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This volume provides an edition and translation of the crown pleas, largely consisting of criminal proceedings, from the surviving roll made for the King's justices at their eyre held in Suffolk in AD 1240. Its publication completes the process of making available for the first time the earliest such roll to survive in full for Suffolk, complementing the edition of the civil pleas which the Suffolk Records Society published as its volume 52 in 2009. The latter was edited by Dr Eric Gallagher, who laid the essential foundations for the present volume. Circumstances prevented his bringing it to completion, however, and that work has therefore been undertaken by Dr Henry Summerson, who has supplied the introduction and where necessary revised the text and indexes.
Dr Gallagher writes: Much of the research for the edition was done as part of my doctoral thesis on the 1240 civil pleas, and depended on the staff of The National Archives, whom I thank for their advice and help, as I do members of the Suffolk Records Society for guidance with the county's place-names, particularly the late John Blatchly, the late Peter Northeast, David Dymond, David Butcher and Keith Briggs. I am also grateful for the support of the Institute of Historical Research, London, both for its facilities and for the help freely given by scholars attending seminars there. I am obliged, too, to Christopher Whittick and the late Lesley Boatwright for their assistance in transcribing and translating the text.
Dr Summerson adds: The realisation of this text was accomplished in difficult circumstances during the nationwide lockdown which resulted from the Covid-19 pandemic of 2020. It was possible only because essential source material, unpublished and printed, was accessible through the websites of the Anglo-American Legal Tradition project (AALT) and the Institute of Historical Research respectively. My thanks go to them, and also to the British Library and the library of the Society of Antiquaries of London for access to books in the closing stages of work. I, too, am most grateful to Keith Briggs for help with place-names, as I am to Nick Bingham of The Boydell Press for essential help with the production of this book.
PLEAS OF THE CROWN TAKEN AT IPSWICH BEFORE WILLIAM OF YORK, PROVOST OF BEVERLEY, HENRY OF BATH, AND THEIR FELLOWS, JUSTICES ITINERANT IN THE COUNTY OF SUFFOLK IN THE TWENTY-FOURTH YEAR OF THE REIGN OF KING HENRY THE SON OF KING JOHN IN THREE WEEKS FROM EASTER DAY
1 That is Sunday 6 May 1240, a week after the start of the eyre in Suffolk. See 1240 Suffolk Civil Pleas, p. 3, n. 1 for the heading.
THE HUNDRED OF BOSMERE COMES BY 12 [JURORS] – BOSMERE1
1 The hundred name is repeated three times. Nothing is said about past or present sheriffs and coroners, as is commonly the case in other crown pleas rolls.
1161. William of Eye killed Henry de Swinedon at the house of John de Helles in Offton vill, and he fled to Offton church and there acknowledged the death and abjured the realm. He was not in a tithing, but he was of the household of William Talebot, who is in mercy (amercement). Because Offton vill did not pursue it is in mercy (amercement). He had no chattels. Richard Stubbard and Richard Cook, who were with William when he killed him, fled and are not suspected, so they may return if they wish, and are to be under sureties. Richard Cook was not in a tithing, but Richard Stubbard was in the tithing of Gerard Stubbing in Offton, so it is in mercy for his flight (amercement). Four near neighbours, attached for that death, come and are not suspected, nor is anyone else. Englishry was presented by two, namely one on the father's side and another on the mother’s.
1 in manupastu – literally ‘mainpast’, meaning that he ate the bread of his lord, who was responsible for his good behaviour and was amerced if he committed felony.
1162. Matilda the widow of Nicholas de Westwode appealed Adam of Boulogne of the death of William her son, and Adam was arrested and imprisoned in the gaol at Ipswich, and he died there. Godfrey the son of Sephul of Creeting, Roger Aunsel of the same and Nicholas the son of William de Cape, who were with Adam when he killed him are not suspected, nor were they attached, so the sheriff is in mercy, namely Robert de Brywes (amercement).
The text which follows constitutes the second and concluding portion of the roll of the Suffolk eyre of 1240, and is made up of the pleas of the crown and the record of their financial yield. The first part of the roll, recording the county's civil pleas, consisted almost entirely of litigation over land. The crown pleas, by contrast, were made up of what today would be described as criminal business, together with matters affecting the government of the county and the interests of the King, and in particular his revenues. A modest number of people involved in civil litigation can be identified as having also taken part in the conduct of criminal proceedings, and a very few suits over land gave rise to, or were associated with, acts of violence which were recorded among pleas of the crown. The two sections are numbered continuously, but overall the differences between them, as well as editorial convenience, are such as to justify their being presented separately.
