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Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained in childhood is associated with poor social outcomes. This study investigated the role of theory of mind (ToM) as a mediator of the relation between TBI and peer rejection/victimization and reciprocated friendships, as well as the moderating effect of parental nurturance on those relationships. Method: Participants were children of 8–13 years old (M = 10.45, SD = 1.47), including 13 with severe TBI, 39 with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 32 children with orthopedic injuries. Data on peer rejection/victimization and friendship were collected in school classrooms using the Extended Class Play and friendship nominations. Parents rated parental nurturance using the Child-Rearing Practices Report. Finally, ToM was measured based on children’s average performance across three tasks measuring different aspects of ToM. Results: Severe TBI was associated with poorer ToM, greater peer rejection/victimization, and fewer reciprocated friendships. ToM mediated the relation between severe TBI and peer rejection/victimization (i.e., severe TBI predicted poorer ToM, which in turn predicted greater rejection/victimization). Parental nurturance significantly moderated this relation, such that the mediating effect of ToM was significant only at low and average levels of parental nurturance, for both severe and complicated mild/moderate TBI groups. Neither the mediating effect of ToM nor the moderating effect of parental nurturance was significant for reciprocated friendships. Conclusion: High parental nurturance may mitigate the negative effects of ToM deficits on risk of peer rejection/victimization among children with TBI. Interventions designed to increase parental nurturance or ToM may promote better social outcomes among children with TBI.
Acute blood loss represents a leading cause of death in both civilian and battlefield trauma, despite the prioritization of massive hemorrhage control by well-adopted trauma guidelines. Current Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) and Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (TECC) guidelines recommend the application of a tourniquet to treat life-threatening extremity hemorrhages. While extremely effective at controlling blood loss, the proper application of a tourniquet is associated with severe pain and could lead to transient loss of limb function impeding the ability to self-extricate or effectively employ weapons systems. As a potential alternative, Innovative Trauma Care (San Antonio, Texas USA) has developed an external soft-tissue hemostatic clamp that could potentially provide effective hemorrhage control without the aforementioned complications and loss of limb function. Thus, this study sought to investigate the effectiveness of blood loss control by an external soft-tissue hemostatic clamp versus a compression tourniquet.
The external soft-tissue hemostatic clamp would be non-inferior at controlling intravascular fluid loss after damage to the femoral and popliteal arteries in a normotensive, coagulopathic, cadaveric lower-extremity flow model using an inert blood analogue, as compared to a compression tourniquet.
Using a fresh cadaveric model with simulated vascular flow, this study sought to compare the effectiveness of the external soft-tissue hemostatic clamp versus the compression tourniquet to control fluid loss in simulated trauma resulting in femoral and posterior tibial artery lacerations using a coagulopathic, normotensive, cadaveric-extremity flow model. A sample of 16 fresh, un-embalmed, human cadaver lower extremities was used in this randomized, balanced two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, crossover design. Statistical significance of the treatment comparisons was assessed with paired t-tests. Results were expressed as the mean and standard deviation (SD).
Mean intravascular fluid loss was increased from simulated arterial wounds with the external soft-tissue hemostatic clamp as compared to the compression tourniquet at the lower leg (119.8mL versus 15.9mL; P <.001) and in the thigh (103.1mL versus 5.2mL; P <.001).
In this hemorrhagic, coagulopathic, cadaveric-extremity experimental flow model, the use of the external soft-tissue hemostatic clamp as a hasty hemostatic adjunct was associated with statistically significant greater fluid loss than with the use of the compression tourniquet.
