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Common Pool Resources include, for instance, fishing grounds, irrigation systems, forests and the atmosphere. Now more than ever, how we responsibly share and use those goods is a vital issue. This textbook introduces students of economics, business and policy studies to the key issues in the field. It uses a game-theory approach to help readers understand the mathematical representation of how to find equilibrium behavior in CPRs, how to identify the socially optimal appropriation, and how to measure the inefficiencies that arise. Algebra and calculus steps are clearly explained, so students can more easily reproduce the analysis and apply it in their own research. Finally, the book also summarizes experimental studies that tested theoretical results in controlled environments, introducing readers to a literature that has expanded over the last decades, and provides references for further reading.
Se presentan los resultados del recorrido de superficie realizado en la comunidad de Santo Domingo Tonaltepec en la Mixteca Alta de Oaxaca, en el que se identificaron y registraron 43 nuevos sitios arqueológicos datados a las fases Ramos (alrededor de los 300 aC hasta los 250 dC), Las Flores (aproximadamente 250-900 dC) y Natividad (aproximadamente 900-1521 dC). Estos nuevos sitios se contextualizan en el ámbito regional al relacionarlos con los sitios urbanos identificados para cada una de estas fases en los valles adyacentes de Coixtlahuaca, Nochixtlán, Tamazulapan y Teposcolula. Basados en estos datos, consideramos que Tonaltepec se encontró relativamente aislado y fuera del control de los sitios urbanos tempranos durante Ramos; que se transformó en un asentamiento fronterizo entre las entidades políticas durante la fase Las Flores; y que aprovechó los beneficios de localizarse sobre la ruta de comunicación entre importantes reinos mixtecos durante Natividad. La localización de Tonaltepec, relativamente lejos de los principales valles, pero a la vez entre ellos, le otorgó ventajas que supo aprovechar a través de la historia de desarrollo político de la región.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak may have affected the mental health of patients at high risk of suicide. In this study we explored the wish to die and other suicide risk factors using smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in patients with a history of suicidal thoughts and behaviour. Contrary to our expectations we found a decrease in the wish to die during lockdown. This is consistent with previous studies showing that suicide rates decrease during periods of social emergency. Smartphone-based EMA can allow us to remotely assess patients and overcome the physical barriers imposed by lockdown.
We present the first report of Amblycerus dispar (Sharp) attacking stored almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb] in Argentina. A summarized diagnosis, illustrations, and photographs of the adult and mature larva are provided to facilitate identification. We performed species distribution models for A. dispar and its main host plant Geoffroea decorticans (Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.) Burkart. We include A. dispar into a previous morphological character matrix and conduct a phylogenetic analysis to infer its phylogenetic position. The evolution of host plant associations of the genus Amblycerus is herein re-analyzed. A. dispar and its main host shows high suitability areas especially in central-west Argentina and Chile, whereas for the USA, high suitability areas were found for the south-western which include the area of almond production in this country. Although the presence of A. dispar in the USA region is very unlikely, we recommend some awareness as other bruchines are present in the area. Although A. dispar is unlikely to become an economically important risk, monitoring for early detection is recommended to avoid productivity loss, especially when the native host is nearby cultivated areas. A. dispar is hypothesized to be the sister species of A. schwarzi Kingsolver. The colonization of a Rosaceae species is a novelty for this genus, being host shifts known as an important factor affecting both natural and agricultural systems.
The goal of the present study was to investigate the association between PTSD and the onset of hypertension in previously normotensive individuals in a population living in the stressful environment of the urban slums while controlling for risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Participants were 320 normotensive individuals who lived in slums and were attending a family doctor program. Measurements included a questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, clinical status and life habits, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist – Civilian Version, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Incident hypertension was defined as the first occurrence at the follow-up review of the medical records of (1) systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher, (2) the participant started taking antihypertensive medication, or (3) a new diagnosis of hypertension made by a physician. Differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics between hypertensive and non-hypertensive individuals were compared using the χ2 and t tests. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Six variables – age, educational level, body mass, smoking, diabetes, and PTSD diagnosis – showed a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.20) association with the hypertensive status. In the Cox regression, only PTSD diagnosis was significantly associated with incident hypertension (multivariate HR = 1.94; 95% CI 1.11–3.40).
The present findings highlight the importance of considering a diagnostic hypothesis of PTSD in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
To quantify the energy, nutrients-to-limit and total gram amount consumed, and identify their top food sources consumed by Latin Americans.
Data from The Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS).
ELANS is a cross-sectional study representative of eight Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela.
