To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Patients with repeated minor head injury are a challenge to our clinical skills of neurodiagnosis because the relevant evidence objectively demonstrating their impairment was collected in New Zealand (although published in the BMJ and Lancet) and, at the time, was mired in controversy. The effects of repeated closed diffuse head injury are increasingly recognized worldwide, but now suffer from the relentless advance of imaging technology as the dominant form of neurodiagnosis and the considerable financial interests that underpin the refusal to recognize that acute accelerational injury is the most subtle and insidiously damaging (especially when seen in the light of biopsychosocial medicine), and potentially one of the most financially momentous (given the large incomes impacted and needing compensation) phenomena in modern sports medicine. The vested interests in downplaying this phenomenon are considerable and concentrated in North America where diffuse head injury is a widespread feature of the dominant winter sports code: Gridiron or American Rules football. The relationship of this to shattered lives among the brightest and best of young men and the relatively dated objective evidence are a toxic mix in terms of ethical analysis and, therefore, there is a malignant confluence of social forces that tends toward minimizing the injury.
Genealogy is, without a doubt, one of the key concepts in Foucault. As such, it has been extensively discussed in the secondary literature. The aim here is not to repeat these accounts. Rather, it is to approach the topic specifically from the perspective of a queer philologist. That is because, in the opinion of the author, Foucault's genealogy can be closely related to queer theory and practice. And because Foucault, like Nietzsche before him, is programmatically concerned with the questionable relationship between words and things, Les mots et les choses.
Now genealogy, of course, has been with us at least since Adam and Eve. Long before Americans began poring over parish registers looking for their ancestors, important people had relied on family trees as the justification for their place in society. Why else, after all, would the Holy Book of the Christians include such seemingly endless litanies of ‘begats’? That the word is ‘begat’, though, and not ‘brought forth’ points to a serious flaw in the system; for in the days before DNA testing there was no way of knowing for sure who did actually do the begetting. Hence it becomes necessary to take the written word for it: the appearance of certain names in chronicles like the Bible was the only thing that stood between legitimacy and bastardy, with all that implied. And precisely because so much is at stake, it becomes impossible not to mistrust the written sources on this point. From the very beginning then, genealogy, the documentary basis for structures of power, is tendentious and unreliable.
It is also, of course, constitutively heteropatriarchal and profoundly misogynist. In this system, everything depends on couplings between people of different sexes, in which the only significant participant is the man. Accordingly, the place allotted to women in the Book of Chronicles is exiguous. And while we do not know (and should not care) what Seth and Co. did with their seed in their spare time, the obligation on them to be seen to have sons makes of these lists a stick and a carrot for the sexually less successful. For these others – the impotent, the barren, and those married to them, the onanist, the sodomite, and the unwed – society reserved some of its severest strictures.
Severe head injury or brain injury presents clinical neuroscientists with a unique challenge. Based on an objective assessment of cognitive and neurological function, it is sometimes hard to recognize our patients as members of our moral community (actually or potentially) but we treat them as if that were is the case, and, therefore, as if they need rescuing. Thus their existences as enigmata—beings who may or may not reveal themselves to us through social and personal function realized in conversations and relationships—are in doubt. However, the objective mode of assessing individuals and their mental functions needs to be bracketed here, as we reconnect with them and offer them our help in the restorative journey that they need to take. The journey has many tortuous paths comprising it, not the least of which is the existential question of whether the damaged human being with whom we are engaged actually can be restored to a meaningful life. A negative answer to that question can bring the whole process to an abrupt end. Neuroscience cannot answer some of these questions, as they are ethical. Is this a life worth living and are our commitments going to go the distance that must be traversed here. Therefore, this is an area where ethics take priority over neuroscience, and it is on our ethical response that everything else hinges. Understanding the light this throws on the nature of a human being takes us to the heart of the value of every human being and the nexus of mutuality that is the moral community.
Peroxide speciation and formaldehyde measurements have been made on ice cores retrieved from Law Dome, Antarctica. Measurements were made for ice deposited during four different periods: modern, pre-industrial Holocene, early Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The data show modern peroxide levels >50% above pre-industrial levels (at ∼1.6 μmol L−1) and an absence of methyl hydroperoxide (down to a detection threshold of 0.003 μmol L−1). Formaldehyde levels show a 40% increase from pre-industrial to modern times (rising from ∼0.07 μmol L−1 to ∼0.10 μmol L−1), with a further increase and possible seasonality near the surface which we associate with post-depositional processes. Peroxide levels in LGM ice are low, but formaldehyde concentrations are high (at ∼0.13 μmol L−1) relative to modern levels. Similar high levels of formaldehyde are seen in early Holocene ice (∼6900 years BP).
