To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Ich schreibe aus Erfahrungen als Theaterpädagoge, um Bertolt Brechts Produktivität auch für Bildungszwecke zu zeigen. Theater und Pädagogik sollen nach meinem Berufsverständnis gleichgewichtet zu ihrem Recht kommen und ihre jeweiligen Leistungsfähigkeiten einbringen. Dazu biete ich diese These an: Bertolt Brecht ist (mir) ein methodisch wie thematisch multiperspektivischer, transmedialer und transkultureller sowie ein kosmobil arbeitender Autor/Akteur und Forscher und Pädagoge innerhalb eines Konzepts einer poeto science, im framing einer “epischen Wissenschaft” (diesen Begriff bildete Brecht 1948 in einem Brief an Karl Korsch). Ich frage speziell: “Was können Theaterleute?” Meine Antwort lautet: “Sie können handeln, forschen und gestalten … Theaterleute (im weiteren Sinne— also auch PädagogInnen, die sich und ihren Beruf ‘theatralisieren’) haben Methoden, um im Theater-Medium über sich und von sich zu handeln! Hier können Erkenntnisse gestaltet und ‘in Szene’ gesetzt werden. Und es können auch die Erkenntniswege, Interessen, Zwecke—und die Einsprüche anderer dagegen vorgezeigt werden—auf dem eigenen Schauplatz—dem tea tron— und sie sind nicht weit weg von Wissenschaft; denn: teatron / teatrum und theoria / teoria haben denselben Wortstamm—nämlich schauen und wahrnehmen—und das durchaus von Interesse geleitet und nicht zwecklos …” Im Hintergrund stehen zunächst pädagogische Reflexionen aus eigenem theaterpädagogischen Arbeiten, zum Beispiel mit Brechts Kaukasischem Kreidekreis. Exemplarisch wird die Beschreibung des Ablaufs eines sechsstündigen Workshops angefügt, der im September 2010 gemeinsam mit der Juristin und Friedens- und Konfliktforscherin Sinah Marx unter dem Titel Human Rights—Humans Wright. Bertolt Brechts “Kaukasischer Kreidekreis” in Istanbul durchgeführt wurde. Er zeigt, welche Anregungen zum (Um-)Schreiben gegeben werden können und wie aus Schreiben Spielen wird. Hinzukommen Dokumente, wie sie im Materialienband zum Kaukasischen Kreidekreis zu finden sind, sowie die Ausführungen von Tom Kuhn zum Bildmaterial, das Brecht für den Kaukasischen Kreidekreis zusammenstellte. Ebenfalls inspirierte mich ein Symposium während der Brecht-Tage 2010, in dessen Rahmen junge Wissenschaftlerinnen, die Brecht in nicht-deutscher Sprache, also in Über-Setzungen/Trajekten kennen lernten und neue, erweiterte Lesarten und Assoziationen freisetzen konnten (“found in translation” sozusagen). In allen Fällen wird sichtbar, wie weit ausgreifend Brecht zu seinem Gegenstand geforscht hat, bevor er zu seiner Gestaltung des Stoffes kommen konnte.
Für meine Überlegungen nutze und kommentiere ich auch deutlich Teile aus Brechts “Lied des Stückeschreibers”:
… Um zeigen zu können, was ich sehe
Lese ich nach die Darstellungen anderer Völker und anderer Zeitalter.
The most common crisis intervention used with German rescue workers is Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM). Results regarding its effectiveness are inconsistent. A negative reinforcement of avoidance, due to premature termination of strong emotions during the Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD), may explain this. The effectiveness of the CISD after terror attacks in Germany has not yet been investigated.
All emergency responders deployed at the terror attack on Breitscheidplatz in Berlin were invited to take part in the study; 37 of the N = 55 participants had voluntarily participated in CISD; 18 had not.
Participants with CISD showed lower quality of life in psychological health and higher depressive symptomatology. Of these, females had lower quality of life in social relationships, whereas males showed more posttraumatic stress symptoms. Emergency responders from non-governmental organizations had higher phobic anxiety. Emergency medical technicians showed more somatic and depressive symptoms.
There is no conclusive explanation for why rescue workers with CISD score worse on certain measures. It is possible that CISD has a harmful influence due to negative reinforcement, or that there was a selection effect. Further research differentiating occupational group, sex, and type of event is necessary.
This study aimed to determine if the long chain monounsaturated fatty acid cetoleic acid (22:1n-11) can improve the capacity to synthesize the health promoting omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA in human and fish models.Human hepatocytes (HepG2) and salmon primary hepatocytes were first enriched with cetoleic acid,and thereafter their capacities to convert radiolabeled 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA) to EPA and DHA were measured. Increased endogenous levels of cetoleic acid led to increasedproduction of radiolabeled EPA+DHAin HepG2 by 40% and EPA in salmon hepatocytes by 12%. In order to verify if dietary intake of a fish oil rich in cetoleic acid would have the same beneficial effects on the omega-3 fatty acid metabolic pathway in vivo as found in vitro, Atlantic salmon were fedfour dietssupplemented with either sardine oil low in cetoleic acid or herring oil high in cetoleic acid at two inclusion levels (Low or High). The diets were balanced for EPA+DHA content within the Low and within the High groups.The salmon were fed these diets from 110g to 242g. The level of EPA+DHA in liverand whole-body retention ofDPA and EPA+DHA relative to what was eaten,increasedwith increased dietary cetoleic acid levels. Thus, it is concluded that cetoleic acid stimulated the synthesis of EPA and DHA from ALAin human HepG2 and of EPA in salmon hepatocytes in vitro and increasedwhole body retention of EPA+DHA in salmon by 15% points after dietary intake of cetoleic acid.
