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Supraglacial streams are a significant part of the glacial hydrological system and important for understanding glacial hydrology and dynamics. Here we infer factors that influence the long-term development of perennial supraglacial streams, particularly in reference to canyon, incised and surface stream formation. Orthophotos and digital elevation models generated from high-resolution aerial imagery taken with unmanned aerial vehicles or piloted helicopters between 2010 and 2017 were used to compare seven streams on Fountain Glacier, Bylot Island, Canada over time. Results show canyon formation occurs from a combination of fluvial processes and the impact of solar radiation. The greater the discharge or slope, the faster the incision and higher the sinuosity. With greater sinuosity, the distance between the top of the valley banks increases, and cutoffs cause trapezoidal canyon-like valleys to form. Solar radiation causes the backward migration of the valley walls, further enhancing canyon area. Canyons are less likely to occur in areas of low discharge and slope. Less incised channels are also more likely to have water flow jumping the channel banks, changing the channel path. The presence of medial moraines and crevasses also increases rerouting of small streams. Lastly, windblown created snow-plugs may lead to stream diversion.
Banked human milk (BHM) has inherent infectious risks, even when pasteurized. Because of the ubiquity of Bacillus cereus in the environment and its ability to resist the Holder pasteurization process, there is a concern that BHM might lead to severe B. cereus infections.
We reviewed observed and published cases to determine the potential causal role of BHM as the source of these infections.
Two infants in the province of Québec (Canada) developed a B. cereus neonatal infection, and both had received BHM. We conducted bacteriological studies to compare clinical isolates and those found in these cases.
After extended culture of BHM retention lots, B. cereus was found to have been involved in batches related to the first case. However, molecular typing showed that the strain was different from the clinical isolate, therefore excluding BHM as the source of contamination. In the second case, a Brevibacillus spp was isolated, a species distinct from the clinical isolate.
Based on these cases and others reported in the literature, a causal link between B. cereus contaminated BHM and preterm neonatal infection has never been documented. Therefore, the risk that BHM can cause this infection remains theoretical. Given the widespread presence of B. cereus in the hospital environment and its capacity to resist standard cleaning procedures, it seems likely that airborne or direct or indirect contact are the main sources of most, if not all, cases of severe B. cereus neonatal infections, even in babies exposed to BHM.
Endophytes are microorganisms that colonise the internal compartments of host plants without harming the host. In many cases, endophytic bacteria have been shown to provide several beneficial effects to their host plant, including growth-promoting activity, modulation of plant metabolism and phytohormone signalling that leads to adaptation to environmental abiotic or biotic stresses. Endophytic bacterial community structure is influenced by plant genotype, soil type, abiotic and biotic factors, such as environmental conditions and microbe–microbe/plant–microbe interactions. In addition, agricultural management practices, such as soil tillage, crop rotation, and fertiliser and pesticide applications have a major effect on the function and structure of the soil, rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial communities. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is an important break crop in cereal crop rotation and can significantly reduce the rate of ‘take-all’ fungal disease (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici) and, as a result, improves the yield of subsequent cereal crops. Additionally, oilseed rape is the world’s third largest source of vegetable oil used for human nutrition and as a source of oil for biodiesel production. Therefore, the promotion of agricultural practices that maintain the natural diversity of B. napus endophytic bacteria is receiving attention as an important element for a sustainable agricultural system that ensures crop productivity and quality while reducing inputs. This chapter reviews the existing literature on the role of endophytic bacteria in oilseed rape crop production, agricultural factors influencing oilseed rape bacterial diversity and discusses how meta-omics is enhancing our understanding of the endophytic bacteria and their function.
Food insecurity is a potent determinant of health and indicator of material deprivation in many affluent countries. Food insecurity is associated with compromises in food and housing expenditures, but how it relates to other expenditures is unknown. The present study described households’ resource allocation over a 12-month period by food insecurity status.
Expenditure data from the 2010 Survey of Household Spending were aggregated into four categories (basic needs, other necessities, discretionary, investments/assets) and ten sub-categories (food, clothing, housing, transportation, household/personal care, health/education, leisure, miscellaneous, personal insurance/pension, durables/assets). A four-level food insecurity status was created using the adult-specific items of the Household Food Security Survey Module. Mean dollars spent and budget share by food insecurity status were estimated with generalized linear models adjusted first for household size and composition, and subsequently for after-tax income quartiles.
Population-based sample of households from the ten provinces (n 9050).