Paquette R, Bierle R, Wampler D, Allen P, Cooley C, Ramos R, Michalek J, Gerhardt RT. External soft-tissue hemostatic clamp compared to a compression tourniquet as primary hemorrhage control device in pilot flow model study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):175–181
Objectives: The current study examines whether psychosocial outcomes following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) vary as a function of children’s rejection sensitivity (RS), defined as their disposition to be hypersensitive to cues of rejection from peers. Methods: Children ages 8–13 with a history of severe TBI (STBI, n=16), complicated mild/moderate TBI (n=35), or orthopedic injury (OI, n=49) completed measures assessing self-esteem and RS on average 3.28 years post-injury (SD=1.33, range=1.25–6.34). Parents reported on their child’s emotional and behavioral functioning and social participation. Results: Regression analyses found moderation of group differences by RS for three outcomes: social participation, self-perceptions of social acceptance, and externalizing behavior problems. Conditional effects at varying levels of RS indicated that externalizing problems and social participation were significantly worse for children with STBI at high levels of RS, compared to children with OI. Social participation for the STBI group remained significantly lower than the OI group at mean levels of RS, but not at low levels of RS. At high levels of RS, self-perceptions of social acceptance were lower for children with moderate TBI compared to OI, but group differences were not significant at mean or low levels of RS. No evidence of moderation was found for global self-worth, self-perceptions of physical appearance or athletic ability, or internalizing problems. Conclusions: The findings highlight the salient nature of social outcomes in the context of varying levels of RS. These findings may have implications for the design of interventions to improve social outcomes following TBI. (JINS, 2017, 23, 451–459)
Objectives: This study examined whether children with distinct brain disorders show different profiles of strengths and weaknesses in executive functions, and differ from children without brain disorder. Methods: Participants were children with traumatic brain injury (N=82; 8–13 years of age), arterial ischemic stroke (N=36; 6–16 years of age), and brain tumor (N=74; 9–18 years of age), each with a corresponding matched comparison group consisting of children with orthopedic injury (N=61), asthma (N=15), and classmates without medical illness (N=68), respectively. Shifting, inhibition, and working memory were assessed, respectively, using three Test of Everyday Attention: Children’s Version (TEA-Ch) subtests: Creature Counting, Walk-Don’t-Walk, and Code Transmission. Comparison groups did not differ in TEA-Ch performance and were merged into a single control group. Profile analysis was used to examine group differences in TEA-Ch subtest scaled scores after controlling for maternal education and age. Results: As a whole, children with brain disorder performed more poorly than controls on measures of executive function. Relative to controls, the three brain injury groups showed significantly different profiles of executive functions. Importantly, post hoc tests revealed that performance on TEA-Ch subtests differed among the brain disorder groups. Conclusions: Results suggest that different childhood brain disorders result in distinct patterns of executive function deficits that differ from children without brain disorder. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. (JINS, 2017, 23, 529–538)
We use cyclic charge-discharge experiments to evaluate the capacity retention rates of two quinone-bromide flow batteries (QBFBs). These aqueous QBFBs use a negative electrolyte containing either anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS) or anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS) dissolved in sulfuric acid, and a positive electrolyte containing bromine and hydrobromic acid. We find that the AQS cell exhibits a significantly lower capacity retention rate than the AQDS cell. The observed AQS capacity fade is corroborated by NMR evidence that suggests the formation of hydroxylated products in the electrolyte in place of AQS. We further cycle the AQDS cell and observe a capacity fade rate extrapolating to 30% loss of active species after 5000 cycles. After about 180 cycles, bromine crossover leads to sufficient electrolyte imbalance to accelerate the capacity fade rate, indicating that the actual realization of long cycle life will require bromine rebalancing or a membrane less permeable than Nafion® to molecular bromine.
Some voices in American sociology maintain to this day, or so it seems, that Talcott Parsons, the staunch defender of American democracy, was apolitical inasmuch as he dubbed himself an “incurable theorist.” Critics even accuse him of having been utterly conservative, if not inadvertently a fellow traveler of fascism in Germany. The charge was refuted as preposterous as soon as it was raised (again) in the 1990s, but the label had been given to him just before the 1960s, raised as it was by the then “angry young men,” the mentors of The Disobedient Generation.
Parsons, to note, had been horrified by what National Socialism did to German politics and culture, destroying as it did Weimar democracy even prior to the ascendency to power of the Nazis in 1933. In a four-year effort, in The Structure of Social Action, Parsons completed an analysis of anomic society that characterized the Germany of his day, contrasting it with the integrated society of the New Deal in the United States. He opposed Nazi Germany openly when the pogroms of November 1938 made it obvious that the inhumanity of the regime was no mere transient feature but actually threatened the culture of civilization as such:
To mention no other considerations, that which is, as a cultural movement, distinctive about National Socialism is deeply hostile, in particular to the spirit of science and the great academic tradition, and more generally to the whole great cultural and institutional tradition of which these are an integral part. This makes it necessarily a deadly enemy for us. We must oppose it with all our strength.
