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Mexico ranks first in childhood obesity worldwide. However, little is known about the factors influencing maternal feeding practices. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of feeding practices and explore associations between weight concern, weight perception, sociodemographic characteristics and those feeding practices.
Mothers aged ≥18 years who were in charge of feeding a singleton child aged 2–6 years with no endocrine disease or visible genetic malformations (n 507). Information on six maternal feeding practices, concern and perception of the child’s weight and demographics were collected by interview. The mother’s and child’s height and weight were measured. The feeding practices questionnaire was subject to content, construct and convergent validity analysis. Then, mean feeding scores were obtained and prevalence and 95 % CI were determined for scores ≥3; multivariate logistic regression was performed.
Not modelling (63·5 %; 95 % CI 59·2, 67·8 %) and pressuring to eat (55·6 %; 95 % CI 51·2, 60·0 %) were the most frequent feeding practices, followed by easy access to unhealthy foods (45·4 %; 95 % CI 40·9, 49·8 %) and child control (43·2 %; 95 % CI 38·8, 47·6 %). They prevailed despite concern about the child’s excess weight or a perception of the child as overweight/obese. Education was associated with the highest number of practices (educated mothers used more pressuring to eat, less regulation and less easy access; or monitoring was less absent).
The frequency of certain feeding practices needs to be improved. Emphasis on the child’s weight concern, obesity perception and maternal education is essential for optimizing intervention planning.
Multiform glioblastoma (MG) represents 70% of all gliomas, with half of patients older than 65 years with median survival of 12–18 months, hypofractionation seeks to reduce the intensity and duration of treatment without impacting on survival rates. The objective was to determine the global survival and recurrence-free survival of adults over 70 years old with MG treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy and standard scheme. The review of patients older than 70 years treated with radiotherapy from 2013 to 2016 was performed.
Twenty-four patients were analysed, with a median follow-up of 239 days, and there is no difference in overall survival 12·3 versus 10·5 months (p = 0·55) and recurrence-free survival 8·3 versus 3·4 months (p = 0·48) between both schemes, conventional versus hypofractioanted, respectively.
The results in this study show that hypofractionated scheme could be comparable in overall survival and recurrence-free survival to conventional fractionation, but a longer patients’ trial should be done.
To increase knowledge of National Library of Medicine resources by using a train-the-trainer approach.
Workshops were held in spring 2016 to increase knowledge of 4 National Library of Medicine tools. Data were collected before the workshop and immediately, 3 months, and 1 year after the workshop. Knowledge questions were scored as 1 point per question; an aggregated knowledge score could range from 0 to 16 points. A paired t test assessed the change in knowledge from before to after the workshop.
Four workshops were hosted, with a total of 74 attendees. The response rate for the surveys ranged from 50% to 100%. Knowledge scores changed significantly from 7.2 to 11.9 (t = 15, P < .001). One year after the workshop, more of the participants reported having informally trained others (56.8%) than reported providing 1 or more formal training session (8.1%)(P < .001).
Objective measures of knowledge and information dissemination showed that the National Library of Medicine workshop was successful and resulted in both short- and long-term gains. This workshop could be repeated with other populations to further disseminate information regarding the National Library of Medicine tools, which could help improve disaster response.
Certain factors, such as food quality, label content and grocery characteristics, may be considered when purchasing foods. Food availability in the home has been shown to influence dietary behaviours, also associated with delay discounting (DD). The present study sought to characterize the relationships between DD, food purchasing considerations and healthfulness of foods in the home.
A cross-sectional, online survey of adults (n 477) was conducted with the following measures: DD, consideration of food quality (nutrition, taste) and grocery characteristics (price, ease of preparation, shelf-life) while shopping, use of food labels and food availability in the home. DD was assessed by the area under the delay discounting curve (AUC) using a binary choice task. Greater AUC reflects lower DD. Structural equation modelling was used to allow AUC to simultaneously predict purchasing considerations and foods in the home.
Adult employees in south-east Alabama, USA.
DD was negatively associated with food label use and emphasis on food quality when shopping (P<0·001). In the final model, DD was associated with availability of healthful foods in the home and emphasis on food quality and grocery characteristics. About 33 % of the variance in shopping behaviours, 5 % in food label use, 7 % in availability of healthful foods and 4 % in availability of unhealthful foods was explained by DD.
Individuals with lower DD appear to be more thoughtful in making food purchasing decisions and have healthful foods available in the home more frequently than individuals with higher DD.