Suffolk in 1240
The value of an eyre roll does not lie only in the light it can shed on the operations of the medieval legal system, or on the functions of local and central government; it can also illuminate many aspects of the life of a county, and do so at social levels which are otherwise hard to penetrate. For Suffolk in 1240, moreover, it can serve this purpose for decades not especially well provided for by other sources – positively murky, indeed, when looked at between the searchlights provided by Domesday Book at the end of the eleventh century, and the growing numbers of court rolls and estate accounts which from the last decades of the thirteenth century onwards have provided so many insights into the workings of East Anglian society. In its physical shape the county has changed little in the last 800 years, except along its North Sea coast, already fighting a largely losing battle against erosion. Prosperous Dunwich had yet to disappear under the waves, but in 1228 a lawsuit between the men of Yarmouth and the keeper of the royal manor of Lothingland, at Suffolk's north-east tip, found that the latter's market, presumably at Southtown (formerly known as Little Yarmouth), had recently had to be moved to a site where it was less likely to be ‘swamped and covered by the sea’.
This study aimed to identify the types of foods that constitute a vegan diet and establish patterns within the diet. Dietary pattern analysis, a key instrument for exploring the correlation between health and disease was used to identify patterns within the vegan diet.
A modified version of the EPIC-Norfolk food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was created and validated to include vegan foods and launched on social media.
UK participants, recruited online
A convenience sample of 129 vegans voluntarily completed the FFQ. Collected data was converted to reflect weekly consumption to enable factor and cluster analyses.
Factor analysis identified four distinct dietary patterns including: 1) convenience, (22%); 2) health conscious, (12%); 3) unhealthy, (9%); and 4) traditional vegan (7%). Whilst two healthy patterns were defined, the convenience pattern was the most identifiable pattern with a prominence of vegan convenience meals and snacks, vegan sweets and desserts, sauces, condiments and fats. Cluster analysis identified three clusters, cluster one ‘convenience’ (26.8%), cluster two, ‘traditional’ (22%) and cluster 3 ‘health conscious’ (51.2%). Clusters one and two consisted of an array of ultra-processed vegan food items. Together, both clusters represent almost half of participants and yielding similar results to the predominant dietary pattern, strengthens the factor analysis.
These novel results highlight a need for further dietary pattern studies with full nutrition and blood metabolite analysis in larger samples of vegans to enhance and ratify these results.
Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, CDC recommended collection of a lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimen for SARS-CoV-2 testing in addition to the routinely recommended upper respiratory tract (URT) testing in mechanically ventilated patients. Significant operational challenges were noted at our institution using this approach. In this report, we describe our experience with routine collection of paired URT and LRT sample testing. Our results revealed a high concordance between the two sources, and that all children tested for SARS-CoV-2 were appropriately diagnosed with URT testing alone. There was no added benefit to LRT testing. Based on these findings, our institutional approach was therefore adjusted to sample the URT alone for most patients, with LRT sampling reserved for patients with ongoing clinical suspicion for SARS-CoV-2 after a negative URT test.
Memory symptoms and objective impairment are common in HIV disease and are associated with disability. A paradoxical issue is that objective episodic memory failures can interfere with accurate recall of memory symptoms. The present study assessed whether responses on a self-report scale of memory symptoms demonstrate measurement invariance in persons with and without objective HIV-associated memory impairment.
In total, 505 persons with HIV completed the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ). Objective memory impairment (n = 141) was determined using a 1-SD cutoff on clinical tests of episodic memory. PRMQ measurement invariance was assessed by confirmatory factor analyses examining a one-factor model with increasing cross-group equality constraints imposed on factor loadings and item thresholds (i.e., configural, weak, and strong invariance).
Configural model fit indicated that identical items measured a one-factor model for both groups. Comparison to the weak model indicated that factor loadings were equivalent across groups. However, there was evidence of partial strong invariance, with two PRMQ item thresholds differing across memory impairment groups. Post hoc analyses using a 1.5-SD memory impairment cutoff (n = 77) revealed both partial weak and partial strong invariance, such that PRMQ item loadings differed across memory groups for three items.
The PRMQ demonstrated a robust factor structure among persons with and without objective HIV-associated memory impairment. However, on select PRMQ items, individuals with memory impairment reported observed scores that were relatively higher than their latent score, while items were more strongly associated with the memory factor in a group with greater memory impairment.
In many ways the study of resolved stellar populations is the best method for exploring properties of stellar populations. However, the method requires measurements to be obtained for individual stars, and this rapidly becomes challenging as the distance to extragalactic systems increases. The depths of resolved stellar samples in galaxies are primarily limited by the levels of stellar fluxes and effects of crowding. Currently most resolved stellar population studies are constrained to galaxies within a distance of about 20 Mpc. Fortunately, the short-lived massive stars, whose numbers trace SFRs, are luminous and thus among the most readily observed, especially when they are not obscured by interstellar dust. The number of stars above a fiducial luminosity in a set of spectroscopic band-passes are counted and corrected for incomplete sampling. The distribution of these stars is then compared to expectations of stellar population models to derive estimates for the observed mass in the form of stars detected in the data. Further modeling provides an interpretation in terms of stellar masses within age bins. In this chapter we provide a brief overview of the history and some of the techniques used to derive star-formation rates (SFRs) and the associated star-formation histories of galaxies through observations