To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This study investigated subjective memory complaints in older adults and the roles of setting, response bias, and personality.
Cognitively normal older adults from two settings completed questionnaires measuring memory complaints, response bias, and personality.
(A) Neuroimaging study with community-based recruitment and (B) academic memory clinic.
Cognitively normal older adults who (A) volunteer for research (N = 92) or (B) self-referred to a memory clinic (N = 20).
Neuropsychological evaluation and adjudication of normal cognitive status were done by the neuroimaging study or memory clinic. This study administered self-reports of subjective memory complaints, response bias, five-factor personality, and depressive symptoms. Primary group differences were examined with secondary sensitivity analyses to control for sex, age, and education differences.
There was no significant difference in over-reporting response bias between study settings. Under-reporting response bias was higher in volunteers. Cognitive complaints were associated with response bias for two cognitive complaint measures. Neuroticism was positively associated with over-reporting in evaluation-seekers and negatively associated with under-reporting in volunteers. The relationship was reversed for Extraversion. Under-reporting bias was positively correlated with Agreeableness and Conscientiousness in volunteers.
Evaluation-seekers do not show bias toward over-reporting symptoms compared to volunteers. Under-reporting response bias may be important to consider when screening for memory impairment in non-help-seeking settings. The Memory Functioning Questionnaire was less sensitive to reporting biases. Over-reporting may be a facet of higher Neuroticism. Findings help elucidate psychological influences on self-perceived cognitive decline and help seeking in aging and may inform different strategies for assessment by setting.
Members of an emergency department (ED) staff need to be prepared for mass casualty incidents (MCIs) at all times. Didactic sessions, drills, and functional exercises have shown to be effective, but it is challenging to find time and resources for appropriate training. We conducted brief, task-specific drills (deemed “disaster huddles”) in a pediatric ED (PED) to examine if such an approach could be an alternative or supplement to traditional MCI training paradigms. Over the course of the study, we observed an improving trend in the overall score for administrative disaster preparedness. Disaster huddles may be an effective way to improve administrative disaster preparedness in the PED. Low-effort, low-time commitment education could be an attractive way for further disaster preparedness efforts. Further studies are indicated to show a potential impact on lasting behavior and patient outcomes.
Ensuring appropriate review, approval, and oversight of research involving animals becomes increasingly complex when researchers collaborate across multiple sites. In these situations, it is important that the division of responsibilities is clear and that all involved parties share a common understanding. The National Institutes of Health Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare and the United States Department of Agriculture Animal Plant Health Inspection Service require an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) to review the care and use of animals in research, and both agree that it is acceptable for one IACUC to review the work taking place at multiple institutions. With this in mind, several Harvard-affiliated hospitals and academic centers developed the Master Reciprocal Institutional Agreement for Animal Care and Use (Master IACUC Agreement) to support collaboration, decrease administrative burden, increase efficiencies, reduce duplicative efforts, and ensure appropriate protections for animals used in research. Locally, the Master IACUC Agreement has fostered greater collaboration and exchange while ensuring appropriate review and oversight of research involving animals. As multisite animal protocols become more prevalent, this Agreement could provide a model for a distributed, national network of IACUC reliance.
To determine how children interpret terms related to food processing; whether their categorisation of foods according to processing level is consistent with those used in research; and whether they associate the degree of processing with healthfulness.
Qualitative data were collected from ten focus groups. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was conducted.
Four elementary and afterschool programmes in a large, urban school district in the USA that served predominantly low-income, racial/ethnic minority students.
Children, 9–12 years old, in the fourth–sixth grades (n 53).
The sample was 40 % male, 47 % Hispanic with a mean age of 10·4 ± 1·1 years. Children’s understanding of unprocessed foods was well aligned with research classifications, while concordance of highly processed foods with research categorisations varied. Five primary themes regarding the way children categorised foods according to their processing level emerged: type and amount of added ingredients; preparation method; packaging and storage; change in physical state or sensory experience; and growing method. Most children associated processing level with healthfulness, describing unprocessed foods as healthier. The most common reason provided for the unhealthfulness of processed foods was added ingredients, including ‘chemicals’ and ‘sugar’.
