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The moisture content of samples affects the accuracy of predictions made using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). One way to prevent the problem is to develop a repeatability file, which summarizes variation in the spectra of a single sample resulting from variation in conditions at the time of scanning (Murray, 1993). Another method is to re-read the spectra of all samples on a second occasion when their moisture content has been deliberately altered (Murray, 1993). The present study, using straws with known voluntary intakes, compares these methods with a simple technique that compensates the spectra for moisture content before NIRS calibration (or prediction) begins.
In the semi-arid parts of west Asia and north Africa, barley straw (Hordeum vulgareL. subsp. vulgare)and cereal stubbles provide between one-quarter and one-half of the metabolizable energy (ME) offered to sheep. In barley straw, voluntary straw dry-matter (DM) intake (VSI) is a good predictor of body weight gain (R2 = 0.85; data of Capper et al., 1989). This varies according to location and year (CV = 0.30 to 0.40) and varies genetically, with an average genotypic CV of 0.07, which can exceed 0.10 in wet years. Genotype X environment interactions in VSI are important (Table 1).
A genetically high VSI is advantageous in cool, wet, favourable growing conditions, when VSI is normally low. In drought conditions, VSI is high, genetically varies relatively little (Table 1) and is less important for the farmer than straw and grain yields. Barley breeders working in drought-prone environments prefer to do most of their selection for yield in dry conditions (Ceccarelli, 1993). Breeders are increasingly selecting for high VSI but wish to focus their testing plots in dry areas. Therefore they need indirect tests that indicate the nutritive value of straw when it is grown in wet environments.
This paper presents the results of a survey project investigating a complex of prehistoric archaeological sites at Lochbrow, in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. An Early Neolithic timber cursus, Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age timber circles and Bronze Age round barrows were first recorded as cropmarks on aerial photographs in the 1980s and 1990s. The Lochbrow Landscape Project set out to investigate and understand this lesser-known complex of prehistoric sites and their layout in the landscape using non-destructive survey techniques, including geophysical survey, experiential survey and re-assessment of aerial photographs. A pilot survey was undertaken in 2010 followed by a series of short field seasons from 2011 to 2015. Interpretation of the results from geophysical survey has proved challenging because of strong geological and geomorphological signals, but has been successful in detecting both the features known from aerial photographs and additional archaeological features. The simple step of marking out the known archaeology on the ground has provided additional insights into the landscape context of the known monuments and elements of their morphology. This indicates that the monuments were closely tied to their landscape context and that the monument boundaries were used to influence the experience of being within the monuments. Overall, the research has been successful in enriching our understanding of the complex of prehistoric sites known at Lochbrow.
A massive tenth-century AD ring fortress was recently identified at Borgring, south of Copenhagen in Denmark. The combination of high-resolution LiDAR mapping, geophysical survey and targeted small-scale excavation has demonstrated that the site belongs to a rare class of monuments—the Trelleborg-type ring fortress. Borgring is the first such monument to be found in Denmark in over six decades, and provides an opportunity to investigate a type-site of Viking Age military organisation and conflict. The authors argue that Borgring complements a varied group of fortification structures in late Viking Age Denmark, part of a military network close to contemporaneous European ideas of military kingship and defence.
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important disease of cattle caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis, a pathogen that may be extremely difficult to eradicate in the presence of a true wildlife reservoir. Our objective was to identify and review relevant literature and provide a succinct summary of current knowledge of risk factors for transmission of infection of cattle. Search strings were developed to identify publications from electronic databases to February 2015. Abstracts of 4255 papers identified were reviewed by three reviewers to determine whether the entire article was likely to contain relevant information. Risk factors could be broadly grouped as follows: animal (including nutrition and genetics), herd (including bTB and testing history), environment, wildlife and social factors. Many risk factors are inter-related and study designs often do not enable differentiation between cause and consequence of infection. Despite differences in study design and location, some risk factors are consistently identified, e.g. herd size, bTB history, presence of infected wildlife, whereas the evidence for others is less consistent and coherent, e.g. nutrition, local cattle movements. We have identified knowledge gaps where further research may result in an improved understanding of bTB transmission dynamics. The application of targeted, multifactorial disease control regimens that address a range of risk factors simultaneously is likely to be a key to effective, evidence-informed control strategies.