Six years later, in November 1944, his condemnation of National Socialism had lost none of its rigor, but his sociological understanding of German fascism had gained considerably in conceptual depth and ability to account for historical facts. He jotted down in notes titled “The Case of Germany” the characteristics of the regime whose mass crimes were becoming increasingly undeniable by the day:
Grandest scale movement of violent group prejudice & socially organized hostility to others of which we have record anywhere.
We present here the best of a series of models of the Magellanic stream. The dominant force in these models is gas drag. Gaseous cloudlets are torn from the bridge between the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds as the Magellanic system passes through a hot gaseous halo about our galaxy. The cloudlets are then stretched apart from each other by tidal and drag forces to form the Magellanic stream. Our best model closely reproduces the position of the stream on the sky and the run of radial velocities along the Magellanic stream. The agreement is almost as good as the best purely tidal model. In our best model the Magellanic system is only loosely bound to our galaxy and is on the first encounter with it. This overcomes some of the problems with purely tidal models. Our series of models indicate that there is a wide range of parameters that will produce a reasonable stream under the forces of gas drag and gravity.
Four examples of dwarf galaxies apparently undergoing mass loss are discussed. All have an Hα morphology suggesting a minor axis flow. This is supported by velocity field measurements in three cases. All also have at least one compact central object, probably a young star cluster, apparently powering the flow. Some implications of these results are briefly discussed.
This study examined differences in friendship quality between children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and orthopedic injury (OI) and behavioral outcomes for children from both groups. Participants were 41 children with TBI and 43 children with OI (M age=10.4). Data were collected using peer- and teacher-reported measures of participants’ social adjustment and parent-reported measures of children’s post-injury behaviors. Participants and their mutually nominated best friends also completed a measure of the quality of their friendships. Children with TBI reported significantly more support and satisfaction in their friendships than children with OI. Children with TBI and their mutual best friend were more similar in their reports of friendship quality compared to children with OI and their mutual best friends. Additionally, for children with TBI who were rejected by peers, friendship support buffered against maladaptive psychosocial outcomes, and predicted skills related to social competence. Friendship satisfaction was related to higher teacher ratings of social skills for the TBI group only. Positive and supportive friendships play an important role for children with TBI, especially for those not accepted by peers. Such friendships may protect children with TBI who are rejected against maladaptive psychosocial outcomes, and promote skills related to social competence. (JINS, 2014, 21, 1–10)
Short-range elephant Loxodonta africana movements were examined in a heterogeneous landscape mosaic of settlements, crop fields and remnant forest in the Caprivi Strip, Namibia. We explored the penetration of the landscape through the use of permanent pathways and determined the impact of pathway use on crop-raiding location. Pathways were linear, devoid of vegetation and maintained by repeated movement. Functional connectivity of pathways was not species-specific, and pathways were used by various species. Elephants travelled in single file at night and we recorded selective pathway use: females selected pathways away from settlements to access water, whereas males used pathways among settlements to launch crop raids. Proximity of raided fields to the nearest pathway was the only significant spatial variable explaining crop-raiding location. Bulls were responsible for all crop-raiding incidents. We conclude that (1) pathways were the most significant spatial variable influencing which fields were raided, (2) crop-raiding from pathways may maximize foraging efficiency by reducing time spent and distance travelled while foraging, (3) pathways may facilitate penetration of the matrix by connecting predictable resources (crops) with preferred shelter areas, crossing points at roads and preferred drinking spots, and (4) access to the Kwandu River is restricted by settlements, predictably resulting in human–elephant conflict. By highlighting the relevance of pathways for movement of elephants we show that an understanding of the use of pathways is important for land-use planning in conservation landscapes, specifically with regard to human–elephant conflict. We also argue for the need to more fully explore pathway occurrence and use at larger spatial scales.
