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Significant investment in new capacities for experimental research at high temperatures and pressures have provided new levels of understanding about the physical properties of carbon in fluids and melts, including its viscosity, electrical conductivity, and density. This chapter reviews the physical properties of carbon-bearing melts and fluids at high temperatures and pressures and highlights remaining unknowns left to be explored. The chapter also reviews how the remote sensing of the inaccessible parts of the Earth via various geophysical techniques – seismic shear wave velocity, attenuation, and electromagnetic signals of mantle depths – can be reconciled with the potential presence of carbon-bearing melts or fluids.
Evidence suggests that low birth weight and fetal exposure to extreme maternal undernutrition is associated with cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Hyperemesis gravidarum, a clinical entity characterized by severe nausea and excess vomiting leading to a suboptimal maternal nutritional status during early pregnancy, is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Several studies also showed that different measures related to hyperemesis gravidarum, such as maternal daily vomiting or severe weight loss, are associated with increased risks of adverse fetal pregnancy outcomes. Not much is known about long-term offspring consequences of maternal hyperemesis gravidarum and related measures during pregnancy. We examined the associations of maternal daily vomiting during early pregnancy, as a measure related to hyperemesis gravidarum, with childhood cardiovascular risk factors.
In a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards among 4,769 mothers and their children in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, we measured childhood body mass index, total fat mass percentage, android/gynoid fat mass ratio, preperitoneal fat mass area, blood pressure, lipids, and insulin levels. We used multiple regression analyses to assess the associations of maternal vomiting during early pregnancy with childhood cardiovascular outcomes.
Compared with the children of mothers without daily vomiting during early pregnancy, the children of mothers with daily vomiting during early pregnancy had a higher childhood total body fat mass (difference 0.12 standard deviation score [SDS]; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03–0.20), android/gynoid fat mass ratio (difference 0.13 SDS; 95% CI 0.04–0.23), and preperitoneal fat mass area (difference 0.10 SDS; 95% CI 0–0.20). These associations were not explained by birth characteristics but partly explained by higher infant growth. Maternal daily vomiting during early pregnancy was not associated with childhood blood pressure, lipids, and insulin levels.
Maternal daily vomiting during early pregnancy is associated with higher childhood total body fat mass and abdominal fat mass levels, but not with other cardiovascular risk factors. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings, to explore the underlying mechanisms and to assess the long-term consequences.
This paper reviews the effects of extended lactation (EXT) as a strategy in dairy cattle on milk production and persistency, reproduction, milk quality, lifetime performance of the cow and finally the economic effects on herd and farm levels as well as the impact on emission of greenhouse gas at product level. Primiparous cows are able to produce equal or more milk per feeding day during EXT compared with a standard 305-d lactation, whereas results for multiparous cows are inconsistent. Cows managed for EXT can achieve a higher lifetime production while delivering milk with unchanged or improved quality properties. Delaying insemination enhances mounting behaviour and allows insemination after the cow’s energy balance has become positive. However, in most cases EXT has no effect or a non-significant positive effect on reproduction. The EXT strategy sets off a cascade of effects at herd and farm level. Thus, the EXT strategy leads to fewer calvings and thereby expected fewer diseases, fewer replacement heifers and fewer dry days per cow per year. The optimal lifetime scenario for milk production was modelled to be an EXT of 16 months for first parity cows followed by an EXT of 10 months for later lactations. Modelling studies of herd dynamics indicate a positive effect of EXT on lifetime efficiency (milk per dry matter intake), mainly originating from benefits of EXT on daily milk yield in primiparous cows and the reduced number of replacement heifers. Consequently, EXT also leads to reduced total meat production at herd level. For the farmer, EXT can give the same economic return as a traditional lactation period. At farm level, EXT can contribute to a reduction in the environmental impact of dairy production, mainly as a consequence of the reduced production of beef. A wider dissemination of the EXT concept will be supported by methods to predict which cows may be most suitable for EXT, and clarification of how milking frequency and feeding strategy through the lactation can be organised to support milk yield and an appropriate body condition at the next calving.
