of internal capsules, left forceps minor and right cingulum; and lower fractional anisotropy and higher radial diffusivity in the genu of corpus callosum.
The findings suggest that adolescents with subthreshold depression have volumetric and microstructural gray and white matter changes in the emotion regulation frontal-striatal-limbic network.
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualistic behaviors and has been associated with diverse functional brain abnormalities. We sought to synthesize current evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and examine their alignment to pathogenetic models of OCD. Following systematic review, we identified 54 task-fMRI studies published in the last decade comparing adults with OCD (n = 1186) to healthy adults (n = 1159) using tasks of affective and non-affective cognition. We used voxel-based quantitative meta-analytic methods to combine primary data on anatomical coordinates of case-control differences, separately for affective and non-affective tasks. We found that functional abnormalities in OCD cluster within cortico-striatal thalamic circuits. Within these circuits, the abnormalities identified showed significant dependence on the affective or non-affective nature of the tasks employed as circuit probes. In studies using affective tasks, patients overactivated regions involved in salience, arousal and habitual responding (anterior cingulate cortex, insula, caudate head and putamen) and underactivated regions implicated in cognitive and behavioral control (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior caudate). In studies using non-affective cognitive tasks, patients overactivated regions involved in self-referential processing (precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex) and underactivated subcortical regions that support goal-directed cognition and motor control (pallidum, ventral anterior thalamus, posterior caudate). The overall pattern suggests that OCD-related brain dysfunction involves increased affective and self-referential processing, enhanced habitual responding and blunted cognitive control.
Despite their legal protection status, protected areas (PAs) can benefit from priority ranks when ongoing threats to their biodiversity and habitats outpace the financial resources available for their conservation. It is essential to develop methods to prioritize PAs that are not computationally demanding in order to suit stakeholders in developing countries where technical and financial resources are limited. We used expert knowledge-derived biodiversity measures to generate individual and aggregate priority ranks of 98 mostly terrestrial PAs on Madagascar. The five variables used were state of knowledge (SoK), forest loss, forest loss acceleration, PA size and relative species diversity, estimated by using standardized residuals from negative binomial models of SoK regressed onto species diversity. We compared our aggregate ranks generated using unweighted averages and principal component analysis (PCA) applied to each individual variable with those generated via Markov chain (MC) and PageRank algorithms. SoK significantly affected the measure of species diversity and highlighted areas where more research effort was needed. The unweighted- and PCA-derived ranks were strongly correlated, as were the MC and PageRank ranks. However, the former two were weakly correlated with the latter two. We recommend using these methods simultaneously in order to provide decision-makers with the flexibility to prioritize those PAs in need of additional research and conservation efforts.
This article studies multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSIs) as spaces for both deliberation and contestation between constituencies with competing discourses and disputed values, beliefs, and preferences. We review different theoretical perspectives on MSIs, which see them mainly as spaces to find solutions to market problems (economic approach), as spaces of conflict and bargaining (political approach), or as spaces of consensus (deliberative approach). In contrast, we build on a contestatory deliberative perspective, which gives equal value to both contestation and consensus. We identify four types of internal contestation which can be present in MSIs—procedural, inclusiveness, epistemic, and ultimate-goal—and argue that embracing contestation and engaging in ongoing revision of provisional agreements, criteria, and goals can enhance the democratic quality of MSIs. Finally, we explore the implications of this perspective for theorizing about the democratic quality in MSIs and about the role of corporations in transnational governance.
Scholarship on the fourteen Augustan regions of Rome has tended to focus on their political and topographical significance. As a result, evidence for their social meaning and their impact on the mindsets and practices of the city's administrators and rulers has been under-exploited. This article seeks to address this lacuna. It begins by reviewing the history of Rome's regions and asking how and where the boundaries of the Augustan regions were recorded, before moving on to consider the impact of the regions on the Romans’ understanding and experiences of their city. This includes examining the evidence for bottom-up social identification with the regions, despite their top-down original creation. The paper also looks at the administrators who worked with the regions (regional magistrates and the food, water and fire services), arguing that the conceptual framework which the regions provided began to shape their working practices. Finally, it demonstrates the existence of a rhetoric of consistent provision across all fourteen regions, propagated especially by the emperors. The findings across all of these areas reveal that it is essential to take the regions and their impact into account when attempting to understand the topography of the city and the lives of its inhabitants.
How do views about national identity shape support for multiculturalism? In this paper, we argue that individuals who view national ingroup belonging as “achievable” are more likely to support multiculturalism than individuals who view belonging as “ascriptive.” Using data from the 1995, 2003, and 2013 International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) Nationality Identity survey waves across 35 advanced democracies, we find achievable national identities correspond with support for multicultural principles but not for programmatic aspects involving government intervention. Robust analyses reveal these patterns are specific to the content, rather than the strength, of one's national identity. Our findings underline the role of both national belonging and outgroup attitudes on building support for policies of inclusion—and therefore social solidarity—in diverse democracies.
In the winter of 1772–1773, Joseph Johnson (Mohegan/Brothertown) copied musical notation into eight books for Christian Native Americans in Farmington, Connecticut, a town established by English settler colonists on the land known as Tunxis Sepus. Johnson did so because, as he wrote in his diary, “The indians are all desireous of haveing Gamuts.” Johnson's “gamuts” have not survived, but their erstwhile existence reveals hymnody's important role within the Native community in Farmington as well as cross-culturally with the English settler colonists. In order to reconstruct the missing music books and assess their sociocultural significance, this article proposes a surrogate bibliography, gathering a constellation of sources among which Johnson's books would have circulated and gained meaning for Native American Christians and English colonists (including other printed and manuscript music, wampum, and legal documents pertaining to land transfer). By bringing together this multi-modal network of materials, this essay seeks to redress the material and epistemological effects of a colonialist archive. On one level, this is a case study that focuses on a short period of time in order to document the impact on sacred music of conversion, literacy, shifting intercultural relations, and a drive to preserve sovereignty. On another, this article presents a methodological intervention for dealing with lost materials and colonialist archives without recourse to discourses of recovery or discovery, the latter of which is considered through the framework of what I term “archival orientalism.”
Credit unions currently serve over 110 million members in the United States. This is surprising, given the challenges associated with forming cooperatives. This paper explains how grants were used to overcome these challenges and create the modern credit union sector. Edward Filene, a wealthy 20th-century department store owner, provided philanthropic funding and technical expertise to early credit unions, resulting directly in the creation of 26,000 American credit unions over a 45-year period. Filene's leadership helped overcome the various social dilemmas associated with creating cooperatives, reforming institutions, and establishing an institutional framework that enables and supports cooperatives.
A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.