Food-secure households had higher mean total expenditures than marginally, moderately and severely food-insecure households (P-trend <0·0001). As severity of food insecurity increased, households spent less on all categories and sub-categories, except transportation, but they allocated a larger budget share to basic needs and smaller shares to discretionary spending and investments/assets. The downward trends for dollars spent on basic needs and other necessities became non-significant after accounting for income, but the upward trend in the budget shares for basic needs persisted.
The spending patterns of food-insecure households suggest that they prioritized essential needs above all else.
Limbic white matter pathways link emotion, cognition, and behavior and are potentially malleable to the influences of traumatic events throughout development. However, the impact of interactions between childhood and later life trauma on limbic white matter pathways has yet to be examined. Here, we examined whether childhood maltreatment moderated the effect of combat exposure on diffusion tensor imaging measures within a sample of military veterans (N = 28). We examined five limbic tracts of interest: two components of the cingulum (cingulum, cingulate gyrus, and cingulum hippocampus [CGH]), the uncinate fasciculus, the fornix/stria terminalis, and the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Using effect sizes, clinically meaningful moderator effects were found only within the CGH. Greater combat exposure was associated with decreased CGH fractional anisotropy (overall structural integrity) and increased CGH radial diffusivity (perpendicular water diffusivity) among individuals with more severe childhood maltreatment. Our findings provide preliminary evidence of the moderating effect of childhood maltreatment on the relationship between combat exposure and CGH structural integrity. These differences in CGH structural integrity could have maladaptive implications for emotion and memory, as well as provide a potential mechanism by which childhood maltreatment induces vulnerability to later life trauma exposure.
In order to enable the wine industry to anticipate in field work and marketing strategies, it is necessary to provide early assessments of vine productivity. The proposed method is designed for the detection and the measurement of grape bunches between the flowering season and the early fruition stages, before ‘groat-size’. The method consists of determining the affiliation of a pixel to a grape cluster based on colorimetric and texture features, using an SVM supervised classifier. The eventual affiliation of the pixels is achieved with an average reliability above 75%, which lets us envision in the near future the possibility of estimating the real number of grape bunches.
The rise of China has sparked a debate about the economic and political consequences for the global economy of the internationalisation of the renminbi. We argue that the dominant focus of this literature – primarily the external conditions and requirements for a national currency to become an international currency – misspecifies the connections between the international and domestic requirements for currency internationalisation, as well as the potential to become the dominant international reserve currency. We correct this oversight by developing an integrated theoretical framework that highlights the domestic adjustment costs which a state must accommodate before its currency can carry the weight of internationalisation. These costs constitute a critical element of an international currency’s ‘political economy’, and they force states to negotiate contentious social trade-offs among competing domestic claims on finite public resources in a sustainable manner. Our analysis suggests that the likelihood of China being able to successfully negotiate the social costs associated with running a fully internationalised currency is currently very low, precisely because this will place unacceptable pressure on groups benefiting from the economic and political status quo. This further suggests that the American dollar will remain unchallenged as the global economy’s pre-eminent international currency for the foreseeable future.
The Great War ushered in a new era of long-distance combat. For the first time, weapons with a very long range were massively deployed, in previously unheard-of places: under the sea and in the air. Stealth fighting also included espionage and propaganda, now orchestrated on a global scale. In reaction to the carnage in the trenches, a degree of moral rehabilitation came to be conferred on the weapons initially associated with a “cowards’ war”. This in turn encouraged experimentation with the new, unmanned technology that would lead to the first prototypes of guided munitions and drones.
This paper focuses on evidence from firewood remains from a Napoleonic camp
located at Étaples (in the north of France), inhabited between 1803 and
1805. The combination of archaeological and relevant historical records
indicates that wood resources, stockpiled for lighting and heating by the
soldiers, may have originated from two distinct areas: the army's official
forest and also the area around the camp, indicating possible difficulties
in wood supply at the end of its occupation. This study, therefore, uses
archaeological charcoal to reinforce military historical sources in
understanding firewood economy and the harsh everyday life of the Napoleonic
soldier at the beginning of the nineteenth century.
Supraglacial streams are a significant part of the glacial hydrological system and important for understanding the connection between glacial hydrology and glacier dynamics. Here we determine the factors that influence the development of step-pool formation and pulsating flow in a supraglacial stream on Bylot Island, Nunavut. Results show that during the second week of a 2-week study, multiple successive rainfall events occurred, stream temperature increased and ablation decreased; which also caused stream discharge to decrease. In addition, the stream, which flowed over a 13 m high waterfall off the front of Fountain Glacier, rapidly formed 21 step-pools and began to pulsate. The pulsating phenomenon involved the complete stoppage of flow over the waterfall and the subsequent restart between 8 and 20 s later. Pulsating flow resulted from rapid changes in the streambed morphology. In particular, the formation of the step-pool sequence was caused by helical flow around meander bends and hydrologically induced slippage along transverse shear planes, evidenced by observations of high-pressure artesian flow from transverse fractures. Contrary to previous literature, this study shows that high discharge is not necessarily the cause of step-pool formation and pulsating flow within supraglacial streams.