Two 24h dietary recalls on non-consecutive days were used to estimate usual dietary intake of 9218 participants with ages between 15-65years. “What We Eat in America” food classification system developed by USDA was adapted and used to classify all food items consumed by the ELANS population. Food sources of energy, added sugars, saturated fatty acids (SFA), sodium and total gram amount consumed were identified and ranked based on percentage contribution to intake of total amount.
Three-highest ranked food categories of total energy consumed were: rice (10.3%), yeast breads (6.9%), and turnovers and other grain-based items (6.8%). Highest ranked food sources of total gram amount consumed were: fruit drinks (9.6%), other 100% juice (9.3%), and rice (8.3%). Three highest ranked sources for added sugars were: other 100% juice (24.1%), fruit drinks (16.5%), and sugar and honey (12.4%). SFA ranked foods were: turnovers and other grain-based (12.6%), cheese (11.9%), and pizza (10.3%). Three top sources of sodium were: rice (13.9%), soups (9.1%), and rice mixed dishes (7.3%).
Identification of top sources of energy and nutrients-to-limit among Latin Americans is critical for designing strategies to help them meet nutrient recommendations within energy needs.
Food partitioning among coexisting species is often considered advantageous to minimize niche overlap and avoid inter-specific competition. Congeneric fish species such as the mullets Mugil curema and Mugil liza, which co-occur across marine and estuarine habitats, are good models to evaluate resource use and niche overlap or partitioning. We used stomach contents (SCA) and stable isotope analysis (SIA) to assess potential trophic shifts and changes in niche overlap associated with the mullets transitioning from marine to estuarine habitats. SIA included different fractions of organic matter in suspension and in the sediment to estimate the contribution of micro, nano and pico-organisms to the mullets’ diets. We hypothesized higher resource partitioning in the less resource-diverse system (marine surf-zone) than in the more diverse one (estuary). SCA showed diet differences between M. curema and M. liza according to the habitat. They showed distinct diets in the marine area (P < 0.001), but similar diets in the estuary (P = 0.226). A lower niche breadth was observed for both species in the marine area (M. curema = 0.03, M. liza = 0.06) compared with the estuary (M. curema = 0.14, M. liza = 0.16). Isotopic niches of both species were higher in the estuary (64.7%) compared with the marine area (0.7%). These findings corroborated our hypothesis of higher food partitioning in the marine surf-zone. We also demonstrated using SIA the shift from planktonic to benthic feeding following the recruitment of the mullets from the surf-zone into the estuary.
Endometriosis is a benign estrogen-dependent gynecological disease, known to occur in 7–10% of women of childbearing age [1, 2]. This percentage may rise to 30–50% if only women presenting with pelvic pain and infertility are taken into account . The condition is histopathologically defined as the presence of endometrial tissue (glands and stroma) in ectopic locations outside the uterine cavity. It is now widely recognized that three different forms of endometriosis can occur in the pelvis, namely peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis, and deep endometriotic nodules of the rectovaginal septum, each with its own pathogenesis .
Although the clinical presentation of endometriosis includes dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), dyspareunia (painful sexual intercourse), and chronic pelvic pain, infertility is still regarded as the biggest concern for endometriosis patients [5, 6]. The presence of intraovarian endometriomas in particular can cause follicle loss, diminishing the ovarian reserve and consequently leading to infertility [7, 8].
This chapter describes methods to detect and identify power system transmission line outages in near real time. These methods exploit statistical properties of the small random ﬂuctuations in electricity generation as well as energy demand to which a power system is subject to as time evolves. To detect and identify transmission line outages, a linearized incremental small-signal power system model is used in conjunction with high-speed synchronized voltage phase angle measurements obtained from phasor measurement units. By monitoring the statistical properties of voltage phase angle time-series, line outages are detected and identiﬁed using techniques borrowed from the theory of quickest change detection. Several case studies are considered for the cases of detecting and identifying single- and double-line outages in an accurate and timely fashion.
The El Salt site (Alcoi, Alicante, Spain) is one of the latest Neanderthal sites in the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula. The disappearance of this human group is controversial and needs detailed studies from different research areas. Taphonomy is essential to establish how representative is a fossil assemblage of the past living organisms that produced it and to interpret the formation process of the fossil site. In the case of El Salt, we have analyzed the micromammal assemblages of Units X and V, which contain fossils of Neanderthals and/or evidence of their activity. In contrast with previous identifications of the little owl (Athene noctua), our detailed taphonomic study shown here allows us to conclude that the main predator involved in the production of the micromammal assemblages was the European eagle owl (Bubo bubo). This is an opportunistic predator whose feeding preferences and behavior reflect the abundance of local micromammalian species, which can therefore provide a representation of past ecosystems near El Salt. The taphonomic information provided by this study also indicates the absence of transport and reworking processes, and reinforces previous paleoecological interpretations, suggesting an increase of aridity at the top of El Salt sequence that coincided with the local disappearance of Neanderthals.
