To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In 2011, 14 Midwest trial locations evaluated tolerance of an AAD-1 and glyphosate-resistant corn hybrid to a 2,4-D choline+glyphosate premix formulation applied single and sequential POST at V4 and/or V7 corn with and without a PRE application of 2,4-D dimethylamine (DMA). Herbicides were applied at 1X and 2X maximum use rates with 1X rates of 1120 g ae ha−1 for glyphosate and 2,4-D DMA and 1065+1120 g ae ha−1 for the 2,4-D choline+glyphosate premix, respectively. Crop response was greatest 2 d after 2X rate applications, resulting in 4 to 10% visible injury to corn across application timings. No brace root injury or effect on corn grain yield were observed.
This paper presents radiocarbon results from a single Goniastrea favulus coral from Papua New Guinea which lived continuously between 13.0 and 13.1 kyr BP. The specimen was collected from a drill core on the Huon Peninsula and has been independently dated with 230Th. A site-specific reservoir correction has been applied to the results, and coral growth bands were used to calibrate individual growth years. Alternating density bands, which are the result of seasonal growth variations, were subsampled to provide 2 integrated 6-month 14C measurements per year. This allows for 20 independent measurements to be averaged for each decadal value of the 14C calibration, making these results the highest resolution data set available for this brief time range. The finestructure of the data set exhibits 14C oscillations with frequencies on the order of 4 to 10 yr, similar to those observed in modern coral 14C records.
It is strange to observe how many linguists do not know how to exploit an etymology properly. One of the sad consequences of this ignorance is the destructive and unjustifiable rejection of traditional vocabulary within the realm of grammar which linguistics is supposed to defend. The symptom indicates the more serious condition of an ignorance of profound grammatical truths that the ancient Romans and Greeks had discovered, but which, for the most part, have escaped our attention because often we do not know how to use words properly. As an illustration of this point, I ask you to reconsider with me the word “case.” Its grammatical meaning is almost always a source of confusion even though both English and French have cases. Since the word comes to us from Latin, I shall first examine what “case” is and how it works out in the Latin language.
We have assembled a new sample of some of the most FIR-luminous galaxies in the Universe and have imaged them in 1.1 mm dust emission and measured their redshifts 1 < z < 4 via CO emission lines using the 32-m Large Millimeter Telescope / Gran Telescopio Milimétrico (LMT/GTM). Our sample of 31 submm galaxies (SMGs), culled from the Planck and Herschel all-sky surveys, includes 14 of the 21 most luminous galaxies known, with LFIR > 1014L⊙ and SFR > 104M⊙/yr. These extreme inferred luminosities – and multiple / extended 1.1 mm images – imply that most or all are strongly gravitationally lensed, with typical magnification μ ~ 10 × . The gravitational lensing provides two significant benefits: (1) it boosts the S/N, and (2) it allows investigation of star formation and gas processes on sub-kpc scales.
Preeclampsia is a leading cause of prenatal infant mortality (Mac Gillivray, 1983; Robillard, Dekker, & Hulsey, 2002). Preeclampsia occurs as a consequence of abnormal invasion by the trophoblast in the uterine spiral arteries and endothelial cell dysfunction (Friedman, 1993), and as a consequence the fetus may not receive adequate nutrition resulting in growth retardation. Whereas all mammalian embryos undergo implantation shortly after conception, humans are the only mammalian species known to undergo a second phase of deep trophoblastic implantation at the end of the first trimester (Robillard et al., 2003). In normal development, this second stage of implantation provides for the modification of spiral arteries that result in an increase in the blood flow to the placenta. Preeclampsia is believed to be the result of a failure to achieve or to complete this second implantation phase (Robillard et al., 2003). It is clinically diagnosed by maternal hypertension and proteinuria. The hypertension results from cytotrophic factors that are released by the fetus and serve to increase the amount of blood flowing to the placenta (Haig, 1993).
It has been theorized that the origins of preeclampsia in humans are linked to the increase in cranial capacity associated with the genus Homo (Robillard et al., 2003). The greater nutritional needs of the developing brain in the human fetus, compared to the more modest needs of developing brains in species with lower cranial capacities, has been hypothesized to explain the second wave of implantation characteristic of humans.
Our interest in the psychological properties of semen arose as a byproduct of an initial interest in menstrual synchrony. In reviewing that literature we discovered several articles (Trevathan, Burleson, & Gregory, 1993; Weller & Weller, 1998) reporting that lesbians who live together fail to show menstrual synchrony. Since the evidence suggests that menstrual synchrony is mediated by the exchange of subtle olfactory cues among cohabitating women (Preti et al., 1986, Stern & McClintock, 1998) this struck us as peculiar, because lesbians would be expected to be in closer, more intimate contact with one another on a daily basis than other females who live together. What is it about heterosexual females that promotes menstrual synchrony, or conversely what is it about lesbians that prevents menstrual synchrony? It occurred to us that one feature that distinguishes heterosexual women from lesbians is the presence or absence of semen in the female reproductive tract. Lesbians have semen-free sex.
Human semen is a very complicated mixture of many different ingredients. If you extract the sperm from semen, what is left is called seminal plasma. We speculated that there may be chemicals in seminal plasma that, through vaginal absorption, affect female biology and triggers the release of pheromones that function to entrain menstrual cycles among cohabitating women. Some of the components in semen pass through vaginal epithelial tissue, and within an hour or two after intercourse heightened levels of certain seminal chemicals can be detected in the female bloodstream (Benziger & Edelson, 1983).
