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Little is known about emotional quality-of-life in paediatric heart disease in low- and middle-income countries where the prevalence of uncorrected lesions is high. Research on emotional quality-of-life and its predictors in these settings is key to planning interventions.
Ten-year retrospective cross-sectional study of children aged 6–17 years with uncorrected congenital or acquired heart disease in 12 low- and middle-income countries was conducted. Emotional functioning score of the PedsQL TM 4.0 generic core scale and data on patient-reported limitation in sports participation were collected via in-person interview and analysed using regression analyses.
Ninety-four children reported mean emotional functioning scores of 71.94 (SD 25.32) [95% CI 66.75–77.13] with lower scores independently associated with having a parent with a chronic illness or who had died (p = 0.005), having less than three siblings (p = 0.007), and reporting a subjective limitation in carrying an item equivalent to a 4 lb load (p = 0.021). Patient-reported limitation in sports participation at least “sometimes” was present in 69% and was independently associated with experiencing symptoms at least once a month (p < 0.001).
Some of the factors which were associated with better emotional quality-of-life were similar to those identified in previous studies in patients with corrected defects. Patient-reported limitation in sports participation is common. In addition to corrective surgery and exercise, numerous other interventions which are practicable during surgical missions might improve emotional quality-of-life.
Israel defines itself as a ‘Jewish democratic state’, an expression that conveys the Jewish and liberal roots of its political, cultural and legal identity. In Jewish tradition, attempting to cure disease and save lives is of paramount value and Jewish culture hence encourages open-minded attitudes towards research efforts that have therapeutic goals. Zionist narratives also play a role in shaping policy towards genetic and reproductive technologies and pro-science attitudes echo the Zionist narrative that links scientific and technological innovation with the notion of transforming the Jews into a modern nation. Consequently, Israel does not ban basic research involving human germline modification and draws the line only at attempting to create a ‘genetically modified person’. Human germline genome modification is regulated in Israel under the 1999 Prohibition of Genetic Intervention (Human Cloning and Genetic Manipulation of Reproductive Cells) Law. This Law has been amended three times: in 2004, 2009 and 2016. The current version is set to expire on 23 May 2020. The Israeli Law prohibits two activities: human reproductive cloning, and the use of ‘reproductive cells that have undergone a permanent intentional genetic modification (germline gene therapy) in order to cause the creation of a person’.
We present a theoretical framework to characterize the steady and unsteady aeroelastic behaviour of compliant membrane wings under different conditions. We develop an analytic model based on thin airfoil theory coupled with a membrane equation. Adopting a numerical solution to the model equations, we study the effects of wing compliance, inertia and flapping kinematics on aerodynamic performance. The effects of added mass and fluid damping on a flapping membrane are quantified using a simple damped oscillator model. As the flapping frequency is increased, membranes go through a transition from thrust to drag around the resonant frequency, and this transition is earlier for more compliant membranes. The wake also undergoes a transition from a reverse von Kármán wake to a traditional von Kármán wake. The wake transition frequency is predicted to be higher than the thrust–drag transition frequency for highly compliant wings.
Constraining radiocarbon (14C) reservoir age offsets is critical to deriving accurate calendar-age chronologies from 14C dating of materials which did not draw carbon directly from the atmosphere. The application of 14C dating to such materials is severely limited in hydrologically sensitive environments like the Black Sea because of the difficulty to quantify reservoir age offsets, which can vary quickly and significantly through time, due to the dynamics of the biogeochemical cycling of carbon. Here we reconstruct 14C reservoir age offsets (Rshell-atm) of Holocene bivalve shells from the coastal Black Sea relatively to their contemporaneous atmosphere. We show that the 14C reservoir age offset and the stable carbon isotope composition of bivalve shells are linearly correlated in this region. From a biogeochemical standpoint, this suggests that inorganic stable carbon isotope and 14C compositions of Black Sea coastal waters are controlled by the balance between autochthonous primary productivity and heterotrophic respiration of allochthonous pre-aged terrestrial organic matter supplied by rivers. This provided an important implication for Black Sea geochronology as the reservoir age offset of 14C-dated bivalve shell can be inferred from its stable carbon isotope composition. Our results provide a fundamental and inexpensive geochemical tool which will considerably improve the accuracy of Holocene calendar age chronologies in the Black Sea.
This paper expands the Theory of Planned Behavior to explore the role of leaders’ normative expectations in driving employees’ service performance. Two quantitative studies in the context of retailing indicate that leaders’ normative expectations for high-quality service are related to employee service performance, through employee self-expectations for quality service (Study 1; N=75), and service role identity (Study 2; N=226). Both studies apply Kelman’s Theory of Social Influence by exploring how leaders influence employees’ expectations and corresponding behaviors, through the three processes of social influence: compliance, identification, and internalization. Leaders’ normative expectations for high-quality service enhances employee service performance not only by adjusting self-expectations to comply with an authority figure’s expectations or by identification with the leader as a role model, but rather as a deep-rooted process where the leader’s normative expectations are internalized into employee’s role identity. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Fatigue behaviour of titanium reinforced with TiB particles fabricated by ‘plasma transferred arc solid freeform fabrication’ (PTA-SFFF) technique was investigated. Rotation bending fatigue tests were conducted following the MPIF 56 standard using the staircase method approach. Experimental data is used to calculate the fatigue strength and construct S-N curves, where the results were compared to a powder metallurgy FC0205 as a benchmark material. The titanium samples were found to exhibit superior fatigue behaviour in comparison to the reference FC0205 material, performing well above 1/3 of its ultimate tensile strength with a 90% survival fatigue strength of 244 +/- 98.3 MPa versus 141 +/- 17.4 MPa. Fatigue failure mechanisms of samples were identified by examination of the fracture surfaces through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as using transmission-electron microscopy (TEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) analysis techniques. Fatigue crack propagation was either arrested or deflected when propagation occurred within the vicinity of the TiB intermetallics. Fracture surfaces of the titanium matrix displayed evidence of striations while the TiB intermetallic experience cleavage fracture.
