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PA6 and PMMA polymers with different MWCNTs addition (5, 7 and 9 wt %) were synthetized through casting solution, resulting in improvement properties in contrast to pristine polymers. SEM images showed the MWCNTs embedded into polymeric matrices. D, G and G´ bands of MWCNTs were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and functional groups observed in both nanocomposites by FTIR demonstrated a strong interaction. A significant increasing in electrical conductivity and microhardness was observed in all the nanocomposites. Major microhardness values were obtained in MWCNTs/PA6 (50 HV) however the MWCNTs/PMMA nanocomposites showed the highest electrical conductivity value (6.4×10-4 S/cm).
The aim of this research is to ameliorate the dispersion of pristine and functionalized Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) into polystyrene with hydroxyl end groups (PSOH) matrices using low magnetic fields. The Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using benzene as carbon source; to produce CNTs with and without functional groups two catalysts were used (stainless steel and ferrocene). The obtained nanotubes contained iron nanoparticles inside. PSOH were synthesized using styrene as monomer, azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator and 2-MeOH as chain transfer agent. The MWCNTs-PSOH matrices were formed using 1.6 wt % of carbon nanotubes into PSOH and ultrasonic mixing for 30 min. The mixing materials were poured into containers and dry at room temperature. While the material was drying, constant magnetic fields of 0.24 T were being applied for 50 min. The MWCNTs-PSOH composites were analysed by SEM, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. SEM micrographs showed that MWCNTs without functional groups were incorporated in the middle of PSOH. The MWCNTs functionalized perform differently; a better dispersion through the entire polymer matrix was achieved, because the polymer embedded the CNTs. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy showed chemical interaction between PSOH and MWCNTs functionalized. The CNTs dispersion into PSOH was ameliorated through the use of low magnetic fields and functionalization.
In this paper, we are interested in the nilpotent centre problem of planar analytic monodromic vector fields. It is known that the formal integrability is not enough to characterize such centres. More general objects are considered as the formal inverse integrating factors. However, the existence of a formal inverse integrating factor is not sufficient to describe all the nilpotent centres. For the family studied in this paper, it is enough.
In the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, composers and music theorists moved away from the system of the eight ecclesiastical modes that had been elaborated by medieval theorists and was later applied to polyphonic music (including the varied system extended to twelve modes in the sixteenth century) towards modern bimodal tonality. Although several modal systems coexisted within this time period, a distinct variant of the eight modes, often known in modern scholarship as the church keys, developed as a practical solution to problems associated with the performance of psalms and other recited formulas (especially the Magnificat) in alternatim practice between the choir in plainchant and the organ. A scarcity of research on this topic within investigations of Spanish music prompts us to outline an introduction to a matter so crucial to music theory of the baroque period in Spain. Thus we present an overview of the treatment of the church keys or tones in Spanish treatises over a long period of two centuries, and focus briefly on particular contributions made by individual authors.
The oscillating piezoelectric field of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) is employed to transport photoexcited electrons and holes in GaAs nanowires (NWs) transferred to a SAW beam line on a LiNbO3 crystal. We show that carriers generated in the NW by a focused light spot can be acoustically transported to a second location, where they recombine emitting short light pulses. The results presented here demonstrate the high-frequency manipulation of carriers in NWs without the use of electrical contacts, which opens new perspectives for applications in opto-electronic devices operating at GHz frequencies.
The microstructure of pentacene thin films deposited by thermal evaporation is studied by X-ray diffraction. The transmittance of these films evidences different molecular orbital levels and their related excitonic states. Pentacene photodiodes have been also fabricated on ITO-coated glass substrates with aluminium top electrodes. The current voltage characteristics of such devices are discussed paying special attention to the strongly marked space-charge limited regime. This has been related to trapping in an exponential distribution of localised states in the gap of pentacene. The analysis of the characteristic offers valuable information about such distribution of traps. Finally, the external-quantum-efficiency of these photodiodes shows antibatic features, which evidence the importance of excitonic states in the photovoltaic conversion in pentacene.
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