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The collective management of copyright and neighboring rights means that an entity other than the rightholder exercises the economic rights pertaining to the rightholder under copyright law. Individual rightholders of copyright and neighboring rights may decide on the joint management of their rights in any legal form that is permitted under applicable law. The management needs an appropriate authorization. The legal basis of such an authorization may be, for example, a sub-licensable, nonexclusive license granted to the rights manager, or the appropriate assignment of economic rights to the rights manager, or an agency-type mandate. In some cases, legal provisions may also grant the power to rights managers to exercise economic rights. The rights manager may act in their own name, or in the name of the rightholders, depending on the legal solution applied.
Suicide attempt is an important indicator of suicide and potential future mortality. However, the prevalence of suicide attempts has been inconsistent across studies. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the prevalence of suicide attempts in individuals with schizophrenia and associated correlates.
Relevant publications in Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of science and Cochrane were systematically searched. Data on the prevalence of suicide attempts in individuals with schizophrenia were pooled using a random-effects model.
Thirty-five studies with 16 747 individuals with schizophrenia were included. The pooled lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was 26.8% (95% CI 22.1–31.9%; I2 = 97.0%), while the 1-year prevalence, 1-month prevalence and the prevalence of suicide attempts from illness onset were 3.0% (95% CI 2.3–3.7%; I2 = 95.6%), 2.7% (95% CI 2.1–3.4%; I2 = 78.5%) and 45.9% (95% CI 42.1–49.9%; I2 = 0), respectively. Earlier age of onset (Q = 4.38, p = 0.04), high-income countries (Q = 53.29, p < 0.001), North America and Europe and Central Asia (Q = 32.83, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of suicide attempts.
Suicide attempts are common in individuals with schizophrenia, especially those with an early age of onset and living in high-income countries and regions. Regular screening and effective preventive measures should be implemented as part of the clinical care.
Both as physical entity and as symbol – of the human mind, or of possible human destinies – the city has always occupied a prime position in travel. Scott and Simpson-Housley (1994) categorize images of the city as Eden, Babylon or the New Jerusalem. A more challenging task is to identify a working definition of the ‘city’ as a physical reality within travel studies: as shown by the recent collective volume on the image of the Muslim city in travelogues, this might require a rethinking of what could be considered a ‘city’. It suggests that the Weberian definition of concentration of administrative functions cannot be applied in all cultural spheres (Gharipour-Ozlu 2015).
Cities attract visitors almost inevitably, since worldly or religious sights either appear in the city or see a city taking shape around them. Pilgrimages thus often became visits to cities, and in many cases the visit to the shrines will be coupled with that to other types of monuments. But the sheer concentration of human population, and the variety of human pursuits – intellectual, commercial, artistic – within the city cannot fail to attract visitors with an interest in these. Stagl (1995) shows that many early works of the art of travel (ars apodemica) are questionnaires for the observation of the city, and may contain an ‘ideal’ city description, created as an example to be followed.
Until the rise of curiosity towards the landscape, cities could be the only points of interest in a travel: the logic of the itineraria, offering sequences of inhabited places, provides the mindset of most travel until the eighteenth century. Capital cities were of particular importance. Swiss traveller Muralt (1726) could claim that, having visited London, he had gained a representative image of England, since people from all parts of the British Isles could be found there. Many other capitals could be seen in the same light, as a summary of their country and its nation. Porter (1991, 143) reminds us that major cities, and in particular capitals, could also act as images of ‘patriarchal potency’ for some authors. Rousseau is one of the first to criticize this view in his theory of travel as developed in Emile (1762): to him, capitals are all similar, places of cosmopolitan exchange, homogenized by globalization; but the real spirit of the nation can only be found in the countryside.
We analyse the vorticity production of lake-scale circulation in wind-induced shallow flows using a linear elliptic partial differential equation. The linear equation is derived from the vorticity form of the shallow-water equation using a linear bed friction formula. The features of the wind-induced steady-state flow are analysed in a circular basin with topography as a concave paraboloid, having a quadratic pile in the middle of the basin. In our study, the size of the pile varies by a size parameter. The vorticity production due to the gradient in the topography (and the distance of the boundary) makes the streamlines parallel to topographical contours, and beyond a critical size parameter, it results in a secondary vortex pair. We compare qualitatively and quantitatively the steady-state circulation patterns and vortex evolution of the flow fields calculated by our linear vorticity model and the full, nonlinear shallow-water equations. From these results, we hypothesize that the steady-state topographical vorticity production in lake-scale wind-induced circulations can be described by the equilibrium of the wind friction field and the bed friction field. Moreover, the latter can also be considered as a linear function of the velocity vector field, and hence the problem can be described by a linear equation.