It is commonly believed by geologists, as well as by coal miners, that the inner faces of the rocks which enclose intrusive masses were at one time in contact, and that each of these surfaces is the counterpart in form to the other, from which it has been severed by the forces to which the injection of the intrusive mass was due. In the case of a sill, for example, this belief implies that the rock floor below the sill and the roof above it were in unbroken contact at some time before the sill was intruded, and that the floor and the roof have been forced apart to a distance equal to the thickness of the intrusive mass.
The following observations are based chiefly upon the results of an exhaustive survey of the specimens in the Scottish Mineral Collection in the Edinburgh Museum of Science and Art, which were made while I was studying the material for completing The Mineralogy of Scotland. The survey has been continued since the publication of that work, in connection with the revision of the arrangement of the specimens in question. A large number of facts of interest have come to light in the course of this work. Furthermore, the forms of several hundreds of crystals in the Collection have now been determined, and freehand drawings of most of these crystals have been made, and placed alongside of the specimens to which they refer. It is proposed from time to time to lay some of the more interesting of the results arising from this work before this Society, especially as little or none of them have hitherto been published, and as the crystals, which present considerable interest, do not appear to have been previously figured.
President G. Stanley Hall hung only a portrait of Ralph Waldo Emerson in his office at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. The philosopher embodied Hall's most cherished mid-nineteenth century ideas that comprised part of his intellectual worldview. In the 1840s, Emerson reflected on his transcendental concepts of the common mind and instinct, which held all innate human knowledge and behavioral patterns, in his Essays:
There is one mind common to all individual men. Every man is an inlet to the same and to all of the same…. In every man's mind, some images, words, and facts remain, without effort on his part to imprint them, which others forget, and afterwards these illustrate to him important laws. All our progress is an unfolding, like the vegetable bud. You have first an instinct, then an opinion, then a knowledge, as the plant has a root, bud, and fruit. Trust the instinct to the end, though you can render no reason.
In late antiquity, as under the earlier Empire, Tripolitania was a small and somewhat isolated territory. The creation of a separate province of Tripolitania, in the closing years of the third century, was no more than the official recognition of an established geographical fact. There continued to be important military and cultural links with the provinces to the west; but the natural isolation of the territory was inevitably increased by the decline in public security; and although the church came under the primacy of the bishop of Carthage, the records of the church councils bear eloquent witness to the hazards and difficulties of travel from such outlying districts. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that the surviving Christian antiquities of Tripolitania exhibit a robust regionalism; or that artistically, with the single exception of the mosaic in the church that Justinian built at Sabratha, none is of outstanding intrinsic merit.
This study of teacher researchers and mentor scientists at the Materials Research Laboratory at UCSB takes a socio-cultural perspective, assuming group norms in terms of language and practice associated with being a science teacher and a research scientist. The paper will report on data gathered from individual interviews with 6 science teachers and their mentor scientists, before and after the RET six week session in summer 2000. The interviews reveal some of the expectations and benefits expressed by teachers and scientists as well as some of the contrasts in the cultures of science teaching and research science. These factors need to be accommodated in RET project design.
The use of exhibits in informal science education venues such as science centers and museums is an integral part of engaging students in science, encouraging them to take science courses in school, and motivating them to pursue science and engineering careers. Through an Internships in Public Science Education Program funded by the National Science Foundation and in partnership with the education efforts of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) and the Discovery World Museum of Science, Economics and Technology, we have built and tested interactive components for museum exhibits on advanced materials science and nanotechnology concepts. Our front-end assessment revealed a gap in scientific understanding about objects smaller than can be seen by the naked eye. Facts learned through standard teaching methods were easily recalled, but in-depth, conceptual knowledge and application of those facts are lacking in both children and adults. We designed interactive exhibits to specifically address this disconnect in comprehension. By inviting the learner to actively participate in an interactive exhibit activity, he or she is able to develop a deeper understanding of advanced materials concepts that are difficult to teach with textbooks alone. Formative assessment of our exhibit prototypes show that students and adults not only participate in the interactive exhibit activity, but are able to learn and apply the concepts contained within them.
The authors have developed, implemented and assessed an on-line, open-book quizzing environment for the introductory materials science course, “Materials In Today’s World”. The course is offered as an E-Education course and students may complete the course from anywhere that permits access to our course management system, ANGEL. For reasons that were both pragmatic and philosophical, we decided that the exams/quizzes would not be proctored, they would be delivered wholly on-line, and would be open-book.