The IRAS Point Source Catalog contains only 61 sources identified as galaxies whose energy distribution peaks at 60 mμ. The scarcity of such galaxies has prompted a search for possible common properties. This sample of ‘60 mμ peakers’, 21 of which are previously identified galaxies, partially overlaps with that of warm IRAS galaxies studied by de Grijp et al. (1987) and contains similar percentages of Seyfert (65%) and starburst galaxies on the one hand, and of strong and weak radio sources on the other hand. A remarkable characteristic is, however, that about half of the 60 mμ peakers seem to be early-type galaxies. The fact that such galaxies are rarely IRAS sources and, if so, have FIR energy distributions peaking at 100 mμ similar to those of spirals, implies that we are sampling active or nuclear starburst early-type galaxies with a very large success rate. The observational data accumulated so far further show that:
(i)objects with smaller FIR to near-IR flux ratios have redder J-K colors and warmer 60 to 25 mμ colors, i.e., an infared spectrum dominated by warmer dust and/or a nonthermal source (Figs. 1a,b);
(ii)out of 32 objects with radio data, the 5 compact radio sources with luminosities intermediate between those af radio-quiet and radio-loud AGN have among the warmest 60 to 25 mμ colors (Fig. 2). Such warm FIR colors are not a common characteristic of radio galaxies and quasars (Golombek et al. 1987, Neugebauer et al. 1986).
(iii)the 60 mμ luminosities range from 109 to 1012 L0, and are largest for Mkn 231, 2306+0505 (Hill et al. 1987) and 2046+1925 (Frogel et al. 1988). The latter 2 objects, along with 0052-7054 (Frogel and Elias 1987) which also belongs to our sample, are Seyfert 2 galaxies with evidence for the presence of a dust-obsured broad line region.
The objective of this study was to determine whether hatha yoga is an efficacious adjunctive intervention for individuals with continued depressive symptoms despite antidepressant treatment.
We conducted a randomized controlled trial of weekly yoga classes (n = 63) v. health education classes (Healthy Living Workshop; HLW; n = 59) in individuals with elevated depression symptoms and antidepressant medication use. HLW served as an attention-control group. The intervention period was 10 weeks, with follow-up assessments 3 and 6 months afterwards. The primary outcome was depression symptom severity assessed by blind rater at 10 weeks. Secondary outcomes included depression symptoms over the entire intervention and follow-up periods, social and role functioning, general health perceptions, pain, and physical functioning.
At 10 weeks, we did not find a statistically significant difference between groups in depression symptoms (b = −0.82, s.e. = 0.88, p = 0.36). However, over the entire intervention and follow-up period, when controlling for baseline, yoga participants showed lower levels of depression than HLW participants (b = −1.38, s.e. = 0.57, p = 0.02). At 6-month follow-up, 51% of yoga participants demonstrated a response (⩾50% reduction in depression symptoms) compared with 31% of HLW participants (odds ratio = 2.31; p = 0.04). Yoga participants showed significantly better social and role functioning and general health perceptions over time.
Although we did not see a difference in depression symptoms at the end of the intervention period, yoga participants showed fewer depression symptoms over the entire follow-up period. Benefits of yoga may accumulate over time.
In 1921 a young American doctor named Armand Hammer went to Russia, met Lenin, and undertook the first American concession in Soviet Russia. Interest in this episode has been heightened by the fact that fifty years later Armand Hammer, as chairman of the Occidental Petroleum Corporation, forged new commercial links between the United States and the Soviet Union. This article provides a new interpretation of Hammer’s meeting with Lenin and his receipt of the first American concession granted by the Soviet government. It throws light on how Soviet national security objectives and personal relations can influence Soviet government decisions on American trade.
Human beings are sensorimotor coupled to the actual world and also attuned to the symbolic world of culture and the techniques of adaptation that culture provides. The self-image and self-shaping mediated by that mirror directly affects the neurocognitive structures that integrate human neural activity and reshape its processing capacities through top-down or autopoietic effects. Thus a crack’d mirror, which disrupts the processes of enactive self-configuration, can be disabling for an individual. That is exactly what happens in postcolonial or immigration contexts in which individuals’ cultural adaptations are marginalized and disconnected in diverse and often painful and disorienting ways. The crack’d mirror is therefore a powerful trope for neuroethics and helps us understand the social and moral pathologies of many indigenous and immigrant communities.