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In contrast to the visual, auditory or olfactory senses, the sense of touch (a form of mechanoreception) has been relatively neglected in primate studies. Over the last few decades, our understanding of the ecology of touch, or how an animal explores and exploits its environment using tactile cues (or tactile information), has improved in both primates and non-primate mammals. Touch can take many forms in mammals, including vibrissal (or whisker) touch, hand touch (especially in glabrous fingertips) and skin touch. Comparative studies exploring the relative sensitivities of touch (e.g. vibrissae/face, hands, feet) in primates and non-primate mammals are often challenging without extensive behavioural training (Bauer et al., 2012; Dehnhardt and Dücker, 1996; Dehnhardt and Kaminski, 1995) or complex anatomical studies (Marshall et al., 2014; Mattson and Marshall, 2016a, 2016b; Peterson et al., 1998). We have had success in using anatomical and skeletal proxies to investigate the ecology and evolution of vibrissal touch. Indeed, there are established ecological correlates between touch sensory-end organs, like number and movement, and skeletal landmarks linked with touch acuity (Muchlinski, 2010a; Muchlinski et al., 2018). It is also possible to connect vibrissa movement to differences in behaviour (Dehnhardt and Kaminski, 1995; Grant et al., 2018; Kemble and Lewis, 1982; Muchlinski, 2010b). We have even modelled the evolution of vibrissae, discussing our findings in the context of touch (Muchlinski et al., 2013, 2018). In this chapter, we examine the ecology of face touch (i.e. vibrissal touch) among the lorisids using the above-mentioned lines of evidence. We suggest that the sensory ecology of the lorisids may be more specialised and novel than we initially thought.
Ponds that form on sea ice can cause it to thin or break-up, which can promote calving from an adjacent ice shelf. Studies of sea ice ponds have predominantly focused on Arctic ponds formed by in situ melting/ponding. Our study documents another mechanism for the formation of sea ice ponds. Using Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 images from the 2015–16 to 2018–19 austral summers, we analyze the evolution of sea ice ponds that form adjacent to the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica. We find that each summer, meltwater flows from the ice shelf onto the sea ice and forms large (up to 9 km2) ponds. These ponds decrease the sea ice's albedo, thinning it. We suggest the added mass of runoff causes the ice to flex, potentially promoting sea-ice instability by the ice-shelf front. As surface melting on ice shelves increases, we suggest that ice-shelf surface hydrology will have a greater effect on sea-ice stability.
The Summers Night Project is an ongoing composer-mentoring programme established in 2018 by musicians Cat Hope and Gabriella Smart, with the support of the Perth-based new music organisation Tura New Music. The project aims to support and mentor emerging Australian female and gender minority composers to create new compositions for performance, with the aim of growing the gender diversity of composers in music programmes across Australia. Three composers were chosen from a national call for submissions, and works were performed by an ensemble consisting of members from the Decibel and Soundstream new music ensembles. Three new works were workshopped, recorded then performed on a short tour of Perth, Adelaide and Melbourne, Australia in July 2018. The project takes its name and inspiration from Australian feminist Anne Summers, author of the ground-breaking examination of women in Australia's history Damned Whores and God's Police (1975) and was inspired by her 2017 Women's Manifesto. This article examines the rationale for such a project, the processes and results of the project itself, and plans for its future.
This paper focuses on the use of ‘concurrent evaluation’ to evaluate a nationally scaled-up programme in Bangladesh that was implemented by BRAC (an international development organisation) using Shasthya Shebika (SS) – volunteer community health workers – to promote home fortification with micronutrient powders (MNP) for children under-five.
We developed a programme impact pathway to conceptualise the implementation and evaluation strategy and developed a strategic partnership among the key programme stakeholders for better use of evaluation evidence. We developed a multi-method concurrent evaluation strategy to provide insights into the BRAC programme and created provision for course correction to the implementation plan while it was in operation.
One hundred sixty-four sub-districts and six urban slums in Bangladesh.
Caregivers of children 6–59 months, SS and BRAC’s staff members.
The evaluation identified low awareness about home fortification among caregivers, inadequate supply and frequent MNP stockouts, and inadequate skills of BRAC’s SS to promote MNP at the community level as hindrances to the achievement of programme goals. The partners regularly discussed evaluation results during and after implementation activities to assess progress in programme coverage and any needs for modification. BRAC initiated a series of corrections to the original implementation plan to address these challenges, which improved the design of the MNP programme; this resulted in enhanced programme outcomes.
Concurrent evaluation is an innovative approach to evaluate complex real-world programmes. Here it was utilised in implementing a large-scale nutrition programme to measure implementation process and effectiveness.
Differences in the diets of urban and rural avian predators could indicate potential niche vulnerability in a particular habitat. This study compares the core-isotopic niche areas and diet disparity of a declining peri-urban Verreaux’s Eagle Aquila verreauxii population with a stable rural population in South Africa. In addition to stable isotope analyses, the diet of the peri-urban Verreaux’s Eagles was investigated using camera trap footage of prey delivered during the nesting season. Dominant prey consisted of species with a mixed diet of plants with a C3 and/or C4 photosynthetic pathway (browsers and grazers). Rock hyrax Procavia capensis contributed 60% of the total diet composition, scrub hare Lepus saxatilis 26% and Helmeted Guineafowl Numida meleagris 22%. The core-isotopic niche area for each population was calculated using bulk carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope values chronological measured along the length of 18 feathers from 21 nests. The isotopic niche of the rural eagle population revealed that they consume prey from multiple trophic levels with a C3-plant-dominated prey base (browsers), likely including small carnivores. In contrast the isotopic niche of the peri-urban Verreaux’s Eagles correlated with the mixed mammalian and avian food-niche determined from camera trapping, confirming that the peri-urban population mainly hunted three abundant species that are all narrowly associated with modified human habitats. The decline in the Magaliesberg Verreaux’s Eagle population is, therefore, unlikely to be due to constraints in their dietary niche, as raptors benefit from the diversity and abundance of human-commensal prey associated with the peri-urban habitats.