We experimentally investigate the extensional flow of a sheet – or curtain – of viscoelastic liquid falling freely from a slot at constant flow rate under gravity. Extruded liquids are aqueous solutions of flexible polyethylene oxide (PEO) and of semi-rigid partially hydrolysed polyacrylamide (HPAM) with low shear viscosities. Velocimetry measurements reveal that the mean velocity field
is the distance from the slot exit) does not reduce to a free fall. More precisely, we show that the liquid falls initially with sub-gravitational accelerations up to a distance from the slot which scales as
is gravity and
is the extensional relaxation time of the liquid) due to the stretching of polymer molecules. Beyond this elastic length, inertia dominates and the local acceleration reaches the asymptotic free-fall value
. The length of the sub-gravitational part of the curtain is shown to be much larger than the equivalent viscous length
for Newtonian liquids of density
and dynamic viscosity
which is usually small compared to the curtain length. By analogy with Newtonian curtains, we show that the velocity field
rescales on a master curve. Besides, the flow is shown to be only weakly affected by the history of polymer deformations in the die upstream of the curtain. Furthermore, investigations on the curtain stability reveal that polymer addition reduces the minimum flow rate required to maintain a continuous sheet of liquid.
Weaning is a critical transition phase in swine production in which piglets must cope with different stressors that may affect their health. During this period, the prophylactic use of antibiotics is still frequent to limit piglet morbidity, which raises both economic and public health concerns such as the appearance of antimicrobial-resistant microbes. With the interest of developing tools for assisting health and management decisions around weaning, it is key to provide robustness indexes that inform on the animals’ capacity to endure the challenges associated with weaning. This work aimed at developing a modelling approach for facilitating the quantification of piglet resilience to weaning. A total of 325 Large White pigs weaned at 28 days of age were monitored and further housed and fed conventionally during the post-weaning period without antibiotic administration. Body weight and diarrhoea scores were recorded before and after weaning, and blood was sampled at weaning and 1 week later for collecting haematological data. A dynamic model was constructed based on the Gompertz–Makeham law to describe live weight trajectories during the first 75 days after weaning, following the rationale that the animal response is partitioned in two time windows (a perturbation and a recovery window). Model calibration was performed for each animal. Our results show that the transition time between the two time windows, as well as the weight trajectories are characteristic for each individual. The model captured the weight dynamics of animals at different degrees of perturbation, with an average coefficient of determination of 0.99, and a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.99. The utility of the model is that it provides biologically meaningful parameters that inform on the amplitude and length of perturbation, and the rate of animal recovery. Our rationale is that the dynamics of weight inform on the capability of the animal to cope with the weaning disturbance. Indeed, there were significant correlations between model parameters and individual diarrhoea scores and haematological traits. Overall, the parameters of our model can be useful for constructing weaning robustness indexes by using exclusively the growth curves. We foresee that this modelling approach will provide a step forward in the quantitative characterisation of robustness.
The penetration depth of 1-12 keV electrons in most materials is less than one micron and the characteristic soft x-rays that are produced can be used to identify the elements present in the surface. Varying the energy of the incident electron beam enables the depth of analysis to be controlled.
Soft x-rays often exhibit large 'chemical effects' (changes in peak profile and peak position) which can he correlated with chemical changes. A study of such effects for each element present in the sample surface, as a function of electron-beam energy, can in some cases, permit changes in the chemical state (valency - coordination number-spin state etc.) to be determined as a function of depth.
Such analyses can be carried out either in a conventional x-ray spectrometer in which the x-ray tube has been replaced by a gas-discharge source, or in a spectrometer in which the sample is bombarded with electrons from a normal electron gun. In this paper these techniques are outlined and some applications reviewed:- the analysis of oxide layers on aluminium and steel, the analysis of aluminium-nitride layers produced by MOCVD on gallium arsenide, the analysis of silica fiims (with added boron and phosphorus oxides) on silicon and the analysis of zinc-oxide films on glass.
In the field of material analysis and characterization interest has considerably shifted over the last few decades from bulk to surface and very thin film problems. At the present state a wide range of surface analytical techniques - such as x-ray photoelectron (XPS), Auger electron (AES), secondary ion mass (SIMS), ion scattering (ISS) spectroscopies - have become available but every one of them exhibits specific analytical features and information content. Within the context of this paper the main parameter to be considered is the information depth i.e the layer thickness from which the majority of information-bearing particles escape and hence are detected. For XPS and AES, this parameter is associated with the mean-free path of photoelectrans or Auger electrons and typically is in the range from 0.5 to 4 nm. In SIMS the ejected secondary ions are emitted from the outer 2 or 3 atomic layers (i.e. from about 1 nm) while the single-collision binary process occuring in ISS is restricted to atoms from the top most atomic layer (0.2-0.3 nm).
