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Nanobamus macrorhinus Schoch and Milner, 2014 is a small amphibamiform temnospondyl from the early Permian Arroyo Formation of Texas. It is most readily characterized by an elongate and partially subdivided naris. This condition is superficially reminiscent of that seen in the coeval trematopids, the group to which N. macrorhinus was originally referred to under an interpretation of the holotype as a larval form. This was discounted by later workers, but the amphibamiform affinities of the specimen were not formalized until recently. The specimen has never been described in the context of its amphibamiform affinities and remains poorly characterized, never having been sampled in a phylogenetic analysis. Here we present a complete, updated osteological description of N. macrorhinus, including an improved characterization of its unique mosaic of plesiomorphic and apomorphic features and clarification of the taxon's autapomorphies. Our analysis of the taxon's phylogenetic position within Amphibamiformes shows that N. macrorhinus was recovered as diverging after basal amphibamiforms, e.g., the micropholids, and before derived amphibamiforms, e.g., the amphibamids. This is supported by the unique mixture of retained plesiomorphies, e.g., nonforeshortened postparietals and an oval choana, and apomorphies, e.g., a narrow interorbital region and slender palatal rami of the pterygoid. These results reflect the complexity of terrestrial amphibamiform diversity and provide further insight into the evolutionary history of the lissamphibian stem in terrestrial environments.
The rocky shores of New Zealand (NZ) and Australia provide many interesting comparisons in their intertidal species and structuring processes. Both countries are in the biogeographic realm of temperate Australasia and share many common species and closely related taxa. Here we review similarities and contrasts in communities and structuring processes, especially involving grazing invertebrates and macroalgae. We consider the similarity of the structure of intertidal shores of NZ and south-eastern Australia, a suite of important trophic interactions within and between regions, the utility of local-scale experiments in understanding large-scale processes and how we might better plan for and manage our coasts. The major comparisons are between warm-temperate areas of northern NZ and New South Wales, and the cooler areas of southern NZ and south-eastern Australia. In the quest for ‘ecosystem’-level understanding, which perforce involves large-scale events, there is an increasing tendency to minimise or ignore the hard-won insights gained from well-structured experiments across multiple sites. Because all large-scale effects must be manifested at local sites, it is incumbent on us to determine what scales up or down, and the caveats that make comparisons across biogeographic regions challenging. Here, we discuss these issues using austral shores as models.
A novel CBT-based intervention, tailored for young people, was developed in response to concerns about traditional diagnostically based approaches. Psychology of Emotions workshops use a normative approach to emotional difficulty instead of a diagnostic framework.
To evaluate the acceptability and efficacy of Psychology of Emotions workshops within an IAPT service for young people aged 16–25 years.
This was a mixed-methods study, evaluating routinely collected self-report measures of depression and anxiety, and qualitative feedback forms. The main outcomes were rates of attendance, change in symptom severity, and participant views of the intervention.
From January to September 2016, 595 young people were invited to attend the Psychology of Emotions workshops, of whom 350 (58.8%) attended at least one session. Young people who attended all six sessions (8.1%) experienced significant reductions in self-reported anxiety (d = .72) and depression (d = .58) and 35.5% were classified as recovered at completion. Those who attended at least two sessions (41.3%) reported smaller but significant improvements in anxiety (d = .42) and depression (d = .45); 22.0% were classified as recovered at the last session attended. Participants provided largely positive feedback about the intervention.
Psychology of Emotions is a promising treatment option, delivered outside of a diagnostic framework, for young people with mild to moderate mental health difficulties seen within IAPT services. Better understanding reasons for non-attendance might enable the intervention to be made accessible to more young people.
As the incidence of cancer and the frequency of extreme weather events rise, disaster mitigation is becoming increasingly relevant to oncology care.
To investigate the effect of natural disasters on cancer care and the associated health effects on patients with cancer through the means of a systematic review.
