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By taking a historical perspective on the higher education and the housing sectors in Quebec, we demonstrate how the political cleavage around the national question has had long-term effects on the dynamic of contention in these two sectors. At a general level, the presence of this cleavage has favoured the adoption of institutional arrangements related to funding that have allowed the reproduction of social protest over time. Nevertheless, the institutional arrangements vary from one sector to another: in the case of higher education, Bill 32, adopted in 1983, facilitated the division of the student movement into two branches and, to some extent, its dynamism; in the case of housing, the AccèsLogis program and the contribution au secteur, implemented in 1997, ensured the selection of claims for social housing and favoured the grouping that leads this issue. In both cases, the national question is at the heart of the process that led to the adoption of these policies.
We derive mean proper motions of 15 known Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) old globular clusters (GCs) from the Gaia DR2 data sets. When these mean proper motions are gathered with existent radial velocities to compose the GCs’ velocity vectors, we found that the projection of the velocity vectors onto the LMC plane and those perpendicular to it tell us about two distinct kinematical GC populations. Such a distinction becomes clear if the GCs are split at a perpendicular velocity of 10 km/s (absolute value). The two different kinematics groups also exhibit different spatial distributions. Those with smaller vertical velocities are part of the LMC disk, while those with larger values are closely distributed like a spheroidal component. Since GCs in both kinematic-structural components share similar ages and metallicities, we speculate with the possibility that their origins could have occurred through a fast collapse that formed halo and disk concurrently.
Plant secondary metabolites (PSM) are one of the promising options to control gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and goats. The objective of this study was to assess the abilities of sheep and goats to self-medicate with tannin-rich sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) (SF) when infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, using a cafeteria and an operant conditioning trial. Hypotheses were that parasitized (P) lambs and goat kids would show greater intake and preference for SF than their non-parasitized (NP) counterparts, that kids would eat more SF than lambs (due to their lower resistance against parasites and their greater ability to consume PSM), and that SF intake would increase over time for P animals. We used 20 female kids and 20 ewe lambs aged 3 months. Half of the animals per species (n = 10) were experimentally infected with 170 L3 larvae of Haemonchus contortus/kg of BW (P). The other half were free from parasites throughout the study (NP). Five weeks after infection, animals were exposed to a 24-day cafeteria trial (three 8-day periods) offering a free choice between two legume pellets: SF (3.8% condensed tannins) and alfalfa (ALF, Medicago sativa; no tannin). Subsequently, animals were involved in an operant conditioning trial of two 4-day long sessions, to assess in short-term tests their motivation to walk for a SF reward when offered in choice with freely available ALF. In the cafeteria trial, SF preference was greater in kids than in lambs, particularly in the first two periods. We did not observe a greater preference for SF in P animals, which was even greater in NP animals for periods 1 and 2. Sainfoin intake increased through periods for P animals, which led to similar SF preferences for all groups during period 3. In the operant-conditioning trial, motivation to get the SF reward was similar between P and NP animals. These results support the hypotheses that goats are more willing to consume tanniferous feeds than sheep, and that P animals increased SF intake through time. However, the emergence of a curative self-medicative behaviour was not supported, as P individuals did not show greater SF intake, preference, nor a greater motivation to get SF than NP animals, regardless of animal species. These findings are discussed with previous results and some explanations are presented.
Interdisciplinarity is an intricate question, involving at the same time scientific concern and societal rules. On one hand, it has to do with structures of scientific knowledge and with the multiple aspects of cumulative learning. But interdisciplinarity also faces the ranking of universities and research centres, assessment of results, pertinence of academic specializations and norms … And if we consider the whole set of scientific disciplines, today we get a very wide range, from exact sciences to social sciences. Even if restricted to social sciences, the scope is still rather wide. Because of the inherent complexity of society itself, it is always a challenge to give a place across academic disciplines to the relationships between various factors and explanations. So the issue with interdisciplinarity in social sciences is to go beyond reductionism and to cope with interactions between elements or dynamics. And at the same time to face new transversal questions emerging and challenging the classical disciplines and division of knowledge: as for example in the near past, in biochemistry or biomedical science in technical sciences, and in environment, urban affairs or international development in social sciences.
In institutional academic terms, interdisciplinarity is a rather new issue. The first introduction of interdisciplinary university learning programmes in the US, for example, was quickly accompanied by new academic organizations.
From the exact solution of the Ising model by Onsager in 1944 up to that of the hard hexagon model by Baxter in 1980, the statistical mechanics of two-dimensional systems has been enriched by a number of exact results. One speaks (in quick manner) of exact models once a convenient mathematical expression has been obtained for a physical quantity such as the free energy, an order parameter or some correlation, or at the very least once their evaluation is reduced to a problem of classical analysis. Such solutions, often considered as singular curiosities upon their appearance, often have the interest of illustrating the principles and general theorems rigorously established in the framework of definitive theories, and also enabling the control of approximate or perturbative methods applicable to more realistic and complex models. In the theory of phase transitions, the Ising model and the results of Onsager and Yang have eminently played such a reference role. With the various vertex models, the methods of Lieb and Baxter have extended this role and the collection of critical exponents, providing new useful elements of comparison with extrapolation methods, and forcing a refinement of the notion of universality. Intimately linked to two-dimensional classical models (but of less interest for critical phenomena), one-dimensional quantum models such as the linear magnetic chain and Bethe's famous solution have certainly contributed to the understanding of fundamental excitations in many-body systems. One could also mention the physics of one-dimensional conductors.
The six-vertex model, which is the object of this chapter, is a special case of the eight-vertex model on a two-dimensional square lattice introduced by Fan and Wu (1970) in order to summarize a class of exactly solvable models in classical statistical mechanics. The thermodynamics of the six-vertex model is by now known in its full generality (Yang and Yang, 1966a–d; Lieb, 1967a) which is not the case for the eight-vertex model, but only the self-conjugate one (Baxter, 1971a).
The general model can be considered as a two-dimensional idealization of a crystalline system in which pairs of adjacent atoms or radicals on the network are linked by ‘hydrogen bonds’. Of ionic type, this link between two neighbouring electronegative atoms is realized by a proton H+ which is located closer to one of the atoms than to the other. On each link of the network there thus exist two equilibrium positions for H+ (Pauling, 1960). If the coordination number at each site equals 4, as is the case for the oxygen atom in hexagonal ice, we indeed have eight possible proton configurations on a given site, which give rise to the eight vertices.
In contrast, for the physical systems for which this model could be viewed as a valid idealization – ice H2O, the ferroelectric PO4H2K, the antiferroelectric PO4H2NH4 – there exist at most two H+ next to each site.
Michel Gaudin's book La fonction d'onde de Bethe is a uniquely influential masterpiece on exactly solvable models of quantum mechanics and statistical physics. Available in English for the first time, this translation brings his classic work to a new generation of graduate students and researchers in physics. It presents a mixture of mathematics interspersed with powerful physical intuition, retaining the author's unmistakably honest tone. The book begins with the Heisenberg spin chain, starting from the coordinate Bethe Ansatz and culminating in a discussion of its thermodynamic properties. Delta-interacting bosons (the Lieb-Liniger model) are then explored, and extended to exactly solvable models associated to a reflection group. After discussing the continuum limit of spin chains, the book covers six- and eight-vertex models in extensive detail, from their lattice definition to their thermodynamics. Later chapters examine advanced topics such as multi-component delta-interacting systems, Gaudin magnets and the Toda chain.