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The Scottish composer Sir James MacMillan is one of the major figures of contemporary music, with a world-wide reputation for his modernist engagement with religious images and stories. Beginning with a substantial foreword from the composer himself, this collection of scholarly essays offers analytical, musicological, and theological perspectives on a selection of MacMillan's musical works. The volume includes a study of embodiment in MacMillan's music; a theological study of his St Luke Passion; an examination of the importance of lament in a selection of his works; a chapter on the centrality of musical borrowing to MacMillan's practice; a discussion of his liturgical music; and detailed analyses of other works including The World's Ransoming and the seminal Seven Last Words from the Cross. The chapters provide fresh insights on MacMillan's musical world, his compositional practice, and his relationship to modernity.
This is an introductory textbook on spatial analysis and spatial statistics through GIS. Each chapter presents methods and metrics, explains how to interpret results, and provides worked examples. Topics include: describing and mapping data through exploratory spatial data analysis; analyzing geographic distributions and point patterns; spatial autocorrelation; spatial clustering; geographically weighted regression and OLS regression; and spatial econometrics. The worked examples link theory to practice through a single real-world case study, with software and illustrated guidance. Exercises are solved twice: first through ArcGIS, and then GeoDa. Through a simple methodological framework the book describes the dataset, explores spatial relations and associations, and builds models. Results are critically interpreted, and the advantages and pitfalls of using various spatial analysis methods are discussed. This is a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers analyzing geospatial data through a spatial analysis lens, including those using GIS in the environmental sciences, geography, and social sciences.
This book is a major re-appraisal of the Commedia as originally envisaged by Dante: as a work of ethics. Privileging the ethical, Corbett increases our appreciation of Dante's eschatological innovations and literary genius. Drawing upon a wider range of moral contexts than in previous studies, this book presents an overarching account of the complex ordering and political programme of Dante's afterlife. Balancing close readings with a lucid overview of Dante's Commedia as an ethical and political manifesto, Corbett cogently approaches the poem through its moral structure. The book provides detailed interpretations of three particularly significant sins - pride, sloth, and avarice - and the three terraces of Purgatory devoted to them. While scholars register Dante's explicit confession of pride, the volume uncovers Dante's implicit confession of sloth and prodigality (the opposing subvice of avarice) through Statius, his moral cypher.
Forests provide vital ecosystem services crucial to human well-being and sustainable development, and have an important role to play in achieving the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations 2030 Agenda. Little attention, however, has yet focused on how efforts to achieve the SDGs will impact forests and forest-related livelihoods, and how these impacts may, in turn, enhance or undermine the contributions of forests to climate and development. This book discusses the conditions that influence how SDGs are implemented and prioritised, and provides a systematic, multidisciplinary global assessment of interlinkages among the SDGs and their targets, increasing understanding of potential synergies and unavoidable trade-offs between goals. Ideal for academic researchers, students and decision-makers interested in sustainable development in the context of forests, this book will provide invaluable knowledge for efforts undertaken to reach the SDGs. This title is available as Open Access via Cambridge Core.
In Aristotle and Law, George Duke argues that Aristotle's seemingly dispersed statements on law and legislation are unified by a commitment to law's status as an achievement of practical reason. This book provides a systematic exposition of the significance and coherence of Aristotle's account of law and also indicates the relevance of this account to contemporary legal theory. It will be of great interest to scholars and students in jurisprudence, philosophy, political science and classics.
Throughout his brief life Lord Byron attracted the gazes of others – because he was disabled, because he was a lord, because he was a literary idol, because “at least a third part of the day, [he] was a dandy” (Stendhal quoted in HVSV 201), because he was fat, because he was thin, because of his beauty or because his appearance disappointed. Byron was surveyed, prepared himself to be surveyed and surveyed himself internally. His own self-fashioning, as author, as part-time dandy and as athlete (pugilist and swimmer especially), took place in the context of his experiences in his own body, but his self-fashioning takes place for us, above all, in his words.
This bestselling textbook provides an engaging and user-friendly introduction to the study of language. Assuming no prior knowledge of the subject, Yule presents information in bite-sized sections, clearly explaining the major concepts in linguistics and all the key elements of language. This seventh edition has been revised and updated throughout, with substantial changes to the chapters on phonetics and semantics, and forty new study questions. To increase student engagement and to foster problem-solving and critical thinking skills, the book includes over twenty new tasks. An expanded and revised online study guide provides students with further resources, including answers and tutorials for all tasks, while encouraging lively and proactive learning. This is the most fundamental and easy-to-use introduction to the study of language.