Elasmobranchs in the Gulf of California have been found with malformations, probably originated during embryonic development or caused by environmental anomalies and pollution associated with intense mining activity in the region. Clasper malformations are reported for the first time in two specimens of Pseudobatos buthi, a species recently described from the Gulf of California. The function of the claspers was not affected by the size difference, because specimens presented the distinctive characteristics of an adult individual. The reproductive system did not show any malformation, with symmetrical testes. Histological analysis of the testes revealed a normal spermatogenic development. To elucidate the causes and to detect a possible effect of the morphological malformations due to high levels of heavy metals, trace concentration values (cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, silver, lead and zinc) were determined in muscle and liver. Cadmium and lead concentrations in the muscle of the two specimens were below the permissible limit for human consumption (<0.05 mg kg−1); however, iron and zinc presented high values (0.455, 4.024 mg kg−1 in muscle and 21.931, 3.694 mg kg−1 in liver respectively). Mining activity and heavy metal pollution in the sampling area may have caused the malformations, which might be attributed to the high values of iron and zinc discovered in the muscle and liver.
Social unrest and warfare in emerging markets can create opportunities for innovation. By focusing on Colombia, where armed conflict and post-conflict challenges have motivated innovation in the military and business domains, this chapter examines innovation in places where social demands create opportunities for deep societal transformations. We describe the processes by which the armed forces developed innovative military strategies in wartime to win an unconventional and long-standing guerrilla war. During the post-conflict period, businesses created new business models, going much further than traditional practices of social responsibility to become real actors in building a peaceful society and contributing to the economic development of regions historically affected by the armed conflict.
To examine whether the educational level moderates the relationship between baseline depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning at 5- and 10-year follow-ups in older adults, considering the association between cognitive functioning and difficulty with activities of daily living (ADL).
Using a prospective design, a path analysis was performed.
In-home, face-to-face interviews and self-administered questionnaires, within the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project.
In total, 1,461 participants (mean age = 66.62) were followed up from Wave 1 (baseline) to Wave 2 (at 5 years) and Wave 3 (at 10 years).
Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline. Cognitive functioning and difficulty with ADL were assessed at baseline and at 5 and 10 years.
Educational level moderates the relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning at 5 years (β = 0.07, SE = 0.03, p = 0.04, Cohen’s f2 = 0.02), being depressive symptoms related to poor cognitive functioning only at low educational levels. Cognitive functioning predicts difficulty with ADL at 5 and 10 years (β = −0.08, SE = 0.03, p = 0.008, Cohen’s f2 = 0.01; β = −0.09, SE = 0.03, p = 0.006, Cohen’s f2 = 0.02). The proposed model yielded excellent fit (CFI = 1.00, RMSEA = 0.0001, 90% CI 0.0001–0.03, SRMR = 0.004, and χ2(8) = 7.16, p = 0.52).
Cognitive reserve may act as a protective factor against the effect of depressive symptoms on cognition in older adults, which, in turn, is relevant to their functional independence.
The relevance of the episodic memory in the prediction of brain aging is well known. The Face Name Associative Memory Exam (FNAME) is a valued associative memory measure related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarkers, such as amyloid-β deposition preclinical AD individuals. Previous validation of the Spanish version of the FNAME test (S-FNAME) provided normative data and psychometric characteristics. The study was limited to subjects attending a memory clinic and included a reduced sample with gender inequality distribution. The purpose of this study was to assess S-FNAME psychometric properties and provide normative data in a larger independent sample of cognitively healthy individuals.
S-FNAME was administered to 511 cognitively healthy volunteers (242 women, aged 41–65 years) participating in the Barcelona Brain Health Initiative cohort study.
Factor analysis supported construct validity revealing two underlying components: face-name and face-occupation and explaining 95.34% of the total variance, with satisfactory goodness of fit. Correlations between S-FNAME and Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test were statistically significant and confirmed its convergent validity. We also found weak correlations with non-memory tests supporting divergent validity. Women showed better scores, and S-FNAME was positively correlated with education and negatively with age. Finally, we generated normative data.
The S-FNAME test exhibits good psychometric properties, consistent with previous findings, resulting in a valid and reliable tool to assess episodic memory in cognitively healthy middle-aged adults. It is a promising test for the early detection of subtle memory dysfunction associated with abnormal brain aging.