Between database inception and November 12, 2016, Embase, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and CINAHL were searched for articles. Those identifying the effect of natural disasters on oncology services, or the associated health implications for patients with cancer, were included. Only articles published in English were included. Data extraction was done by two authors independently and then verified by all authors. The effects of disaster events on oncology services, survival outcomes, and psychological issues were assessed.
Natural disasters cause substantial interruption to the provision of oncology care. Of the 4,593 studies identified, only 85 articles met all the eligibility criteria. Damage to infrastructure, communication systems, medication, and medical record losses substantially disrupt oncology care. The effect of extreme weather events on survival outcomes is limited to only a small number of studies, often with inadequate follow-up periods.
To the best the authors’ knowledge, this is the first systematic review to assess the existing evidence base on the health effects of natural disaster events on cancer care. Disaster planning must begin to take into consideration patients with cancer.
Introduction: Transition to the attending physician role and onboarding at a new workplace are often stressful. Effective initiation is important to individuals as well as departments, hospitals and universities wishing to retain valuable staff. Our aim was to learn about early experiences from the perspective of new staff and apply these findings to develop a new onboarding program. Methods: Following a pilot study of individual interviews, we surveyed and conducted focus group interviews with all attending physicians who had joined our dual site, urban, academic emergency department within three years. We used a mixed quantitative and qualitative approach to collect and analyze data. We applied the data to develop a new needs-based formal onboarding program. Results: 24/36 participated in the survey, 22/36 in focus groups. 95% were 30-39 years old. Newcomers described the existing orientation as too brief, non-specific, and missing essential elements. We identified six onboarding themes: (1)clinical protocols and reference documents, (2)graduated responsibilities, (3)mentorship, (4)relationship building, (5)department structure and culture, and (6)emotions. We formed a committee to develop and implement these initiatives: (1)a new online platform enables easy access to clinical care and orientation documents, (2)a formal mentorship program matches each newcomer with 2 mentors to coach towards goals, navigate department structure and culture, and provide perspective to mitigate strong emotions, (3)adjusting shift and teaching assignments allows newcomers to ease into clinical and academic responsibilities, and (4)our next priority is to improve clarity around academic opportunities, expectations, and advancement. Conclusion: New emergency physicians are highly engaged and provided many insights on their orientation experiences. Using mixed methods, we identified six themes to guide the design and implementation of a program to promote successful integration of newcomers.
Gastrointestinal and mental disorders are highly comorbid, and animal models have shown that both can be caused by early adversity (e.g., parental deprivation). Interactions between the brain and bacteria that live within the gastrointestinal system (the microbiome) underlie adversity–gastrointestinal–anxiety interactions, but these links have not been investigated during human development. In this study, we utilized data from a population of 344 youth (3–18 years old) who were raised with their biological parents or were exposed to early adverse caregiving experiences (i.e., institutional or foster care followed by international adoption) to explore adversity–gastrointestinal–anxiety associations. In Study 1, we demonstrated that previous adverse care experiences were associated with increased incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms in youth. Gastrointestinal symptoms were also associated with concurrent and future anxiety (measured across 5 years), and those gastrointestinal symptoms mediated the adversity–anxiety association at Time 1. In a subsample of children who provided both stool samples and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (Study 2, which was a “proof-of-principle”), adversity was associated with changes in diversity (both alpha and beta) of microbial communities, and bacteria levels (adversity-associated and adversity-independent) were correlated with prefrontal cortex activation to emotional faces. Implications of these data for supporting youth mental health are discussed.
The global development of legal information needs and services has continued to stimulate much professional discussion in recent years. This detailed report, and the comparative assessments and analysis it aims to provide, follow from one of the first global surveys of major law libraries around the world to take account of the present period of challenges and change. The report analyses the results of a comprehensive survey of 124 major law libraries world wide undertaken from April to June 2012 - extending a methodology involving both quantitative and qualitative approaches which has proved successful in my previous research on the activities of law libraries across the UK. It is hoped that this comparative data and analysis (gathered from the activities, ambitions and concerns of law libraries in the real world) will provide a useful snapshot of current research support services, capture emerging trends and new service initiatives and encourage major law libraries to develop their services by providing helpful benchmarking and best practice information.