X-ray emission spectrometry is of great practical interest because the method is rapid, non destructive and quantitative. However, the analysis of light elements which emit highly absorbed long wavelength radiations is always difficult. Although recent development of multilayered microstructures as dispersive devices has brought higher count rates for light elements, the improvement of performance in the relevant energy range depends, largely, on the improvement of the excitation. For this purpose, an electronic source providing a non-focused low energy electron beam constitutes a means of obtaining a very efficient excitation. As a result, we have used such an excitation to compare the performances of some layered synthetic microstructures (LSM) and conventional crystals for the detection of soft and ultra-soft xrays, to show up a few spectral interferences and to solve them by choosing the best dispersive device. Among the cases studied, we have shown how to carry out an accurate analysis of boron in borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) samples. Finally a survey of the lower detection limits obtained for different elements using different dispersive devices was done.
A review is given of the main gas-discharge sources and auxiliary equipments which were used in soft and ultra-soft X-ray emission spectrometry. Special attention is paid to the basic principles and instrumentation of low-energy electron-induced X-ray spectrometry (LEEIXS) whose excitation source is an electron beam generated in a glow-discharge system. Capabilities of LEEIXS in surface and thin film analysis and characterization are illustrated by examples dealing with control and optimization of surface treatment and thin film deposition processes. Sensitivity of the technique down to the submonolayer range and influence of backscattering phenomena are shown.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Little is known about potentially obesogenic endocrine-disruptors’ effects on excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention (PPWR), which increase risk of adverse pregnancy and postnatal outcomes. We explored associations between prenatal organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure and increased weight both during and after pregnancy. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Three dimethyl (DM) and three diethyl (DE) OP metabolites were measured in spot urine samples collected at <18, 18-25, and >25 gestational weeks among 688 participants in the Generation R Study. Metabolite levels were expressed as molar concentration/gram creatinine and log10-transformed. GWG and PPWR were calculated as the difference between weight at each prenatal/postnatal visit or maximum gestational weight and pre-pregnancy weight. In covariate-adjusted regression models we assessed associations of metabolite concentrations at each prenatal visit and, where appropriate, averaged across pregnancy with early-to-mid pregnancy, mid-to-late pregnancy, late pregnancy-to-maximum, and total GWG; insufficient and excessive GWG according to Institute of Medicine guidelines; and long-term PPWR at 6 and 10 years postpartum. Based on OP pesticides’ lipophilicity and association with hypomethylation, we investigated interactions with pre-pregnancy body mass index, periconceptional folic acid supplementation, and breastfeeding duration. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A 10-fold increase in late pregnancy DE metabolite concentration was associated with 1.34 kg [95% confidence interval: 0.55, 2.12] higher late pregnancy-to-maximum GWG. A 10-fold increase in mean DE metabolite concentration across pregnancy was associated with 2.41 kg [0.62, 4.20] lower PPWR at 6 years. Stratified analysis suggested that the prenatal finding was driven by women with pre-pregnancy BMI ≥25 kg/m2, while the postnatal finding was driven by women with pre-pregnancy BMI <25 kg/m2 and with inadequate folic acid supplementation. We found no associations between OP pesticide metabolites and insufficient or excessive weight gain and no interaction with breastfeeding. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In this longitudinal analysis, we observed a positive association of OP pesticide metabolites with GWG in late pregnancy among overweight/obese women, potentially reflecting inhibition of OP pesticide detoxification by oxidative stress. Postnatally, under/normal weight women with higher OP pesticide metabolites had lower PPWR, possibly due to better metabolic function and a more healthful diet. These results suggest that there may be a critical period during the late phase of pregnancy when OP pesticide exposure may increase GWG, and this association may be amplified in overweight/obese women. Areas for future research include examination of how the interaction between OP pesticides and polymorphisms of the paraoxonase (PON1) gene, which detoxifies OP pesticides, affect GWG/PPWR; exploration of the interplay among maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, oxidative stress, and PON1 levels; and characterization of the variability of OP pesticides exposure across pregnancy using more frequent repeated urine samples.
Certain factors, such as food quality, label content and grocery characteristics, may be considered when purchasing foods. Food availability in the home has been shown to influence dietary behaviours, also associated with delay discounting (DD). The present study sought to characterize the relationships between DD, food purchasing considerations and healthfulness of foods in the home.
A cross-sectional, online survey of adults (n 477) was conducted with the following measures: DD, consideration of food quality (nutrition, taste) and grocery characteristics (price, ease of preparation, shelf-life) while shopping, use of food labels and food availability in the home. DD was assessed by the area under the delay discounting curve (AUC) using a binary choice task. Greater AUC reflects lower DD. Structural equation modelling was used to allow AUC to simultaneously predict purchasing considerations and foods in the home.
Adult employees in south-east Alabama, USA.
