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Covering the spectrum of cognitive decline in aging using illustrative cases, from mild impairment to dementia, this set of case studies offers a wide-ranging guide for trainees and clinicians. This second volume includes updated research diagnostic criteria and details of new imaging technology, including novel biomarkers such as PET amyloid and tau, to inform readers in clinical practice. Each case includes a clinical history, examination findings and special investigations, followed by diagnosis and discussion, to encourage clinical reasoning, integrative thinking, and problem-solving skills. To reinforce diagnostic skills, the cases include careful analysis of individual presenting patterns and up-to-date information on diagnostic classification and tools. The reader will be able to distinguish patients who need reassurance, closer follow-up or immediate referral to specialized services. With an international authorship, this book is for trainees and clinicians in neurology, psychiatry and neuropsychology.
In preparation for a multisite antibiotic stewardship intervention, we assessed knowledge and attitudes toward management of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) plus teamwork and safety climate among providers, nurses, and clinical nurse assistants (CNAs).
Prospective surveys during January–June 2018.
All acute and long-term care units of 4 Veterans’ Affairs facilities.
The survey instrument included 2 previously tested subcomponents: the Kicking CAUTI survey (ASB knowledge and attitudes) and the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ).
A total of 534 surveys were completed, with an overall response rate of 65%. Cognitive biases impacting management of ASB were identified. For example, providers presented with a case scenario of an asymptomatic patient with a positive urine culture were more likely to give antibiotics if the organism was resistant to antibiotics. Additionally, more than 80% of both nurses and CNAs indicated that foul smell is an appropriate indication for a urine culture. We found significant interprofessional differences in teamwork and safety climate (defined as attitudes about issues relevant to patient safety), with CNAs having highest scores and resident physicians having the lowest scores on self-reported perceptions of teamwork and safety climates (P < .001). Among providers, higher safety-climate scores were significantly associated with appropriate risk perceptions related to ASB, whereas social norms concerning ASB management were correlated with higher teamwork climate ratings.
Our survey revealed substantial misunderstanding regarding management of ASB among providers, nurses, and CNAs. Educating and empowering these professionals to discourage unnecessary urine culturing and inappropriate antibiotic use will be key components of antibiotic stewardship efforts.
Although radiocarbon (14C) dating is commonly used for archeological music instruments, little research has been conducted on modern instruments (16th–19th centuries). New technology, based on the Mini Carbon Dating System (MICADAS), enables some of the recurring challenges (e.g. sampling size) to be circumvented and paves the way for a new field of investigation. We here address the Indian instrumentarium, about which very little is known. We investigate the making and the restoration phases of two vina, a kinnari vina (E.1444), and a rudra vina or bin (E.997.24.1). By comparing 14C measurements made on several samplings of elements of the instruments with museological information, we were able to specify a unique calibrated interval of ages [1666 AD–1690 AD] for the kinnari vina, with a restoration phase [1678 AD–1766 AD] for the upper nut. The bin is likely attributed to the [1650 AD–1683 AD] interval.
The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia (COMPASS-ND) cohort study of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) is a national initiative to catalyze research on dementia, set up to support the research agendas of CCNA teams. This cross-country longitudinal cohort of 2310 deeply phenotyped subjects with various forms of dementia and mild memory loss or concerns, along with cognitively intact elderly subjects, will test hypotheses generated by these teams.
The COMPASS-ND protocol, initial grant proposal for funding, fifth semi-annual CCNA Progress Report submitted to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research December 2017, and other documents supplemented by modifications made and lessons learned after implementation were used by the authors to create the description of the study provided here.
The CCNA COMPASS-ND cohort includes participants from across Canada with various cognitive conditions associated with or at risk of neurodegenerative diseases. They will undergo a wide range of experimental, clinical, imaging, and genetic investigation to specifically address the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions in the aging population. Data derived from clinical and cognitive assessments, biospecimens, brain imaging, genetics, and brain donations will be used to test hypotheses generated by CCNA research teams and other Canadian researchers. The study is the most comprehensive and ambitious Canadian study of dementia. Initial data posting occurred in 2018, with the full cohort to be accrued by 2020.
Availability of data from the COMPASS-ND study will provide a major stimulus for dementia research in Canada in the coming years.
Entities seeking to establish statehood have used participation in sport to bolster their claims. Kosovo is the latest entity to use this strategy. Kosovo’s quest to join the Union of European Football Associations led to a 2017 Court of Arbitration for Sport decision examining whether Kosovo was sufficiently an “independent state.” This article considers how participation in sport plays a role in establishing a broader, contextual conceptualization of statehood. This article then applies this concept to case studies, with particular attention paid to Kosovo. Finally, the article examines sport’s gradual acceptance that it must work within the broader international political and legal world.
Background: In this retrospective claims analysis, real-world healthcare resource use (HRU) and costs among SMA type 1 (SMA1) patients were assessed. Methods: SMA1 patients were identified from Symphony Health’s Integrated Dataverse® (09/01/2016–08/31/2018). The study period spanned from the index date (date of first SMA1 diagnosis after nusinersen approval [12/23/2016]) until death/end of available data. HRU and costs per-patient-per-year (PPPY; 2018USD) were described during the study period for all patients and after treatment initiation for nusinersen-treated patients. Results: A total of 349 SMA1 patients (median age=1 year; 55.6% female) with median follow-up of 7.9 months were included. The proportion of patients receiving mechanical ventilation, nutritional support, and physical therapy/rehabilitation was 46.4%, 46.1%, and 22.6%. Patients had, on average, 59.4 days with medical visits/year (14.1 inpatient, 13.4 respiratory failure-related). The 45 nusinersen-treated patients had, on average, 56.6 days with medical visits/year (4.6 inpatient, 11.4 respiratory failure-related). Excluding nusinersen-related costs, mean healthcare costs PPPY were $137,627 (median: $43,167) for all patients and $92,618 ($29,425) for nusinersen-treated patients. Mean nusinersen-related costs were $191,909 ($144,487) per month for the first 3 months post-initiation and $36,882 ($16,132) per month thereafter. Conclusions: HRU and costs associated with SMA1 are substantial, even among patients treated with nusinersen.