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This study aimed to analyze whether there are differences between bilingual (Brazilian Portuguese and Spanish) and monolingual (Brazilian Portuguese) school children regarding reading and writing learning achievement, in executive functions (EF) components and metalinguistic abilities. Twenty-three bilingual and 23 monolingual children, aged 6 to 8 years, were assessed in terms of their writing, reading, and metalinguistic abilities, and with verbal and non-verbal tasks testing EF. A bilingual advantage was observed in reading and writing abilities and in 16 of the 44 EF measures, including subcomponents of working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and executive attention, mainly in non-verbal paradigms, while monolingual children outperformed bilingual ones in three scores: counting errors (Five Digits Test), omission of bells (Bells test) and sequential trial B (Trail Making Test). There were moderate and weak effect sizes in metalinguistic subcomponents showing bilingual advantage. Literacy improvement seems to have the potential to increase linguistic and cognitive abilities.
Mesotrione typically requires multiple applications to control emerged weeds in turfgrass. Since it is absorbed by both foliage and roots, a controlled-release (CR) formulation could eliminate the need for multiple applications. Research was conducted evaluate simulated-release scenarios that mimic a potential CR mesotrione formulation. A soluble concentrate formulation of mesotrione was titrated to produce a stepwise change in mesotrione rates, which were applied daily to mimic predetermined release scenarios over a three-wk period. CR scenarios were compared to a broadcast treatment of mesotrione at 280 g ai ha-1 applied twice at three-wk intervals, and a nontreated. Mesotrione applied in three temporal release scenarios controlled creeping bentgrass, goosegrass, nimblewill, smooth crabgrass, and white clover equivalent to the standard sprayed mesotrione treatment in every comparison. However, each CR scenario injured tall fescue 2 to 7 times more than the standard treatment. Soil- and foliar-initiated repeat treatments were equivalent in most comparisons. Data indicates that mesotrione applied in a temporal range to simulate controlled release scenarios can deliver desired weed control efficacy comparable to sequential broadcast applications. More research is needed to elucidate proper timings and release scenarios to minimize turfgrass injury.
Generalising previous results on classical braid groups by Artin and Lin, we determine the values of m, n ∈ $\mathbb N$ for which there exists a surjection between the n- and m-string braid groups of an orientable surface without boundary. This result is essentially based on specific properties of their lower central series, and the proof is completely combinatorial. We provide similar but partial results in the case of orientable surfaces with boundary components and of non-orientable surfaces without boundary. We give also several results about the classification of different representations of surface braid groups in symmetric groups.
To evaluate the feasibility of reintroduction as a tool for conservation of the jaguar Panthera onca, we adapted the IUCN soft release protocol to reintroduce two jaguars in the southern Pantanal, Brazil. After being kept at rescue centres for 13 months, the jaguars were moved to a 1-ha enclosure with native vegetation on a 53,000 ha ranch in the Pantanal, where hunting is not allowed and prey is abundant. In the enclosure, the animals were fed with meat, dead animals (roadkill) and then, progressively, live wild prey. After 11 months, the jaguars were fitted with collars equipped with GPS/VHF (recording one location per hour) and accelerometers, and released in the same area. The animals established residence near the enclosure, with home ranges, movement parameters, daily activity patterns and prey consumption similar to that recorded in previous studies. Social interaction and reproduction indicated the reintroduction was successful, and that it can be a tool for the species' survival in areas where the jaguar population is in decline.
The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of the combination of oviduct fluid flush (OFF) and oviduct epithelial cells (OEC) in modulating the incidence of polyspermy in pigs. Therefore, for in vitro fertilization (IVF), oocyte and sperm were co-cultured in Tris-buffered medium (TBM) either supplemented with 10% OFF (OFFD group), or in the presence of a bovine OEC monolayer (OEC group), or the oocytes were exposed to OFF for 30 min before IVF (OFFB group), or in the presence of an OEC monolayer (OFFB + OEC group). Regardless of sperm concentration used (0.5, 1.5, and 4.5 × 105 cells/ml), supplementation of IVF medium with 10% OFF led to an increased (P < 0.05) monospermy rate, without alteration (P > 0.05) of the penetration rate in comparison with the control and OEC groups. When the IVF medium was supplemented with heparin, an overall increase (P < 0.05) of the final output of the IVF system in terms of zygotes with two pronuclei (2PN) was observed in the OFFD group, compared with the control and OEC groups, at a sperm concentration of 4.5 × 105 cells/ml. At this concentration, OFFB improved the monospermy rate but decreased the penetration rate, resulting in low efficiency of monospermic zygotes production. Despite this, no major effect was observed in the developmental competence of the presumed zygotes up to the blastocyst stage. The combination of OFFB with OEC improved the penetration rate, while maintaining the high monospermic rate induced by OFFB. In conclusion, the combination of treatment of oocytes by diluted OFF 30 min before IVF, followed by IVF in the presence of OEC, improved monospermic zygote production without reducing the penetration rate, when the IVF medium was supplemented with heparin.