We consider the algebraic K-theory of a truncated polynomial algebra in several commuting variables, . This naturally leads to a new generalization of the big Witt vectors. If k is a perfect field of positive characteristic we describe the K-theory computation in terms of a cube of these Witt vectors on ℕn. If the characteristic of k does not divide any of the ai we compute the K-groups explicitly. We also compute the K-groups modulo torsion for k = ℤ.
To understand this K-theory spectrum we use the cyclotomic trace map to topological cyclic homology, and write as the iterated homotopy cofiber of an n-cube of spectra, each of which is easier to understand.
The electrical conductivity of insulating polymer matrix composites undergoes radical increase at a certain concentration of conductive filler, which is known as the percolation threshold. Polymer matrix conductive nanocomposites were fabricated by compression molding the mechanically mixed poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and antimony tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles, as has been done with other polymer composites before. The electrical conductivity of PMMA/ATO nanocomposites increased by several orders of magnitude at a small concentration of ATO (∼ 0.27 vol %). The continuous 3D network like distribution of ATO nanoparticles contributed to this percolation at subcritical filler concentrations. The effects of processing parameters on these unique microstructures and electrical properties were investigated. The tetrakaidecahedron-like microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and was found to be affected by the molding pressure, temperature and amount of nanoparticles. The viscoelastic flow of matrix under the optimum processing conditions allowed the shape transformation of PMMA into space filling polyhedra and an ordered distribution of ATO nanoparticles along the sharp edges of the PMMA. Parametric finite element analysis was performed to model this unique microstructure-driven percolation. The 2D simplified model was generated in AC/DC frequency domain mode in COMSOL Multiphysics® to solve the effects of ordered distribution of conductive nanoparticles on the electrical properties of the composite. There was excellent agreement between experimental and simulated values of electrical conductivity and percolation concentration. This model can be used to predict percolation threshold and electrical properties for any types of composite systems containing insulating matrix and conductive fillers that can form this unique microstructure.
Dispersions containing 1 mg/mL of several carbon nanomaterials were used to deposit films containing 1 to 20 layers. The electrical properties of the composite films were characterized via impedance spectroscopy along two directions: in-plane on the film topmost surface and also through the thickness. It was found that carbon black nanoparticles never achieved full in-plane interconnection while the multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) and single-walled carbon nanotube were already percolated at one layer. Graphite flakes showed a complete percolation curve that allowed its resistance to change by 6–7 orders of magnitude. The differences in the microstructure, electrical response, and thermal decomposition behavior of these carbon nanomaterial–paper substrate films were explained by detailed equivalent circuit analysis of the impedance spectra. Interpretation was supplemented by scanning electron microscopy images and thermal analysis via Differential Scanning Calorimetry/Thermogravimetric Analysis (DSC/TGA). Thru-plane electrical properties were for the most part similar, although only films with short MWNT showed a clearly infiltrated network structure.
Four-layer multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) thin films were deposited via dropcasting (1 mg/mL MWNTs and 10 mg/mL SDBS) onto filter papers that vary in pore size (1, 5, 25, and 40 µm) to determine the effect of the underlying substrate structure on the in-plane properties of the films. The films (<100 nm thick) were dried using vacuum filtration, and drying in a 65 °C heater with and without a ceramic heating board. DC resistance of the films ranged from 6 × 103 to 9.3 × 109 Ω. Impedance spectroscopy analysis revealed a low and a high frequency inductive response and two parallel R–C circuits for the more conducting thin films. High resistance films were fit by a single RC circuit with a constant-phase element. The differences in the in-plane electrical responses of the different MWNT films can be explained by the degree of carbon nanotube surface coverage, obtained as a result of using different pore size filter papers. The drying method utilized also affected the CNT network formation and its resultant electrical properties.
Recent results on NGC 2915, the first blue compact dwarf galaxy to have its mass distribution modelled, are summarised. NGC 2915 is shown to have HI well beyond its detected optical extent. Its rotation curve is well determined and fit with maximum disk mass models. The dark matter halo dominates the mass distribution at nearly all radii, and has a very dense core compared to those of normal galaxies. High-mass star formation energises the HI in the centre of the galaxy, but appears to be maintained in viriai equilibrium with the dark matter halo. The implications of these results are briefly discussed.