The intense engagement of populists with constitutionalism—a phenomenon originally related to experiences in Latin America—is increasingly evident in some of the new European Union member states. But the populist phenomenon is clearly not confined to more recently established democracies. Populist constitutionalism stands for a number of distinctive tendencies in constitutional politics and practices which frequently are in tension with—and may even threaten—fundamental values, human rights, representative democracy, and the rule of law. The relation between populism and constitutionalism is, however, not necessarily one of anti-thesis, but rather manifests itself in distinctive ways, depending on specific contexts and variations. In this special issue, we argue that populist constitutionalism is best analyzed in a comparative, and historically and contextually attuned manner. The special issue wants to contribute to understandings of populist constitutionalism, which are both theoretically more robust and able to comparatively reflect on a diversity of “really existing” cases. The various contributions discuss central dimensions to the populist phenomenon. These pertain in particular to: (a) The varieties of populist engagement with constitutionalism; (b) a deeper understanding of the populist mindset; (c) the position-taking and reaction of constitutional scholars to populism; (d) the complex relation and overlap of populism with illiberalism and authoritarianism; and (e) the central nature of constituent power in populist projects.
The paper deals with the relationship of different types of populism with authoritarianism and constitutionalism. In the first part, I try to define various approaches—Left and Right-Wing, “good” or “bad”—to populism, especially from the point of view of whether they aim at changing the liberal democratic constitutional system to an authoritarian one. The following part discusses the rhetoric of authoritarian populists, which makes this type of populism distinct from non-populist authoritarians. The paper also explores the question of whom to blame for the success of authoritarian populisms, and the final part investigates, whether the use of legal tools by an authoritarian populist to dismantle liberal constitutional democracies means that we can speak about a special populist constitutionalism. While the paper tries to find out the joint characteristics of authoritarian populism, it heavily relies on the Hungarian experiences as a kind of model approach in East-Central Europe and maybe even beyond.
Phosphate belongs to the major mineral nutrient category in plants and is a non-renewable resource. Many natural soils are phosphate deficient, and phosphate fixation into insoluble mineral complexes limits plant growth by decreasing root uptake. Different strategies have appeared during the evolution of land plants to cope with this situation, one of which is to interact with various microbes (bacteria and fungi) located in the plant rhizosphere. This chapter will focus on three major groups of fungi that colonise the roots of most land plants: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycotina), fungi from the order Sebacinales (Basidiomycota) and the diverse form-group of dark septate endophytes (Ascomycota). Three major mechanisms of fungal contribution to plant nutrition will be discussed. First, fungi are able to solubilise phosphate from inorganic sources that are not available to plants. Second, fungi can set free mineral nutrients from organic compounds/sources. Third, fungi are able to transport phosphate along their hyphae towards the plant, thereby bridging phosphate depletion zones around the roots. In this chapter, we summarise published knowledge on this topic and present some new non-published data to complete our current model.
Clozapine treatment increases the risk of agranulocytosis, but findings on the epidemiology of agranulocytosis have been inconsistent. This meta-analysis examined the prevalence of agranulocytosis and related death in clozapine-treated patients.
A literature search in the international (PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE) and Chinese (WanFang, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Sinomed) databases was conducted. Prevalence estimates of agranulocytosis and related death in clozapine-treated patients were synthesized with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program using the random-effects model.
Thirty-six studies with 260 948 clozapine-treated patients published between 1984 and 2018 were included in the meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of agranulocytosis and death caused by agranulocytosis were 0.4% (95% CI 0.3–0.6%) and 0.05% (95% CI 0.03–0.09%), respectively. The prevalence of agranulocytosis was moderated by sample size, study quality, year of publication, and that of data collection.
The prevalence of clozapine-associated agranulocytosis is low. Agranulocytosis-related death appears rare.
A method for using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD) for profiling composition changes with depth of photovoltaic quality thin films is presented. The average thickness of the first layer in a multi-layer film of CuIn2Se3.5/CuInSe2/Mo and the variation in solid solution composition of a Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS) film with depth are solved using this method. The phase volume fraction and the phase composition profiles are developed from peak intensity and d-spacing measurements respectively at a series of fixed incident angles corresponding to a set of increasing 1/e penetration depths, τ. Inverse Laplace and numerical methods are applied to the τ profiles converting them to true depth profiles. Vegard's law is applied to the d-spacing vs z-profile to obtain x in the formula Cu(In1-xGax)Se2. The results show that an ∼1 μm thick layer of CuIn2Se3.5 is present on the surface of the multi-layer film and that the CIGS film consists of a Ga rich surface layer ∼2000 Å thick followed by a gradual decrease in Ga content with increasing depth. This gradient appears to be desirable for producing photovoltaic quality CIGS films.
The steepest increase property of phase-type (PH) distributions was first proposed in O’Cinneide (1999) and proved in O’Cinneide (1999) and Yao (2002), but since then has received little attention in the research community. In this work we demonstrate that the steepest increase property can be applied for proving previously unknown moment bounds of PH distributions with infinite or finite support. Of special interest are moment bounds free of specific PH representations except the size of the representation. For PH distributions with infinite support, it is shown that such a PH distribution is stochastically smaller than or equal to an Erlang distribution of the same size. For PH distributions with finite support, a class of distributions which was introduced and investigated in Ramaswami and Viswanath (2014), it is shown that the squared coefficient of variation of a PH distribution with finite support is greater than or equal to 1/(m(m + 2)), where m is the size of its PH representation.