Almost all cases of human listeriosis are foodborne, however the proportion where specific exposures are identified is small. Between 1981 and 2015, 5252 human listeriosis cases were reported in England and Wales. The purpose of this study was to summarise data where consumption of specific foods was identified with transmission and these comprised 11 sporadic cases and 17 outbreaks. There was a single outbreak in the community of 378 cases (7% of the total) which was associated with pâté consumption and 112 cases (2% of the total) attributed to specific foods in all the other incidents. The proportion of food-attributed cases increased during this study with improvements in typing methods for Listeria monocytogenes. Ten incidents (one sporadic case and nine outbreaks of 2–9 cases over 4 days to 32 months) occurred in hospitals: all were associated with the consumption of pre-prepared sandwiches. The 18 community incidents comprised eight outbreaks (seven of between 3 and 17 cases) and 10 sporadic cases: food of animal origin was implicated in 16 of the incidents (sliced or potted meats, pork pies, pâté, liver, chicken, crab-meat, butter and soft cheese) and food of non-animal origin in the remaining two (olives and vegetable rennet).
Emperor penguins require stable fast ice, sea ice anchored to land or ice shelves, on which to lay eggs and raise chicks. As the climate warms, changes in sea ice are expected to lead to substantial declines at many emperor penguin colonies. The most southerly colonies have been predicted to remain buffered from the direct impacts of warming for much longer. Here, we report on the unusually early breakup of fast ice at one of the two southernmost emperor penguin colonies, Cape Crozier (77.5°S), in 2018, an event that may have resulted in a substantial loss of chicks from the colony. Fast ice dynamics can be highly variable and dependent on local conditions, but earlier fast ice breakup, influenced by increasing wind speed, as well as higher surface air temperatures, is a likely outcome of climate change. What we observed at Cape Crozier in 2018 highlights the vulnerability of this species to untimely storm events and could be an early sign that even this high-latitude colony is not immune to the effects of warming. Long-term monitoring will be key to understanding this species' response to climate change and altered sea ice dynamics.
Chapter 1 provides a general introduction to the book, outlining the need for police investigators to engage in online identity assumption and justifying a linguistic contribution that can be made in terms of the variety of ways in which linguists and forensic linguists have approached questions of language and identity. We set out the context of online sexual abuse, in particular the abuse of children.
Chapter 3 expands on the experimental phase of the project, providing an account of its design and a thorough discussion of the results and their implications. The chapter explores the level of accuracy with which participants in IM are able to detect the substitution of one interlocutor with another, and the levels of confidence with which such decisions are made. It also addresses the effects of impersonator preparation on these scores. Finally, the linguistic criteria that people report having relied upon in making these assessments are scrutinised, and we are thus able to formulate opinions about which features are the most salient for the construction of one’s linguistic identity.
Chapter 2 outlines the various sources of our data, which include logs of instant messaging conversations collected from genuine resolved cases of child sexual grooming, from a range of Dark Web fora dedicated to the topic of child sexual abuse, from undercover operations targeting the producers and disseminators of indecent images and videos of children, from role -playing exercises that take place within the Pilgrim Course for online investigators, and from a series of experiments we designed in order to systematically investigate key questions around language and identity performance. The chapter continues by describing our methodological approach to these data, starting with the micro-analysis at the structural level of language, including of vocabulary and orthographic features as we first began setting out in MacLeod and Grant (2012). We then move through our modifications of Searle’s (1969) Speech Act Theory and Gumperz’s (1982) approach to topic management inasmuch as they relate to instant messaging and the operational context, before finally setting out our theory about how these stratified levels of language interface in the performance of identities. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of ethics, both the research ethics of engaging with this area of criminal activity and the operational ethics of assisting the police in these contexts.
Finally, Chapter 7 discusses the implications of our work for the operational task of identity assumption, and for the more theoretical concerns around the linguistic individual and language and identity more generally. We conclude the chapter with our thoughts for the directions similar research might take in the future.
The linguistic identity assumption training we currently provide to undercover officers is the subject of Chapter 4. Here we focus in particular on how our component of the Pilgrim training has been influenced by our own theories of identity performance as supported by our analyses. We outline the input we provide to trainees at the levels of linguistic structure, meaning and interaction, and describe the pro forma we provide for the analysis of online linguistic personae. We also report here on the findings of a small-scale experiment comparing trainees’ competence at linguistic identity assumption before our training versus afterwards.
The theoretical underpinning to the concept of identity is the central topic of Chapter 5, where we examine particular facets of identity such as the performance of age, relationships and communities of practice. Keeping in mind our view of identity as being continuously negotiated through discursive practices, we focus here particularly on how age is treated as a relevant identity category by participants, and how relationships between adult offenders and child victims are performed. We probe the question of how these performances are situated in the wider social context, and in relation to other, more recognisable types of relationship that might be relied upon as resources.