In the current paper, we will present and justify our philosophy, of on-line, open-book quizzes: the rich feedback, which is a feature or our quizzing system, QuestionMark Perception, is used both as a teaching tool, and as a means to refine the quiz database. We have replaced the original “high-stakes” midterm and final exam, with a series of lower-stakes, weekly quizzes, which are generated from a large question database. Student response to the quizzing environment is generally very positive.
The Women in Materials (WIM) program, supported by the National Science Foundation, is a collaboration between Simmons College, a predominately undergraduate women’s college, and the Cornell Center for Materials Research (CCMR). For the past four years, this program has provided unusual curricular and research opportunities for undergraduate women at Simmons College. This program demonstrates a successful model for enhancing undergraduate science and technology preparation through collaboration between primarily undergraduate institutions (PUIs) and NSF-supported Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers.
The establishment, in 2000 and 2003, of new degree programs in Photovoltaics and Solar Energy Engineering and Renewable Energy Engineering at the Centre for Photovoltaic Engineering at the University of New South Wales, Sydney was in response to predictions, now being fulfilled, of dramatic global market and employment growth. They were developed by the well established photovoltaics research group at UNSW that has produced many important advances, including two commercially important solar cell technologies. Materials-related education in these programs are mainly focussed on the photovoltaic aspects, including study of the fundamental optical, electronic, phononic and excitonic properties of silicon, crystal structure, semiconductor properties, doping and contacts. Cell manufacturing is taught in detail, including by the use of an interactive virtual production line. Practical projects, taking advantage of a large and active research group, are one of the most important and effective educational tools in both these programs. The Centre also administers postgraduate coursework and research programs.
The National Science Foundation created the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) in order to establish a technical, communal, and organizational framework for access to high quality resources and tools that support innovations in teaching and learning at all levels of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education. As part of the NSDL, the Materials Digital Library (MatDL) Pathway focuses specifically on serving the materials science (MS) community with a target audience that includes MS undergraduate and graduate students, educators, and researchers. MatDL is a collaborative effort involving the Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Kent State University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Michigan, Iowa State University, and Purdue University. Our network of collaborations also includes a Nanoscience Interdisciplinary Research Team, Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, and International Materials Institute. A primary goal of MatDL is to bring materials science research and education closer together. MatDL provides innovative uses of digital libraries and the web as educational media in the MS community with particular emphasis on providing: 1) tools to describe, manage, exchange, archive, and disseminate scientific data 2) workspace for open access development of modeling and simulation tools 3) services and content for virtual labs in large undergraduate introductory science courses, and 4) workspace for collaborative development of core undergraduate MS teaching resources for emerging areas. This paper will provide an overview of the NSDL MatDL Pathway, details about specific aspects of the project, as well as interactions between research and education.
There would appear to be a large disconnect between the content of a typical high school chemistry course, and an introductory, college materials science course. For example, A National Science Foundation report notes that,
“the historic bias of chemistry curricula towards small molecule chemistry, generally in the gaseous and liquid states, is out of touch with current opportunities for chemists in research, education and technology”.
In contrast, the typical introductory college materials science course concentrates almost exclusively on the solid state, and a discussion of “small molecular” materials is virtually absent.
In the present contribution, it will be shown how the “molecule” forms part of a hierarchical series of structures, from the sub-atomic to the macroscopic. It will also be argued that the molecule is but a sub-set of a localized grouping of atoms, which is best described by the term “monomer”.
Based on a strict definition of the molecule and monomer, a complete hierarchical scheme for the structure of materials is developed, which should be applicable to both a high school chemistry course, and an introductory materials science course.
Over the last twenty years, NSF and the engineering community have called for systemic changes in engineering education, including an emphasis on contextual understanding; increased teaming skills, including collaborative, active learning; and an improved capacity for life-long, self-directed learning. In addition, ABET has called for engineering graduates that demonstrate an ability to apply science and engineering, and ABET requires assessment processes designed to measure student achievement of learning outcomes. Olin College has responded to these calls for change by embracing new learning approaches and assessment techniques, and by developing project-based courses that encourage experiential understanding of content and aid the development of life-long learning skills. To address the assessment needs of new pedagogical approaches, Olin recently instituted a competency based assessment system to accompany the traditional course grading system already in place. The thread of competency assessments provides grading coherency for both faculty and students, and it provides students with valuable information concerning their development of nontraditional skills that they could use to identify shortcomings and further their learning. In this paper, we describe the new pedagogical approaches in Olin's introductory materials science course, and we explain our implementation of the competency assessment system to measure student attainment of both materials science knowledge and broader skills such as teaming, communication, and experimental inquiry.