Every night for ten nights last May, I returned to room 128 in the Westside YMCA (West 63rd Street, New York City — just off Central Park) armed with more behind the scenes insights, professional secrets and first hand accounts of US law library operation and management than one slim A5 notebook could hope to hold. I was fortunate to be in the United States on a two-week placement at Columbia University, visiting some of America's great law libraries — the law school libraries of Columbia itself, New York University and Yale University. Each morning after an orange juice, toasted cream cheese bagel and cappuccino, I would head out with the commuters to join the subway at Columbus Circle — uptown for Columbia or downtown for NYU. Every evening I would admire the energy of the mostly silver-haired athletes in brightly colored lycra returning to the Westside “Y” after numerous circuits of the Jackie “O” reservoir on the upper east side of Central Park. The park is 843 acres of creative space bound by impressive hotels, apartment blocks and the streets of Harlem. In May it is in perpetual motion from dawn to dusk with joggers, roller-bladers and cyclists weaving their way around the trees, fountains and numerous statues. Indeed it appears to be a huge magic garden, complete with beautiful street lamps that seem to come from C.S. Lewis's Narnia — another world, like the City itself, at once familiar and fascinatingly different.
This article aims at providing librarians with an overview of the current copyright position within the UK. I will begin by examining the copyright regime set up by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act of 1988. I will then assess the impact of several key EU Directives and implementing UK Statutory Instruments on the working of this regime, and in particular discuss the implications of the new rights for owners of digital material. Finally, I will analyze some current UK copyright “hot topics” which are of equal concern and significance to users in other jurisdictions, and suggest some possible solutions.
The current work focuses on optimizing aptamer scaffolds that are tailored to allow for the formation of binding pockets for both a redox active signaling molecule and the target miR-92a. These newly designed allosteric nucleic acid systems are studied for efficacy to undergo a target based conformational switch. Two hairpin scaffolds were designed with differing stem stabilities and were explored using fluorescence quenching measurements. The dose dependent data for the detection of miR-92a shows the importance of scaffold design where the stability of the intra-molecular hairpin structure has to be optimized for target binding. Additional experiments explored the selectivity of the aptamer scaffolds in the presence of competing miR’s and mismatched sequences. These results provide an important precursor to constructing nucleic acid scaffolds for the detection of miR’s using label-free redox signaling.
Early institutional rearing is associated with increased risk for subsequent peer relationship difficulties, but the underlying mechanisms have not been identified. Friendship characteristics, social behaviors with peers, normed assessments of social problems, and social cue use were assessed in 142 children (mean age = 10.06, SD = 2.02; range 7–13 years), of whom 67 were previously institutionalized (PI), and 75 were raised by their biological families. Anxiety and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, often elevated among PI children, were examined as potential mediators of PI status and baseline social functioning and longitudinal follow-ups (2 and 4 years later). Twenty-seven percent of PI children fell above the Child Behavior Checklist Social Problems cutoff. An examination of specific social behaviors with peers indicated that PI and comparison children did not differ in empathic concern or peer social approach, though parents were more likely to endorse aggression/overarousal as a reason that PI children might struggle with friendships. Comparison children outperformed PI children in computerized testing of social cue use learning. Finally, across these measures, social difficulties exhibited in the PI group were mediated by ADHD symptoms with predicted social problems assessed 4 years later. These findings show that, when PI children struggle with friendships, mechanisms involving attention and behavior regulation are likely contributors.
The Norfolk Youth Service was created in 2012 in response to calls to redesign mental health services to better meet the needs of young people. The new service model transcends traditional boundaries by creating a single, ‘youth friendly’ service for young people aged 14–25 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the transition to this new model on patterns of referral, acceptance and service use. We analysed routinely collected data on young people aged 14–25 years referred for secondary mental healthcare in Norfolk before and after implementation of the youth mental health service. The number of referrals, their age and gender, proportion of referrals accepted and average number of service contacts per referral by age pre- and post-implementation were compared.