DD was negatively associated with food label use and emphasis on food quality when shopping (P<0·001). In the final model, DD was associated with availability of healthful foods in the home and emphasis on food quality and grocery characteristics. About 33 % of the variance in shopping behaviours, 5 % in food label use, 7 % in availability of healthful foods and 4 % in availability of unhealthful foods was explained by DD.
Individuals with lower DD appear to be more thoughtful in making food purchasing decisions and have healthful foods available in the home more frequently than individuals with higher DD.
Adverse exposures during fetal life and the postnatal period influence physical, cognitive and emotional development, and predispose to an increased risk of various chronic diseases throughout the life course. Findings from large observational studies in various populations and experimental animal studies have identified different modifiable risk factors in early life. Adverse maternal lifestyle factors, including overweight, unhealthy diet, sedentary behavior, smoking, alcohol consumption and stress in the preconception period and during pregnancy, are the most common modifiable risk factors leading to a suboptimal in-utero environment for fetal development. In the postnatal period, breastfeeding, infant growth and infant dietary intake are important modifiable factors influencing long-term offspring health outcomes. Despite the large amount of findings from observational studies, translation to lifestyle interventions seems to be challenging. Currently, randomized controlled trials focused on the influence of lifestyle interventions in these critical periods on short-term and long-term maternal and offspring health outcomes are scarce, have major limitations and do not show strong effects on maternal and offspring outcomes. New and innovative approaches are needed to move from describing these causes of ill-health to start tackling them using intervention approaches. Future randomized controlled lifestyle intervention studies and innovative observational studies, using quasi-experimental designs, are needed focused on the effects of an integrated lifestyle advice from preconception onwards on pregnancy outcomes and long-term health outcomes in offspring on a population level.
International investment law and arbitration commands global interest. It is the arena in which investor-State dispute settlement unfolds, a taught subject at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels, a field of practice, an academic pursuit, and even a political compaign. Shaped by general international law, investment treaties, arbitral jurisprudence and academic writings, international investment law and arbitration is as dynamic as its constituent variables. The variety of viewpoints on virtually every legal issue sustains an intense, ongoing international dialogue. Yet, this variety also poses a serious challenge to the systematic study of international investment law and arbitration.
This book is the first to synthesise the moving parts of international investment law and arbitration into a comprehensive narrative with a hybrid casebook-textbook format. By pairing carefully curated extracts from voluminous Awards and other documents with original commentary and analysis, Lim, Ho and Paparinskis deftly enhance the informative value of a traditional casebook with the explanatory value of a traditional textbook. And in doing so, they have written a book that gives their readers the best of both worlds.
Relying on their significant combined teaching, publishing and practical experience, Lim, Ho and Paparinskis deconstruct the many legal complexities and controversies of international investment law and arbitration in nineteen meticulous and engaging chapters. International Investment Law and Arbitration: Commentary, Awards and Other Materials fills the niche in the market for a compact general treatise which strikes a fine balance between doctrinal rigour and practical relevance. It is a book that both students and specialists will find accessible and instructive.
This remarkable first edition is an indispensable resource and an important contribution to the mastery of a prominent discipline.
Acinema’ envisions cinema as a libidinal set-up, dispositif pulsionnel, a notion elaborated in clear opposition to the Lacanian model of desire which relies on the negativity of a lack that is constitutive of the subject and limits desire to the movement of the signifying chain. Lyotard attempts to overcome this negativity, which opens the space of representation, by substituting for it the positivity of a desire that no longer relies on a foundational lack, but is instead thought dynamically in terms of quantities of energy. He finds such a positivity in the Freudian model of the death drive, a notion of desire as force that is repressed in Lacan by the pre-eminence of desire as wish. However, Lyotard elaborates his reflection on cinema in a narrow dialogue with Lacan. This dialogue, far from simply consisting in a rejection, entails crucial implications for a thinking of an efficacy of cinema envisioned as a libidinal set-up, and, more generally, for a thinking of the relationship of medial configurations with reality. Indeed, Lyotard goes as far as stating that ‘[t]he film acts like the orthopaedic mirror analysed by Lacan in 1949 as constitutive of the imaginary subject or objet a; that we are dealing with the social body in no ways alters its function’ (Ac 39).
This claim creates an association between three poles. It posits an analogy between the workings of the psyche and the workings of the cinematographic medium, an analogy that in turn provides the framework from which it becomes possible to posit that the film has a concrete, transformative effect on society. We are faced with this incredible reversal: cinema, a technology designed to record reality, has, in a certain sense that we will try to understand, a formative power over reality itself. The purpose of this chapter is to attempt to understand the meaning, the importance and the limitations of this statement within the context of the libidinal economic aesthetics that Lyotard elaborates in the 1970s.