Austria’s constitutional identity comprises the Basic Principles as well as several other provisions of the Federal Constitution. The Basic Principles rank highest in the Austrian legal order. They form a constitutional core that may not be limited by EU law. This core concerns the Democratic Principle, the Republican Principle, the Federal Principle, and the Principle of the Rule of Law – the latter of which includes the Principle of the Separation of Powers and the Liberal Principle. The Austrian Federal Constitution is rather ‘flexible’ as far as constitutional amendments are concerned. Such amendments occur at frequent intervals (over 100 times since 1929). Thus, special care has to be taken when determining which constitutional provisions form part of Austria’s constitutional identity beyond the Basic Principles. Some Objectives of the State (for example, the social partnership) as well as several other constitutional norms (for example, the abolition of the nobility) qualify as constitutional identity.
As surgical specialization becomes more focused, there is a growing lack of expertise amongst surgeons in life-preserving management of severely injured patients. This comprehensively updated second edition provides an in-depth, visual guide to both commonly and uncommonly performed trauma procedures. It includes over 900 high-quality color photographs and illustrations of step-by-step procedures on fresh, perfused and ventilated cadavers. Practical surgical anatomy, procedural sequencing, and common technical pitfalls are all clearly outlined. A number of new techniques have been introduced since the first edition, from REBOA (resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aortic), to ribplating for flail chest and skin grafting. Informed by the editors' experience in some of the busiest trauma centres in the world, the text has been updated throughout and includes additional photographs. This Atlas is an essential resource for trainee and operating trauma surgeons, and general surgeons distant from academic centres, as well as emergency medicine and critical care personnel.
Constant strain rate nanoindentation is a popular technique for probing the local mechanical properties of materials but is usually restricted to strain rates ≤0.1 s−1. Faster indentation potentially results in an overestimation of the hardness because of the plasticity error associated with the continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) method. This can have significant consequences in some applications, such as the measurement of strain rate sensitivity. The experimental strain rate range can be extended by increasing the harmonic frequency of the CSM oscillation. However, with commercial instruments, this is achievable only by identifying higher CSM frequencies at which the testing system is dynamically well behaved. Using these principles, a commercial system operated at the unusually high harmonic frequency of 1570 Hz was successfully used to characterize of the strain rate sensitivity of a Zn22Al superplastic alloy at strain rates up to 1 s−1, i.e., an order of magnitude higher than with standard methods.
A histological characterization of gonadal development in the tetra Astyanax bimaculatus was performed, aimed at determining its reproductive cycle in streams localized inside the Amazonian forest. Collections were carried out monthly from August 2017 to July 2018 at the Zoobotânica Foundation of Marabá, PA. Collected specimens were weighed and measured, and their gonads and liver were removed and weighed to calculate gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes. Gonads were fixed and treated for routine histology for light microscopy. Materials were stained with toluidine blue and haematoxylin and eosin. The Amazonian A. bimaculatus species presented two reproductive periods in the year, one at the end of the winter season and another during the summer. Females showed an asynchronous development of their oocytes and only two reproductive phases of development were observed during the whole period ‘developing’ and ‘spawning capable’. Males presented cystic spermatogenesis, with an anastomosing tubular testis containing spermatogonia spread along the germinal epithelium (unrestricted spermatogonial). These morphological characteristics are considered phylogenetically more primitive. Male specimens were observed to have five different phases during the period: immature, initial maturation, mid maturation, final maturation and regression. The huge fluctuations in Amazonian streams was observed, in which water volumes varied considerably across seasons, culminating even in total drought. In spite of this, A. bimaculatus could be found during all seasons, showing its impressive reproductive adaptation to its conditions.
The development of Middle Preclassic (900–300 BC) ceremonial architecture is receiving more attention by archaeologists conducting research in the Maya Lowlands. Although a few examples have been partially excavated, there is still a dearth of information on how and why monumental constructions were originally built. This is largely because early structures often lie below several layers of sequential architecture, making them difficult to locate. Even when Middle Preclassic architecture is identified, exposure is often too limited to fully investigate its form and function. A well-preserved and accessible Middle Preclassic platform would be a rare find and could greatly enhance our knowledge and understanding of the subject. At Pacbitun, Cayo District, Belize, such a discovery has been made beneath the artificially raised surface of the main plaza. To make the most of this opportunity, five seasons of excavation worked to expose this massive building in its entirety. In this article, we provide details concerning the structural design of the platform and its abandonment, as well as present potential architectural comparisons. We conclude by reevaluating complexity at Pacbitun.
Depression is a leading cause of disability, with older people particularly susceptible to poor outcomes.