17α-Ethinylestradiol is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that make up most contraceptive pills and can be found in the environment. Exposure to ethinylestradiol in different development periods may promote changes in morphophysiological parameters of reproductive and endocrine organs. Considering that the effects of low doses (15 µg/kg/day) of ethinylestradiol in ovaries from 12-month-old female gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were investigated. Four experimental groups used were control (without treatment), EE/PRE (treated from the 18th to the 22nd gestational day), EE/PUB (treated from the 42nd to the 49th day of life), and EE/PRE-PUB (treated in the both periods). The animals were euthanized at 12 months. Testosterone and 17β-estradiol levels were measured. The ovaries were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Periodic Acid Schiff, and Gomori’s Trichome. The follicles, corpus luteum, interstitial gland, lipofuscin, ovarian epithelium, and tunica albuginea were analyzed. Estradiol was higher in EE/PRE and EE/PUB groups, while testosterone was higher only in EE/PUB group. The main changes in follicle count occurred in EE/PUB and EE/PRE-PUB groups, with higher primordial follicle count and lower maturation of follicles. The corpus luteum was more evident in EE/PRE group. No differences were found in atretic follicles count. A higher area occupied by interstitial gland cells and lipofuscin deposit in these cells was noted in EE/PUB and EE/PRE-PUB groups. Higher epithelium height and thicker tunic albuginea were showed in treated groups. These results suggest that exposure to doses of EE2 in prenatal and pubertal periods of the development leads to morphological changes in senile ovaries.
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer in women worldwide. Clinical research indicates that BC patients are at an increased risk for thrombotic events, drastically decreasing their quality-of-life and treatment outcomes. There is ample evidence of this in the literature, but it is mainly focused on metastatic BC. Therefore, coagulopathies of nonmetastatic BC are understudied and require in-depth investigation. In this study, clot kinetics and ultrastructure were used to investigate treatment-naïve, nonmetastatic BC patients using scanning electron microscopy, Thromboelastography®, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was demonstrated that nonmetastatic BC patients exhibit minimal ultrastructural alterations of the clot components and no changes in the clot kinetics. However, BC patients presented changes to fibrinogen protein structure, compared to matched controls, using an amyloid-selective stain. Together, these findings suggest that coagulation dysfunction(s) in BC patients with early disease manifest at the microlevel, rather than the macrolevel. This study presents novel insights to a method that are more sensitive to coagulation changes in this specific patient group, emphasizing that the coagulation system may react in different forms to the disease, depending on the progression of the disease itself.
Sex selection through sperm sorting offers advantages in regards selection pressure in high-producing livestock. However, the sex-sorting process results in sperm membrane and DNA damage that ultimately decrease fertility. We hypothesized that given the role of protamines in DNA packaging, protamine deficiency could account, at least partially, for the DNA damage observed following sperm sex sorting. To test this, we compared protamine status between unsexed and sexed spermatozoa from two bulls using the fluorochrome chromomycin A3 (CMA3) and flow cytometry. Then, we assessed embryo development following in vitro fertilization (IVF) using the same sperm treatments. Overall, sperm protamination was not different between sexed and unsexed semen. However, one of the two bulls displayed higher rates of protamine deficiency for both unsexed and sexed semen (P < 0.05). Moreover, unsexed semen from this bull yielded lower blastocyst (P < 0.05) and blastocyst hatching rates than unsexed sperm from the other bull. CMA3-positive staining was negatively correlated with cleavage (R2 85.1, P = 0.003) and blastocyst hatching (R2 87.6, P = 0.006) rates in unsexed semen. In conclusion, while the sex-sorting process had no effect on sperm protamine content, we observed a bull effect for sperm protamination, which correlated to embryo development rates following IVF.
To examine the association between urban food environment and regular consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) by older adults from a medium-sized Brazilian city.
Cross-sectional study based on data related to (1) objective assessment of establishments with predominant sale of unprocessed/minimally processed foods, mixed establishments and establishments with predominant sale of ultra-processed foods; (2) regular consumption of FV (≥ 5 times/week), health and socio-demographic variables of community-dwelling older adults. Tertiles of proximity between food establishments and older adults’ residence were calculated. Poisson generalised estimating equations with robust variance, adjusted for individual and contextual variables, were used to estimate the independent association between the proximity of establishments and regular consumption of FV.
Medium-sized Brazilian city.