We determined the molecular epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis isolates to evaluate its potential impact on pertussis reemergence in a population of Mexico. Symptomatic and asymptomatic cases were included. Pertussis infection was confirmed by culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Selected B. pertussis isolates were further analysed; i.e. clonality was analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ptxP-ptxA, prn, fim2 and fim3 typing was performed by PCR and sequencing. Out of 11 864 analysed samples, 687 (5.8%) were positive for pertussis, with 244 (36%) confirmed by both culture and PCR whereas 115 (17%) were positive only by culture and 328 (48%) were positive only by PCR. One predominant clone (clone A, n = 62/113; 55%) and three major subtypes (A1, A2 and A3) were identified by PFGE. All 113 selected isolates had the allelic combination ptxP3-ptxA1. The predominant clone A and the three major subtypes (A1, A2 and A3) corresponded to the emerging genotypes ptxP3-ptxA1-prn2-fim2-1-fim3-2 and ptxP3-ptxA1-prn2-fim2-1-fim3-1. In conclusion, the presence of an endemic clone and three predominant subtypes belonging to the genotypes ptxP3-ptxA1-prn2-fim2-1-fim3-2 and ptxP3-ptxA1-prn2-fim2-1-fim3-1 were detected. This finding supports the global spread/expansion reported for these outbreaks associated genotypes.
Body image is a vital and complex issue in cancer patients, but not well recognized. In the ambulatory psychiatric-oncology clinic, we assessed what portion of cancer patients endorsed appearance problems and if they differed in terms of depression, anxiety, or distress scores when compared with those who did not endorse appearance problems.
All adult patients with active cancer diagnosis seen in the outpatient psychiatry oncology clinic (June 2014–January 2016) who provided informed consent were included (N = 1,939) in the cross-sectional study design. “Appearance problems” were assessed as a categorical, binomial variable (yes/no) using the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Thermometer checklist. Other assessments included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Patient Health Questionnaire-2, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Distress Thermometer, and Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale.
The overall prevalence rate of individuals who endorsed appearance problems was approximately 36%; they were more likely to be younger, female, Black or Hispanic, and not in a committed relationship (all results for demographic variables were statistically significant; all p < .001). Importantly, those patients who endorsed appearance problems exhibited higher scores for depression (p < .0001), anxiety (p < .0001), and distress (p < .0001), and these differences were of medium effect size (Cohen's d = 0.5−0.6).
Significance of results
The current results underscore the need to identify patients with body image problems early given that they are likely to exhibit higher magnitude of anxiety, depression and distress symptoms while undergoing cancer care. The results highlight the importance of body image issues and the need to evaluate them in cancer patients.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The aims of this study are (1) to develop and characterize a novel nonhuman primate model of pneumococcal pneumonia that mimics human disease; and (2) determine whether Streptococcus pneumoniae can: (a) translocate to the heart, (b) cause adverse cardiac events, (c) induce cardiomyocyte death, and (d) lead to scar formation during severe pneumonia in baboons. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Six adult baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were surgically tethered to a monitoring system to continuously assess their heart rate, temperature, and electrocardiogram (ECG). A baseline transthoracic echocardiogram, 12-lead ECG, serum troponin-I levels, brain natriuretic peptide, and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (HFABP) levels were obtained before infection and at the end of the experiment to determine cardiovascular damage during pneumococcal pneumonia. Animals were challenged with 108 colony-forming units of S. pneumoniae in the right middle lobe using flexible bronchoscopy. Three baboons were rescued with ampicillin therapy (80 mg/kg/d) after the development of pneumonia. Cardiac damage was confirmed by examination of tissue sections using immunohistochemistry as well as electron and fluorescence microscopy. Western-blots and tissue staining were used to determine the presence of necroptosis (RIP3 and pMLKL) and apoptosis (Caspase-3) in the cardiac tissue. Cytokine and chemokine levels in the heart tissue were determined using Luminex technology. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Four males (57%) and three (43%) females were challenged. The median age of all baboons was 11 (IQR, 10-19) years old, which corresponds to a middle-aged human. Infected baboons consistently developed severe pneumonia. All animals developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome with tachycardia, tachypnea, fever, and leukocytosis. Infection was characterized by initial leukocytosis followed by severe leukopenia on day 3 postinoculation. Non-specific ischemic alterations by ECG (ST segment and T-wave flattering) and in the premortem echocardiogram were observed. The median (IQR) levels of troponin I and HFABP at the end of the experiment were 3550 ng/mL (1717–5383) and 916.9 ng/mL (520.8–1323), respectively. Severe cardiomyopathy was observed using TEM and H&E stains in animals with severe pneumonia. Necroptosis was detected in cardiomyocytes of infected animals by the presence of pMLKL and RIP3 in cardiac tissues. Signs of cardiac remodeling indicated by disorganized collagen deposition was present in rescued animals but not in the other animals. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We confirmed that baboons experience cardiac injury during severe pneumococcal pneumonia that is characterized by myocardial invasion, activation of necroptosis, and tissue remodeling in animals rescued by antimicrobial therapy. Cardiac damage by invading pneumococci may explain why adverse cardiac events that occur during and after pneumococcal pneumonia in adult human patients.