To investigate whether the prevalence of depression and antidepressant use have changed across two decades in older people.
The Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies (CFAS I and CFAS II) are two English population-based cohort studies of older people aged ≥65 years, with baseline measurements for each cohort conducted two decades apart (between 1990 and 1993 and between 2008 and 2011). Depression was assessed by the Geriatric Mental State examination and diagnosed with the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer-Assisted Taxonomy algorithm.
In CFAS I, 7635 people aged ≥65 years were interviewed, of whom 1457 were diagnostically assessed. In CFAS II, 7762 people were interviewed and diagnostically assessed. Age-standardised depression prevalence in CFAS II was 6.8% (95% CI 6.3–7.5%), representing a non-significant decline from CFAS I (risk ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.64–1.07, P = 0.14). At the time of CFAS II, 10.7% of the population (95% CI 10.0–11.5%) were taking antidepressant medication, more than twice that of CFAS I (risk ratio 2.79, 95% CI 1.96–3.97, P < 0.0001). Among care home residents, depression prevalence was unchanged, but the use of antidepressants increased from 7.4% (95% CI 3.8–13.8%) to 29.2% (95% CI 22.6–36.7%).
A substantial increase in the proportion of the population reporting taking antidepressant medication is seen across two decades for people aged ≥65 years. However there was no evidence for a change in age-specific prevalence of depression.
A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.
This article examines the politics of race, religion and nation in relation to blackface minstrelsy during the first decades of the twentieth century. Having been superseded by more modern amusements, minstrelsy was outdated as a performance genre, yet the minstrel show served as a forum for Neil O'Brien and the Knights of Columbus fraternal society to participate in the invention of a white American Catholic identity. For fraternal society members, estranged from national belonging by religious difference, these performances situated the group as proponents of an old-fashioned American tradition, structured around anti-blackness. At a time of anti-Catholic sentiment, Catholic fraternal society members gathered for minstrel performances, distancing themselves from black people and marking themselves as white Americans.
Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is used increasingly during resuscitation. The aim of this study was to assess whether combining POCUS and electrocardiogram (ECG) rhythm findings better predicts outcomes during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency department (ED).
We completed a health records review on ED cardiac arrest patients who underwent POCUS. Primary outcome measurements included return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival to hospital admission, and survival to hospital discharge.
POCUS was performed on 180 patients; 45 patients (25.0%; 19.2%–31.8%) demonstrated cardiac activity on initial ECG, and 21 (11.7%; 7.7%–17.2%) had cardiac activity on initial POCUS; 47 patients (26.1%; 20.2%–33.0%) achieved ROSC, 18 (10.0%; 6.3%–15.3%) survived to admission, and 3 (1.7%; 0.3%–5.0%) survived to hospital discharge. As a predictor of failure to achieve ROSC, ECG had a sensitivity of 82.7% (95% CI 75.2%–88.7%) and a specificity of 46.8% (32.1%–61.9%). Overall, POCUS had a higher sensitivity of 96.2% (91.4%–98.8%) but a similar specificity of 34.0% (20.9%–49.3%). In patients with ECG-asystole, POCUS had a sensitivity of 98.18% (93.59%–99.78%) and a specificity of 16.00% (4.54%–36.08%). In patients with pulseless electrical activity, POCUS had a sensitivity of 86.96% (66.41%–97.22%) and a specificity of 54.55% (32.21%–75.61%). Similar patterns were seen for survival to admission and discharge. Only 0.8% (0.0–4.7%) of patients with ECG-asystole and standstill on POCUS survived to hospital discharge.
The absence of cardiac activity on POCUS, or on both ECG and POCUS together, better predicts negative outcomes in cardiac arrest than ECG alone. No test reliably predicted survival.
Pulmonary hypertension is a complex and progressive condition that is either idiopathic or heritable, or associated with one or multiple health conditions, with or without congenital or acquired cardiovascular disease. Recent developments have tremendously increased the armamentarium of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in children and young adults with pulmonary hypertension that is still associated with a high morbidity and mortality. These modalities include non-invasive imaging, pharmacotherapy, interventional and surgical procedures, and supportive measures. The optimal, tailored diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for pulmonary hypertension in the young are rapidly evolving but still face enormous challenges: Healthcare providers need to take the patient’s age, development, disease state, and family concerns into account when initiating advanced diagnostics and treatment. Therefore, there is a need for guidance on core and advanced medical training in paediatric pulmonary hypertension. The Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology working group “pulmonary hypertension, heart failure and transplantation” has produced this document as an expert consensus statement; however, all recommendations must be considered and applied in the context of the local and national infrastructure and legal regulations.