Referrals increased by 68% following implementation of the new service model, but the proportion of referrals accepted fell by 27 percentage points. Before implementation of the youth service, there was a clear discrepancy between the peak age of referral and the age of those seen by services. Following implementation, service contacts were more equitable across ages, with no marked discontinuity at age 18 years.
Our findings suggest that the transformation of services may have succeeded in reducing the ‘cliff edge’ in access to mental health services at the transition to adulthood. However, the sharp rise in referrals and reduction in the proportion of referrals accepted highlights the importance of considering possible unintended consequences of new service models.
This is the latest report analysing the results of the Society of Legal Scholars and BIALL Survey. It has been written by David Gee, Deputy Librarian at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, School of Advanced Study, University of London.
The Texas red beds represent one of the richest series of early Permian deposits in the world. In particular, the Clear Fork Group has produced a diverse assemblage of temnospondyls, early reptiles, and synapsids. However, most of this material has been sourced from the oldest member, the Arroyo Formation, and the understanding of the paleoecosystem of the younger Vale and Choza formations is less well resolved. Here we present a previously undescribed Vale locality, the first vertebrate-bearing locality from the formation to be described in detail in several decades, from near Abilene, Texas with juvenile diplocaulids, captorhinids, abundant material of rare taxa such as Varanops and diadectids, and the first report of a recumbirostran ‘microsaur’ from the formation. This assemblage is atypical of early Permian deposits in the taxonomic and size distribution of the vertebrate fauna in comparison to other localities from the Vale Formation that preserve a greater abundance of aquatic taxa (e.g., fishes, Trimerorhachis) and synapsids (e.g., Dimetrodon). Minimal abrasion of the elements, relative articulation and association of the specimen of Varanops, and the paucity of aquatic taxa suggest an ephemeral pond deposit in which organisms were preserved essentially in situ. Our characterization of the locality also permits a revision and discussion of the vertebrate faunal assemblage of the Vale Formation.
Bloodstream infection (BSI) occurred in 21 of 121 patients (17%) receiving venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation within the median time of 6 days after initiation (interquartile range, 4–19 days). Longer duration of arterial catheterization and more blood transfusions were independently associated with BSI, which is associated with poor clinical outcomes.
In this article, David Gee, Deputy Librarian & Academic Services Manager at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies (IALS) in the University of London, writes about the launch of IALS Digital. As a way of placing the launch into context, he outlines the growth of the IALS Library over the past 70 years and describes the development of a wide range of digital initiatives over the past 30 years.
Point-of-care systems require highly sensitive, quantitative and selective detection platforms for the real-time multiplexed monitoring of target analytes. To ensure facile development of a sensor, it is preferable for the detection assay to have minimal chemical complexity, contain no wash steps and provide a wide and easily adaptable detection range for multiple targets. Current studies involve label-free detection strategy for relevant clinical molecules such as heme using G-quadruplex based self-assembly. We have explored the measurement of binding and kinetic parameters of various G-quadruplex/heme complexes which are able to self-associate to form a DNAzyme with peroxidase mimicking capabilities and are critical to nucleic acid research. The detection strategy includes immobilizing the G-quadruplex sequences within a polymer matrix to provide a self-assembly based detection approach for heme that could be translated towards other clinically relevant targets.
A case is presented of a 25-year-old man with treatment-resistant paranoid schizophrenia whose only previous trial of clozapine had been stopped following a suspected clozapine-induced myocarditis. Due to the failure of his psychosis to respond to a number of antipsychotic treatments and augmentation strategies, clozapine was restarted on admission. His rechallenge was marked by intermittent pyrexia, tachycardia and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), but eosinophilia was absent. Clozapine was started and then stopped twice following extensive investigation and with specialist cardiology consultation. Physical symptoms and CRP elevation resolved shortly after clozapine cessation. We believe this constituted an idiosyncratic systemic inflammatory response to clozapine treatment.