Recent advances in sensing and networking technologies, namely the Internet of Things (IoT), have become key enablers of data-intensive design processes. However, the recent introduction of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in Europe has raised concerns that the GDPR might hamper data- intensive design processes. In this paper, we map the challenges of enabling ethical and compliant design of product-service systems with personal IoT data. Specifically, we present a 4-year project led by EON, an international energy provider, to design innovative home energy systems that leverage emerging technologies such as solar panels, electric vehicles and home batteries. We present our 6-stage approach to design, centred on IoT data. We highlight the barriers of responsible design with data and identify three novel trust principles for compliant use of personal IoT data in design (private-by-default, analytics transparency and Accountable analytics).
The recent observation of spectacular photocatalytic activity enhancements generated tremendous interest in the synthesis, properties, and potential applications of black titania. Most black titania are core–shell structures consisting of a perfect crystalline core surrounded by a defective surface shell. Because the properties are attributed to the defective shell, it is particularly important, but very challenging, to obtain atomic structure information of the core, the shell, and the core–shell relationship on a single particle level. While the role of various synthesis approaches for producing black titania with different properties has been extensively reviewed, this review focuses on understanding the structure–functionality relationship in black titania on a single particle level. We start by introducing the crystal and electronic band structure of different TiO2 phases, followed by the discussion of particle size effects, the origin of lattice distortions, and phase control by synthesis, and concluding with the discussion of crystalline order formation and evolution creating the defective shell.
Álvaro et al. (2018) argued that at least six species of Acadoparadoxides described from the lower–middle Cambrian boundary interval successions in the Anti-Atlas of Morocco all belong to Acadoparadoxides mureroensis (Sdzuy, 1958), which was first described from the Iberian Chains, Spain. Their study is based entirely on a morphometric analysis, which ignores the stratigraphic occurrences of particular morphotypes, deformation-related compaction of individual sclerites and their original relief, and thus underestimates some of the earlier described differences between these species. Their synonymization of a number of named Acadoparadoxides species is based on the morphometric approach that they rely on to distinguish between a number of congeneric species. A morphometric approach as applied by Álvaro et al. will lead to an apparent synonymy based on sclerites of similar taxa. Thus, morphometric study must be complemented by an analysis of which morphologically distinctive sclerites (i.e. cranidia and pygidia) are stratigraphically associated, and evaluation of which measurements are more critical to distinguishing sclerites that may represent distinct taxa, and the recognition of related character sets. Apart from demonstrating problems in the conclusion of Álvaro et al., our more inclusive approach of morphologic and stratigraphic analysis works to reassert the diagnostic characters and differences between six earlier named species of Acadoparadoxides. Our conclusions also emphasize the taxonomic problems associated with the identification and morphological variation of A. mureroensis owing to tectonic deformation of its topotype material and to questionable taxonomic assignment of Acadoparadoxides specimens from the Iberian sections.
Discussing the European Union (EU) is an excellent way of dealing with the question of the translation of legal texts. Why is this the case? The European Union, with approximately 370 million inhabitants, is unique among the world's international organizations. It is unique because it uses all the official languages of its Member States in its official publications.
Nature’s optical nanomaterials are poised to form the platform for future optical devices with unprecedented functionality. The brilliant colors of many animals arise from the physical interaction of light with nanostructured, multifunctional materials. While their length scale is typically in the 100-nm range, the morphology of these structures can vary strongly. These biological nanostructures are obtained in a controlled manner, using biomaterials under ambient conditions. The formation processes nature employs use elements of both equilibrium self-assembly and far-from-equilibrium and growth processes. This renders not only the colors themselves, but also the formation processes technologically and ecologically highly relevant. Yet, for many biological nanostructured materials, little is known about the formation mechanisms—partially due to a lack of in vivo imaging methods. Here, we present the toolbox of natural multifunctional nanostructures and the current knowledge about the understanding of their far-from-equilibrium assembly processes.