Representative sample of community-dwelling older adults (n 549).
Older adults travelled the longest distances to establishments with predominant sale of unprocessed/minimally processed foods. The longer the distance to establishments with predominant sale of unprocessed/minimally processed foods, the lower the prevalence of regular consumption of FV (tertile 2: prevalence ratio (PR) = 0·86; 95 % CI = 0·74, 0·99; tertile 3: PR = 0·84; 95 % CI = 0·72, 0·97). Older adults living larger distance tertiles from establishments with predominant sale of ultra-processed foods, mixed establishments or all categories of establishments had 16 % (PR = 0·84; 95 % CI = 0·73, 0·96), 19 % (PR = 0·81; 95 % CI = 0·71, 0·93) and 19 % (PR = 0·81; 95 % CI = 0·70, 0·94) lower prevalence of regular consumption of FV, respectively.
The food environment is associated with regular consumption of FV among older adults. Longer distances from the residence of older adults to food establishments are independently associated with lower prevalence of regular consumption of FV.
We aimed at evaluating the association of maternal pre-pregnancy nutritional status with offspring anthropometry and body composition. We also evaluated whether these associations were modified by gender, diet and physical activity and mediated by birth weight.
Birth cohort study.
Waist circumference was measured with an inextensible tape, and fat and lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for possible confounders and allele score of BMI. We carried out mediation analysis using G-formula.
In 1982, 1993 and 2004, all maternity hospitals in Pelotas (South Brazil) were visited daily and all live births whose families lived in the urban area of the city were evaluated. These subjects have been followed up at different ages.
Offspring of obese mothers had on average higher BMI, waist circumference and fat mass index than those of normal weight mothers, and these differences were higher among daughters. The magnitudes of the association were similar in the cohorts, except for height, where the association pattern was not clear. In the 1982 cohort, further adjustment for a BMI allele score had no material influence on the magnitude of the associations. Mediation analyses showed that birth weight captured part of this association.
Our findings suggest that maternal pre-pregnancy nutritional status is positively associated with offspring BMI and adiposity in offspring. And this association is higher among daughters whose mother was overweight or obese and, birth weight explains part of this association.
This article, on the Early Neolithic pottery from the Cabeço da Amoreira shellmidden in the Muge region of central Portugal, presents a detailed review of the evidence to date and a systematic analysis of the decorative and mineralogical characteristics of the stratified and radiocarbon-dated ceramic assemblage. A homogenous pottery manufacturing tradition seems to be present right from the beginning, including both local and non-local ceramics. The authors formulate a working hypothesis on the geographic origin of the exogenous pottery, which contributes to the discussion of the dynamics of mobility and social networks in the Neolithization of south-western Europe.
Austenitic stainless steel is used in several industrial branches due to its mechanical and thermal properties, and to its good corrosion resistance. With low cost and biocompatibility, it is used to manufacture prostheses and devices for bone fixation. However, direct contact with body fluids may cause corrosion. Thin films of FeAlCr intermetallic alloy can be used to increase service life of prostheses and avoid replacement surgeries. The aim of this work was to cover the austenitic stainless steel to study the effect of target–substrate distance on the film characteristics. Coatings were performed using the magnetron sputtering technique with the substrate positioned at different distances from the target. The influence on film thickness, morphology, roughness, and adhesion to the substrate was investigated. The thin films of FeAlCr (160 nm thick deposited at 100 mm far from the substrate) were formed by smaller particles (11.2 nm long), densely packed (551,000 particles/mm2), with flat and regular appearance, and greater adherence to the substrate.
This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test in a highly endemic area in Brazil, comparing it to the Kato-Katz (KK) technique for sensitivity, specificity and the intensity of the reaction of the test in relation to the parasitic load. The community in Sergipe, Brazil, participated in the study, providing three stool samples, one of urine (POC-CCA) and fingers tick blood sample was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy, kappa coefficient and Spearman's correlation were calculated for the POC-CCA test using the KK as the reference. The prevalence of schistosomiasis by KK testing was 48.82%; POC-CCA (t+) 66.14%; POC-CCA (t−) 45.24%. ELISA results showed 100% agreement in individuals with high and moderate eggs per gram (EPG). POC-CCA presented good diagnostic performance in individuals with medium and high EPG, but there were a high number of false negatives in individuals with low intensity infections. As observed, POC-CCA-filter test improves accuracy and sensitivity compared to a conventional test.
Selective motor inhibition is known to decline with age. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of failures at inhibitory control of adjacent finger movements while performing a repetitive finger tapping task in young, middle-aged and older adults. Potential education and sex effects were also evaluated.