The great properties of the paramagnetic nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center in diamond predestine it for nanoscale sensor applications; however, these properties are often compromised when NV centers reside near diamond surface for sensing. Here we show in a mini review that first-principles calculations can characterize diamond surfaces and predict the ideal surface terminators to host NV sensors. We discuss technical issues on the modeling of NV centers close to diamond surfaces, and results on the most employed diamond (100) and the most promising (111) surfaces with various terminators involving hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, and nitrogen are presented.
The remnant of the eastern European Jews that arrived in Israel after the Holocaust established a vibrant center of Yiddish culture in Tel Aviv. This paper tells its story. It spotlights the uniqueness of the Tel Aviv center in comparison with similar cultural centers established by eastern European Jews in other cities around the world, both before and after the Holocaust. It portrays the Jewish cultural activists and leaders that composed the Tel Aviv Yiddish center, the special conditions that awaited them in Israel, the institutions that they established, and their aftermath. Finally, it considers the Tel Aviv Yiddish cultural center as a test case for examining the social role of the Jewish cultural center after the Holocaust.
We estimate the blank carbon mass over the course of a typical Ramped PyrOx (RPO) analysis (150–1000°C; 5°C×min–1) to be (3.7±0.6) μg C with an Fm value of 0.555±0.042 and a δ13C value of (–29.0±0.1) ‰ VPDB. Additionally, we provide equations for RPO Fm and δ13C blank corrections, including associated error propagation. By comparing RPO mass-weighted mean and independently measured bulk δ13C values for a compilation of environmental samples and standard reference materials (SRMs), we observe a small yet consistent 13C depletion within the RPO instrument (mean–bulk: μ=–0.8‰; ±1σ=0.9‰; n=66). In contrast, because they are fractionation-corrected by definition, mass-weighted mean Fm values accurately match bulk measurements (mean–bulk: μ=0.005; ±1σ=0.014; n=36). Lastly, we show there exists no significant intra-sample δ13C variability across carbonate SRM peaks, indicating minimal mass-dependent kinetic isotope fractionation during RPO analysis. These data are best explained by a difference in activation energy between 13C- and 12C-containing compounds (13–12∆E) of 0.3–1.8 J×mol–1, indicating that blank and mass-balance corrected RPO δ13C values accurately retain carbon source isotope signals to within 1–2‰.
Bone cement is used for ossicular chain repair and revision stapes surgery. Its efficient use requires cautious removal of mucosa from the ossicles. This paper reports a technique for easy, fast and safe removal of this mucosa prior to cement application. It consists of the application of monopolar electrocoagulation on the ossicles prior to bone cement application.
The outcomes of six cases of revision stapes surgery and seven cases of partial ossiculoplasty, conducted between 2007 and 2012 using this new technique, were evaluated. Intra-operative reports and audiometric data were collected.
During the last assessment, reconstruction using bone cement resulted in mean post-operative air–bone gaps of 4.1 ± 6.5 dB in revision stapes surgery cases and 5.7 ± 5.5 dB in partial ossiculoplasty cases, reflecting a significant hearing improvement (p = 0.03). No complications were observed.
Electrocoagulation allows the removal of mucosa from the ossicles in an easy, fast and safe manner, enabling the use of bone cement for ossicular chain reconstruction.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between performance appraisal satisfaction, job stress and work–family conflict. Furthermore, the study explores the role of job stress as a mediator between satisfaction with performance appraisal and work–family conflict. The total sample consisted of 120 participants from different industries. The findings revealed that performance appraisal satisfaction was negatively correlated with job stress and work–family conflict. However, job stress fully mediated the relationship between performance appraisal satisfaction and work–family conflict. The study contributes to the limited body of knowledge on employee reactions to performance appraisal and in particular, performance appraisal satisfaction. The findings can help to shed more light on the relationship between performance appraisal satisfaction and employees’ psychological responses.
Reservoir age offsets are widely used to correct marine and speleothem radiocarbon age measurements for various calibration purposes. They also serve as a powerful tracer for carbon cycle dynamics. However, a clear terminology regarding reservoir age offsets is lacking, sometimes leading to miscalculations. This note seeks to provide consistent conventions for reporting reservoir 14C disequilibria useful to a broad range of environmental sciences. This contribution introduces the F14R and δ14R metrics to express the relative 14C disequilibrium between two contemporaneous reservoirs and the R metric as the associated reservoir age offset.