We hypothesised that a relationship would exist between hair fatty acids, especially C12:0, C14:0 and C16:0, and parameters of energy metabolism such as energy intake, energy mobilisation, and energy requirement for maintenance and milk performance. For this study, 11 primiparous German Holstein cows were available from which hair samples at weeks 6 and 8 of lactation were analysed. The average body weight of these animals was 558 ± 27 kg at calving and milk yield at 100-days in milk was 3,537 ± 529 kg. Feed intake and milk yield were measured daily. Body weight and back fat thickness were measured at calving and in weeks 2, 4, and 8 of lactation. Energy balance and energy utilisation were calculated until week 6 of lactation. Spearman's correlation coefficients were found to be significantly positive for the relationship between the percentage of C12:0 and C14:0 fatty acids in the hair in lactation week 8 and energy intake in weeks 5 and 6 (0.62 < r < 0.65, P < 0.05). If the animals are grouped according to their energy utilisation between weeks 1 and 6 into two groups higher (n = 6) or lower (n = 5) than the median, animals of the high energy utilising group had a higher energy intake. These animals had also higher percentages of the C12:0 fatty acid in their hair fat (week 6: 4.9% vs. 3.1%, P < 0.05; week 8: 4.3% vs. 2.9%, P = 0.05). Our hypothesis is supported, and this study justifies further investigation of the content of medium-chain fatty acids in hair samples as biomarkers for the metabolic status of a cow during early lactation.
The article provides an inclusive outlook on artificial intelligence by introducing a three-legged design perspective that includes, but also moves beyond, ethical artificial systems design to stress the role of moral habituation of professionals and the general public. It is held that an inclusive ethical design perspective is essential for a flourishing future with artificial intelligence.
A new optical delivery system has been developed for the (scanning) transmission electron microscope. Here we describe the in situ and “rapid ex situ” photothermal heating modality of the system, which delivers >200 mW of optical power from a fiber-coupled laser diode to a 3.7 μm radius spot on the sample. Selected thermal pathways can be accessed via judicious choices of the laser power, pulse width, number of pulses, and radial position. The long optical working distance mitigates any charging artifacts and tremendous thermal stability is observed in both pulsed and continuous wave conditions, notably, no drift correction is applied in any experiment. To demonstrate the optical delivery system’s capability, we explore the recrystallization, grain growth, phase separation, and solid state dewetting of a Ag0.5Ni0.5 film. Finally, we demonstrate that the structural and chemical aspects of the resulting dewetted films was assessed.
At In Platonis Timaeum Commentarii (= In Ti.) II, 1.393.31–394.5 Diehl (which is Atticus, fr. 28 in the edition of Des Places), Proclus follows Porphyry's inferences against the theory of Atticus, focussing more precisely on the fact that the latter's account of the principles does not correspond to the views expounded by Plato himself. In Diehl's text, based on a limited selection of primary manuscript-witnesses, the introductory phrase to this criticism contains a reference to the maker (ποιητής), which cannot easily be explained within the context. On the basis of a new examination of the manuscript tradition, and of the context of the passage, we will present a new conjecture that allows one to avoid the problems involved in Diehl's reading of the text.
To test the hypothesis that long-term care facility (LTCF) residents with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) or asymptomatic carriage of toxigenic strains are an important source of transmission in the LTCF and in the hospital during acute-care admissions.
A 6-month cohort study with identification of transmission events was conducted based on tracking of patient movement combined with restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS).
Veterans Affairs hospital and affiliated LTCF.
The study included 29 LTCF residents identified as asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic C. difficile based on every other week perirectal screening and 37 healthcare facility-associated CDI cases (ie, diagnosis >3 days after admission or within 4 weeks of discharge to the community), including 26 hospital-associated and 11 LTCF-associated cases.
Of the 37 CDI cases, 7 (18·9%) were linked to LTCF residents with LTCF-associated CDI or asymptomatic carriage, including 3 of 26 hospital-associated CDI cases (11·5%) and 4 of 11 LTCF-associated cases (36·4%). Of the 7 transmissions linked to LTCF residents, 5 (71·4%) were linked to asymptomatic carriers versus 2 (28·6%) to CDI cases, and all involved transmission of epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strains. No incident hospital-associated CDI cases were linked to other hospital-associated CDI cases.
Our findings suggest that LTCF residents with asymptomatic carriage of C. difficile or CDI contribute to transmission both in the LTCF and in the affiliated hospital during acute-care admissions. Greater emphasis on infection control measures and antimicrobial stewardship in LTCFs is needed, and these efforts should focus on LTCF residents during hospital admissions.
The timing of the late Middle Paleolithic and late disappearance of Neanderthals in the Iberian Peninsula are hotly debated subjects in Paleolithic archeology. Several studies suggested a late survival in South and Central Iberia until about 32 ka, but were probably subject to significant age underestimation due to contamination of dating samples, undiagnostic lithic assemblages, and/or lack of stratigraphic integrity. We conducted a radiocarbon and luminescence-dating study backed by detailed sedimentological and micromorphological investigations at the newly discovered rock shelter sequence of Abrigo del Molino (Central Spain). Accumulation of the sediment sequence was rapid. It started with deposition of paleoflood slack-water deposits at around 48 ka and continued until about 41 ka with deposition of colluvial and detrital sediments. These contain two Mousterian levels, which place the latest Neanderthal occupation at around 45 to 41 ka, i.e., between Heinrich Stadials 5 and 4, and probably during a time of climate amelioration. Abrigo del Molino thus provides a detailed and chronologically well-constrained record of Late Neanderthal presence and morphodynamic change in Central Iberia during times of millennial-scale climate changes. The site gives further evidence for an early disappearance of Neanderthals in Central Iberia.