Kinematic recordings of adjacent finger movements were obtained on 107 healthy adults (ages 20–80) while they performed a modified version of the Halstead Finger Tapping Test (HTFF). Study participants were instructed to inhibit all finger movements while tapping with the index finger.
Inability to inhibit adjacent finger movements while performing the task was infrequent in young adults (2.9% of individuals between 20 and 39 years of age) but increased with age (23.3% between the ages of 40 and 59; 31.0% between ages 60 and 80). Females and males did not differ in their inability to inhibit adjacent finger movements, but individuals with a college education showed a lower frequency of failure to inhibit adjacent finger movements (10.3%) compared to those with a high school education (28.6%). These findings were statistically significant only for the dominant hand.
Selective motor inhibition failures are most common in the dominant hand and occur primarily in older healthy adults while performing the modified version of the HFTT. Monitoring selective motor inhibition failures may have diagnostic significance.
We study the effect of insoluble surfactants on the wave dynamics of vertically falling liquid films. We use three-dimensional numerical simulations and employ a hybrid interface-tracking/level-set method, taking into account Marangoni stresses induced by gradients of interfacial surfactant concentration. Our numerical predictions for the evolution of the surfactant-free, three-dimensional wave topology are validated against the experimental work of Park & Nosoko (AIChE J., vol. 49, 2003, pp. 2715–2727). The addition of surfactants is found to influence significantly the development of horseshoe-shaped waves. At low Marangoni numbers, we show that the wave fronts exhibit spanwise oscillations before eventually acquiring a quasi-two-dimensional shape. In addition, the presence of Marangoni stresses is found to suppress the peaks of the travelling waves and preceding capillary wave structures. At high Marangoni numbers, a near-complete rigidification of the interface is observed.
Few options are available for controlling bermudagrass invasion of seashore paspalum. Bermudagrass and seashore paspalum tolerance to topramezone, triclopyr, or the combination of these two herbicides were evaluated in both greenhouse and field conditions. Field treatments included two sequential applications of topramezone (15.6 g ai ha−1) alone and five rates of topramezone + triclopyr (15.6 + 43.2, 15.6 + 86.3, 15.6 + 172.6, 15.6 + 345.2, or 15.6 g ai ha−1 + 690.4 g ae ha−1). Secondary greenhouse treatments included a single application of topramezone (20.8 g ha−1) or triclopyr (258.9 g ha−1) alone, or in combination at 20.8 + 258.9 or 20.8 + 517.8 g ha−1, respectively. Greenhouse and field results showed that topramezone applications in combination with triclopyr present opposite responses between bermudagrass and seashore paspalum. Topramezone increased bermudagrass injury and decreased seashore paspalum bleaching injury compared to topramezone alone. In field evaluations, topramezone + triclopyr at 15.6 + 690.4 g ha−1 used in sequential applications resulted in >90% injury to bermudagrass, however, injury decreased over time. Furthermore, sequential applications of topramezone + triclopyr at 15.6 + 690.4 g ha−1 resulted in >50% injury to seashore paspalum. Application programs including topramezone plus triclopyr should increase bermudagrass suppression and reduce seashore paspalum injury compared to topramezone alone. However, additional studies are needed because such practices will likely require manipulation of topramezone rate, application timing, application interval, and number of applications in order to maximize bermudagrass control and minimize seashore paspalum injury.
Breakfast is considered as the most important meal of the day. The habit of skipping this meal in adolescence tends to remain until adulthood and has been associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. The present study estimated the prevalence of skipping breakfast and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors. This is a cross-sectional study with data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), with a nationally representative sample of 36 956 Brazilian adolescents, aged 12–17 years, enrolled in public and private schools. The outcomes were excess body weight (BMI), central obesity (waist circumference and waist:height ratio), lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and TAG) and glycidic profile (fasting glycaemia, fasting insulin and glycated Hb). The association between skipping breakfast and each outcome was estimated using multiple Poisson regression models (prevalence ratio (PR) and 95 % CI). Prevalence of skipping breakfast was 68·7 % and, after adjustments, it was associated with excess body weight (PR = 1·30; 95 % CI 1·18, 1·43), central obesity both by waist circumference (PR = 1·27; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·61) and by waist:height ratio (PR = 1·32; 95 % CI 1·13, 1·54) and high fasting glucose levels (PR = 1·54; 95 % CI 1·09, 2·18), fasting insulin (PR = 1·64; 95 % CI 1·21, 2·22), glycated Hb (PR = 1·16; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·31) and total cholesterol (PR = 1·14; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·27). Skipping breakfast was associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescence. In this context, the school environment is an ideal space to promote healthy eating habits, favouring the implementation of food and nutrition education activities to make adolescents aware of the importance of consuming breakfast daily.