Perovskites solar cells have reached impressive efficiencies (22%) in recent years. Because certain environmental concerns are raised by the use of lead halides, there is an interest to seek out lead-free alternatives, featuring bismuth or antimony. Alongside, one of the major drawbacks displayed by MAPbI3 is their low stability at ambient conditions. In this work, (RP4)xBiyIz were synthesized, using different types of tetra-alkylphosphoniums (R4PI) were R = ethyl, butyl, hexyl, and octyl, to assess their stability. Afterwards, they were characterized to study their morphology and crystal structure, as well as their optical properties.
Sheep are an important part of the global agricultural economy. Growth and meat production traits are significant economic traits in sheep. The Texel breed is the most popular terminal sire breed in the UK, mainly selected for muscle growth and lean carcasses. This is a study based on a genome-wide association approach that investigates the links between some economically important traits, including computed tomography (CT) measurements, and molecular polymorphisms in UK Texel sheep. Our main aim was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with growth, carcass, health and welfare traits of the Texel sheep breed. This study used data from 384 Texel rams. Data comprised ten traits, including two CT measured traits. The phenotypic data were placed in four categories: growth traits, carcass traits, health traits and welfare traits. De-regressed estimated breeding values (EBV) for these traits together with sire genotypes derived with the Ovine 50 K SNP array of Illumina were jointly analysed in a genome wide association analysis. Eight novel chromosome-wise significant associations were found for carcass, growth, health and welfare traits. Three significant markers were intronic variants and the remainder intergenic variants. This study is a first step to search for genomic regions controlling CT-based productivity traits related to body and carcass composition in a terminal sire sheep breed using a 50 K SNP genome-wide array. Results are important for the further development of strategies to identify causal variants associated with CT measures and other commercial traits in sheep. Independent studies are needed to confirm these results and identify candidate genes for the studied traits.
We present observations of massive star-forming regions selected from the IRAS Point Source Catalog. The observations were made with the Very Large Array and the Large Millimeter Telescope to search for Class I methanol masers. We made interferometric observations of 125 massive star-forming regions in the 44 GHz methanol maser transition; 53 of the 125 fields showed emission. The data allow us to demonstrate associations, at arcsecond precision, of the Class I maser emission with outflows, HII regions and shocks traced by 4.5 μm emission. We made single-dish observations toward 38 of the 53 regions with 44 GHz masers detected to search for the methanol transitions at 84.5, 95.1, 96.7, 107.0, and 108.8 GHz. We find detection rates of 74, 55, 100, 3, and 45%, respectively. We used a wide-band receiver which revealed many other spectral lines that are common in star-forming regions.
The position people occupy in their social and professional networks is related to their social status and has strong effects on their access to social resources. While attainment of particular positions is driven by behavioral traits, many biological factors predispose individuals to certain behaviors and motivations. Prior work on exposure to fetal androgens (measured by second-to-fourth digit ratio, 2D:4D) shows that it correlates with behaviors and traits related to social status, which might make people more socially integrated. However, it also predicts certain anti-social behaviors and disorders associated with lower socialization. We explore whether 2D:4D correlates with network position later in life and find that individuals with low 2D:4D become more central in their social environment. Interestingly, low 2D:4D males are more likely to exhibit high betweenness centrality (they connect separated parts of the social structure), while low 2D:4D females are more likely to exhibit high in-degree centrality (more people name them as friends). These gender-specific differences are reinforced by transitivity (the likelihood that one's friends are also friends with one another): neighbors of low 2D:4D men tend not to know each other; the contrary is observed for low 2D:4D women. Our results suggest that biological predispositions influence the organization of human societies and that exposure to prenatal androgens influences different status seeking behaviors in men and women.
Efforts to address health disparities and achieve health equity are critically dependent on the development of a diverse research workforce. However, many researchers from underrepresented backgrounds face challenges in advancing their careers, securing independent funding, and finding the mentorship needed to expand their research.
Faculty from the University of Maryland at College Park and the University of Wisconsin-Madison developed and evaluated an intensive week-long research and career-development institute—the Health Equity Leadership Institute (HELI)—with the goal of increasing the number of underrepresented scholars who can sustain their ongoing commitment to health equity research.
In 2010-2016, HELI brought 145 diverse scholars (78% from an underrepresented background; 81% female) together to engage with each other and learn from supportive faculty. Overall, scholar feedback was highly positive on all survey items, with average agreement ratings of 4.45-4.84 based on a 5-point Likert scale. Eighty-five percent of scholars remain in academic positions. In the first three cohorts, 73% of HELI participants have been promoted and 23% have secured independent federal funding.