Among sexually reproducing species, the penis evolved as an internal fertilization device. But across different species, penises exist in a bewildering array of shapes and sizes (see Eberhard, 1985). Among primates, the human penis is distinctive by virtue of both its size and its enlarged glans and protruding coronal ridge (see Gallup & Burch, 2004). There has been some speculation that the human penis evolved not only as an internal fertilization device, but also as a mechanism for displacing semen left by rival males in the female reproductive tract (e.g. Baker & Bellis, 1995).
In a series of studies designed to simulate sexual intercourse under laboratory conditions using artificial genitals, we found that when latex vaginas contained simulated semen, phalluses that approximated the configuration of the human penis displaced 80% or more of the semen by drawing it away from the cervical end of the vagina (Gallup et al., 2003). Through a series of experimental manipulations, we determined that the coronal ridge may be an important feature of the penis in mediating semen displacement. Thus, as a mechanical means of affecting sperm competition, the human penis may enable successive males to displace foreign semen from the female reproductive tract and substitute their semen for those of their rivals.
Gordon G. Gallup, Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY, USA,
James R. Anderson, Department of Psychology, University of Stirling, Scotland,
Steven M. Platek, Department of Psychology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
The purpose of this chapter is to review the evidence concerning mirror self-recognition as a measure of self-awareness and examine its applicability to schizophrenia. The evidence suggests that the ability to identify yourself correctly in a mirror is not only related to the capacity to conceive of yourself, but may also be related to your ability to take into account what other individuals may know, want or intend to do. This ability to make accurate inferences about mental states in others (known as mental state attribution, theory of mind or social intelligence) begins to emerge during childhood at the same point in time as mirror self-recognition. Species that fail to recognize themselves in mirrors fail to show any evidence that they can infer mental states in one another. Also consistent with the proposition that these phenomena go hand in hand, recent neuropsychological evidence shows that self-awareness and mental state attribution in humans appear to be a byproduct of brain activity that is related to the frontal cortex. As detailed here and elsewhere in this volume, there is growing evidence that both self-awareness and mental state attribution is impaired in schizophrenic patients and that schizophrenia may be related to frontal lobe dysfunction.
Mirrors have a number of unique psychological properties. In principle, mirrors represent a means of seeing yourself as you are seen by others. In front of a mirror you are literally an audience to your own behaviour.
Numerous searches have failed to identify a single co-occurrence of total blindness and schizophrenia. Evidence that blindness causes loss of certain NMDA-receptor functions is balanced by reports of compensatory gains. Connections between visual and anterior cingulate NMDA-receptor systems may help to explain how blindness could protect against schizophrenia.
Aspects of Northoff's argument lend themselves to the ongoing investigation of localizing the self in the brain. Recent data from the fields of neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience provide evidence that the right hemisphere is a candidate for localization of self. The data on catatonia further that proposition and add insight into the continuing investigation of self in the brain across sensory and motor domains.
In previous chapters we have repeatedly emphasized that the principal difficulty in calculating the dissociation energy of a bond is the correct treatment of the change in electron correlation as the bond distance changes. This observation also applies to reactions where bonds are both formed and broken. In many important cases, however, the particular atom–atom distances that change significantly during a reaction are relatively few in number, and a method for accurately treating the correlation in only those “bonds” would have a clear advantage in efficiency. The MCVB method provides a method for targeting certain bonds to treat the correlation in them as well as possible. We call this procedure targeted correlation, and in this chapter we give examples using it. The SCVB method could also be used in this context.
In our previous work we have used SCF solutions of the atoms as the ingredients of the n-electron VB basis functions. With targeted correlation we go one step up and use SCF solutions of molecular fragments as the ingredients. As the name implies, this must be tailored to the specific example and must be done with a careful eye to the basic chemistry and physics of the situation at hand.
Methylene, ethylene, and cyclopropane
In this section we consider some molecules that can be viewed as consisting of methylene radicals in some combination. Earlier publications[39, 66] have covered some of the aspects of the subjects covered here.
In Chapter 11 we discussed the properties of the atoms in the second row of the periodic table and how these might influence molecules formed from them. We focus on carbon in this chapter and examine how the bonding changes through the series CH, CH2, CH3, and CH4. The first three of these are known only spectroscopically, in matrix isolation, or as reaction intermediates, but many of their properties have been determined. The reader will recall that carbon exhibits relatively low-energy excited valence configurations. For carbon the excitation energy is around 4 eV, and among the atoms discussed in Chapter 11, only boron has a lower excitation energy. If this excited configuration is to have an important role in the bonding, the energy to produce the excitation must be paid back by the energy of formation of the bond or bonds. We shall see that VB theory predicts this happens between CH and CH2. After our discussion of these single carbon compounds, we will consider ethane, CH3CH3, as an example for dealing with larger hydrocarbons.
CH, CH2, CH3, and CH4
We first give calculations of these four molecules with an STO3G basis. The total energies and first bond dissociation energies are collected in Table 13.1. We see that, even with the minimal basis, the bond energies are within 0.4eV of the experimental values except for CH3, which has considerable uncertainty. The calculated values tend to be smaller, as expected for a minimal VB treatment.