The current study demonstrated that children have a working knowledge of processing that could be leveraged to encourage healthier eating patterns; however, their understanding is not always consistent with the classification systems used in research. The vocabulary used by researchers and consumers to talk about processing must be reconciled to translate findings into actionable messages.
This paper studies the macroeconomic effects of shocks to idiosyncratic business risk in an economy with endogenously incomplete markets. I develop a model in which firms face idiosyncratic risk and obtain insurance from intermediaries through contracts akin to credit lines. Insurance is imperfect due to limited commitment in financial contracts. Although steady-state capital is higher than if firms were constrained to issue only standard equity, a rise in uncertainty about idiosyncratic business outcomes leads to an endogenous reduction in risk sharing. This deterioration in risk sharing results from a general-equilibrium shortage of pledgeable assets and implies that the economy’s response to an increase in idiosyncratic business risk can be amplified by financial contracting rather than dampened. In a parametrized version of the model, a rise in idiosyncratic business risk generates a large increase in uncertainty about aggregate investment.
In the philosophy of mind and language, “externalism” is a label for a class of doctrines regarding the conditions that determine the intentional, representational properties of words and/or mental states. Originating in the 1960s and 1970s in the “New Theory of Reference” for singular terms, by the late 1970s externalist views spread into the philosophy of mind as well. Accordingly, there are externalist doctrines regarding the factors that determine the reference of an expression (as used on an occasion), the linguistic meaning of an expression (in a given language), and the content of a mental state. This chapter presents a historical overview of the emergence and variety of externalist doctrines, the arguments that have been given for them, and the ways in which they have been resisted.
Court records have conventionally been analysed from the perspective of what they tell us about people's engagement with law, or to generate information about the local economy, social networks and the like. This chapter proposes instead to focus on the fictive nature of court records, including depositions from Church courts, and to explore issues of narrative and narrative structure. The concern is less with what we can learn from the information recorded, such as the nature and value of goods in debt cases or patterns of litigation by status or gender, but rather to ask what the narrative strategies adopted by litigants or by those charged with recording cases tell us about contemporary values and anxieties. Realising and trying to understand this may help us better comprehend the underlying information recorded; it is also of value in its own right as a window into the cultural values and mentalité of civic magistrates or of canon lawyers, and of the bourgeois men and women who were the primary users of the urban courts. The chapter will draw upon a small number of case studies chosen from different kinds of court record and different urban communities, but all from the last years of the fourteenth and early years of the fifteenth century, to make its arguments.
We can think about court records in terms of three distinct stages or historical moments, where the third stage is the use by modern scholars of the extant records. The first stage is represented by the historic event or events that generate the litigation in the first place. So, in a disputed marriage case, for example, a couple exchange loving words signifying that they desire to be married to one another. Or maybe – as the defendant in the subsequent court action will claim – they do not, because the man (it usually is the man) was someone else at the time. What actually happened – history ‘wie es eigentlich gewesen’ (how it really was), as von Ranke famously put it – is fixed, but also always beyond our reach. We can access evidence for that history only in the form of documents that by their nature dispute these past events.
This chapter shows that fusion in the United States, particularly under the influence of Legal Realism, has seen all of tort law become equitable – or all of tort law swallowed up by equity. Each of tort and equity has, under this influence, the potential to swallow up all of private law. The chapter shows, however, the tort law is nevertheless distinct – particularly from equity. Tort law rules are general commands simply understood and relatively simply applied. They are intended to guide the behaviour of all people. Equity, in contrast, mainly consists of second-order rules: rules that presuppose other rules, and control how those other rules work. Fusion is explored by seeing where tort law rules have been injected with second-order (equitable) rules and where equity has produced a doctrine that has become embedded in the law as a set of first-order rules. There is a case for having both first- and second-order rules in the law today.