Conducting research with the bereaved presents an immediate ethical challenge, as they are undoubtedly a vulnerable group, associated with high levels of distress and susceptible to both physical and mental health issues. A comprehensive understanding of the potential therapeutic benefits for bereaved relatives participating in palliative care research is limited, and therefore the ethics of engaging this group remain questionable.
This paper describes a secondary analysis of qualitative data collected in the Care of the Dying Evaluation (CODE) project, examining the experiences of patients who died at home. It explores the motivations and potential benefits for bereaved relatives participating in research with reference to the recently developed concepts in bereavement theory. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 15 bereaved relatives and secondary analysis using a content analysis framework was employed to classify the data.
The results center around six recurring concepts identified as adaptive in current bereavement theory: an opportunity to share the narrative accounts of the final hours of their relative's life; a search for sense and meaning in loss; an ongoing bond/attachment with the deceased; altruistic motivations; oscillation between loss and restorative orientations; and a sense of resilience. Overall, the participants found that taking part in the research was valuable and that it could be described as offering therapeutic benefits.
Significance of results:
The need for bereaved relatives to take part in research studies should be encouraged, as they provide an accurate proxy for the patient's experience of end-of-life care while also providing a valuable account of their own perspective as family member and carer. In addition, we highlight the need for ethics committees to be aware of the potential benefits for bereaved relatives participating in research of this kind.
Though very little is known about Judith Quiney, commentators do not shrink from casually disparaging her. Because at 31 years old Shakespeare's younger daughter was still unmarried, it is assumed that she was unattractive. It is all the more remarkable, then, that Judith became the wife of a scion of the most distinguished and successful family in Stratford. He, we are told, ‘did not prove a satisfactory husband’, and theirs was ‘not a fortunate union’, though it lasted for nearly fifty years (Fripp 1924, p. 205).
At some point in her childhood, Judith's father went away and ended up in London. Somehow Anne Shakespeare, and her three children, Susanna, Judith and her twin Hamnet, survived until August 1596 when Hamnet died. Summer, when virulent fevers stalked the land, was often a time of high mortality but in Stratford that August only five deaths are recorded, three of them new-borns (Holy Trinity Parish Register, 243/1). Perhaps Hamnet had always been frail; perhaps he had suffered in the womb; perhaps he was carrying a birth injury. No member of the Shakespeare family would have felt the loss of Hamnet more keenly than his womb-sister. Within a year her mother would take on the mammoth task of restoring New Place together with the training of her own female workforce.
Judith then joined the ranks of vanishing women. If we examine the records of Holy Trinity we find that of the thirty-nine girls who were christened the same year as Judith, a third were buried before they reached marriageable age. Of the other twenty-six, only three were married in Stratford, and another was buried unmarried (Holy Trinity Parish Register, 243/1). If the others ever married, an outcome by no means certain, it was in their employers’ parishes rather than their own.
I have decided in default of better information that, if at the age of thirteen or thereabouts Judith Shakespeare was placed in service, she was sent no further than the house of Richard Quiney and his wife Bess in the High Street. This is how I interpret the fact that she was called upon to witness a deed of enfeoffment (transfer of land) for Bess Quiney and her son Adrian in 1611 (SBTRO, ER 27/11).
Childhood maltreatment can disturb brain development and subsequently lead to adverse socioemotional and mental health problems across the life span. The long-term association between childhood maltreatment and resting–wake brain activity during adulthood is unknown and was examined in the current study. Forty-one medically stable and medication-free military veterans (M = 29.31 ± 6.01 years, 78% male) completed a battery of clinical assessments and had [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography neuroimaging scans during quiet wakefulness. After statistically adjusting for later-life trauma and mental health problems, childhood maltreatment was negatively associated with brain activity within a priori defined regions that included the left orbital frontal cortex and left hippocampus. Childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with increased and decreased brain activity within six additional whole-brain clusters that included the frontal, parietal–temporal, cerebellar, limbic, and midbrain regions. Childhood maltreatment is associated with altered neural activity in adulthood within regions that are involved in executive functioning and cognitive control, socioemotional processes, autonomic functions, and sleep/wake regulation. This study provides support for taking a life span developmental approach to understanding the effects of early-life maltreatment on later-life neurobiology, socioemotional functioning, and mental health.