HELI includes an evidence-based curriculum to develop a diverse workforce for health equity research. For those institutions interested in implementing such an institute to develop and support underrepresented early stage investigators, a resource toolbox is provided.
The surface quality of a heat treatable Al-Si-Mg alloy by means compression tests at 450°C was evaluated. Samples were obtained from an ingot with unidirectional solidification in order to obtain a microstructural gradient influenced by the cooling and solidification rate. The samples were heat treated by homogenization at 520°C for 4 hours prior to deformation by compression. Inverted optical and scanning electron microscopes were used to assess the surface damage of deformed samples.
Analysis of deformed surface indicates a greater influence of microstructural refinement on hardening rate. It was found that the samples solidified at high cooling rates showed no defects, but at low cooling rates produced growth of grain size and intermetallic phases and thereby the high incidence of cracks in the surface.
Street vendors in Mexico and day laborers in the United States, both groups of informal workers who labor in public space, face formidable structural obstacles to securing their rights as workers. Despite their apparent vulnerability, these informal workers have built perhaps the most powerful informal worker organizations in their countries. In this article, we explore and explain to the extent possible the sources, forms, and limits of this unexpected power. We explore organizational and strategic commonalities as well as differences and seek to explain both.
Several experimental efforts related to the concrete improvement are focused to increase its flexural strength to complement the high compressive strength, which is usually developed by materials of this nature. The flexural strength or modulus of rupture of the concrete is important in civil engineering applications such as infrastructure projects, pavements and buildings. This work proposes an alternative to optimize concrete flexural strength through the functionalization of the 9 Angstrom (Å) Tobermorite using Carbon Nanotubes (CNT). A complete ab-initio, 3D Atomistic Model of the 9Å Tobermorite is presented as the basis of the silicate cementitious hydrated products. In order to validate the model, some mechanical properties were computed using a Density Functional Theory (DFT) based program. Afterwards, a functionalization based on CNTs with different diameters was carried out to improve the flexural strength of the concrete.
In Mexican and French law, the right of ownership is at the heart of several legal techniques that secure the performance of an obligation. The retention of title clause, the lease purchase agreement and the trust are examples of such techniques. The use of ownership as a means of security is nothing new; it was used in Roman law.
With the abolition of the nexum or debt bondage, the person of the debtor could not be used as collateral anymore. Therefore, the Romans created a trust like device, named fiducia cum creditore, to secure the payment of a debt. The settlor would transfer ownership to the trustee as collateral to secure the performance of an obligation; where the trustee would be the creditor and the settlor, the debtor. Subsequently, if the settlor breached the contract, the trustee could sell the trust property and pay himself with the price paid. On the other hand, if the settlor performed his obligation the trustee returned the trust property.
In time this mechanism disappeared, giving way to new security devices, such as the pignus (pledge) and the hypotecha (mortgage). These techniques did not use ownership as a means of security in Roman law, nor do they in Mexican and French law. Even though the pledge and the mortgage continue to exist in Mexican and French law, the use of the right of ownership as collateral not only has reappeared; it has been successful. This is quite astonishing because the pledge and the mortgage are more sophisticated mechanisms.
Even if we know that the refinement of a legal system does not prevent the revival of ancient techniques and therefore that the law has ‘cyclical movements: institutions are born, eclipse and reappear’, we cannot avoid enquiring upon these reappearances because at first instance it seems unreasonable. Thus, we can ask ourselves the following question: if the right of ownership ceased to be used to secure the performance of an obligation under Roman law, why has it reappeared in Mexican and French contemporary law?
Largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, is a native fish species with special importance for sport fishing competitions in Nuevo León, Mexico. However, no study has investigated the parasitic fauna of M. salmoides, and no reports are available on monogenean parasites in this fish species. Therefore, we described the monogenean parasites of M. salmoides and the effects of season and fish condition factor in five reservoirs: La Boca (LB), El Cuchillo–Solidaridad (CS), Sombreretillo (S), Laguna Salinillas (LS) and Cerro Prieto (CP). The monogeneans infecting M. salmoides were Clavunculus unguis and Acolpenteron ureteroecetes (collected in all localities), as well as Syncleithrium fusiformis, Haplocleidus furcatus, Clavunculus bifurcatus and Urocleidus principalis (CS). Clavunculus unguis had the highest prevalence in fish from all reservoirs. The abundance of monogeneans was generally greater in late spring to autumn than in winter. Although season was not correlated with abundance (rs = 0.0934, P < 0.0154), the months of highest temperature (from May to September) were positively correlated with parasite abundance. A significant association was observed between fish condition factor and the presence of monogeneans (P < 0.05), except for A. ureteroecetes. Our findings include five new geographic records for C. unguis, S. fusiformis, H. furcatus and C. bifurcatus.