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This study verifies the food assimilation of a carnivorous teleost in different timescales (weeks vs months) and evaluates how it uses the food sources. The target species is the adult ribbonfish, Trichiurus lepturus, a voracious teleost caught in commercial fisheries off south-east Brazil (21°S–22°S). The isotope models indicated Chirocentrodon bleekerianus as the main food in the ribbonfish diet in the last weeks (liver: 38.5%; 95% credible intervals: 3.4–73.9%) and last months (muscle: 36.2%; 95% credible intervals: 3.4–68.7%). The contribution of other food sources ranges from 10–16% (liver) and from 10–20% (muscle). Food assimilation remains similar at different timescales. The isotope models suggested a strong and long-lasting association of the adult females of ribbonfish with coastal waters along the study area.
This study evaluates the ability of different measures of socioeconomic status (SES) to predict lexical outcomes for preschoolers raised in a context of nationwide bilingualism. The participants were 58 children aged 3;11–4;3 from Maltese-dominant homes who attended state preschools. Receptive picture name judgement and picture naming, in Maltese and English, were employed to measure receptive and expressive lexical abilities, respectively. Lexical outcomes for four individual SES variables and a single composite SES measure were similar but not directly interchangeable. The composite SES variable emerged as most strongly predictive of children's lexical performance. Receptive judgement of phonological accuracy improved similarly in both languages with higher composite SES. Naming skills increased significantly in English but not in Maltese, suggesting differences in English input related to parental SES. A focus on SES in relation to lexical skills in two majority languages is novel and adds to current understanding of normative bilingual acquisition.
The stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) and total mercury concentrations (THg) of the three marine catfish species Aspistor luniscutis, Bagre bagre and Genidens genidens were evaluated to understand their trophic relationship in northern Rio de Janeiro state, south-eastern Brazil. The δ13C was similar among the three marine catfishes, whereas δ15N was similar in A. luniscutis and B. bagre and lower in G. genidens. THg was higher in G. genidens and lower in B. bagre. The greater assimilation of Sciaenidae fishes and squids by A. luniscutis and B. bagre resulted in smaller isotopic niche areas and trophic diversity but higher isotopic niche overlap, trophic redundancy and evenness. For G. genidens, the similar assimilation of all prey items resulted in the broadest isotopic niche among the marine catfishes. The higher mercury content in G. genidens is consistent with an increased important contribution of prey with a higher Hg burden. The bioaccumulation process was indicated by significant correlations of δ15N and THg with total length and total mass. Additionally, a significant correlation between THg and δ15N reflected the biomagnification process through the food web.
Stomach contents analysis and stable isotope results indicate M. hubbsi is a generalist predator that feeds mainly on demersal fishes, followed by crustaceans and cephalopods. Ontogenetic changes in diet were identified, with fish importance increasing in the diet with hake size. Smaller hake (<250 mm) fed mostly on the sepiolid Semirossia tenera (89.45%IRI) and engraulid fish (89.96%IRI). Mid-sized hake (250–300 mm) fed mainly on benthic fish such as Bellator brachychir (95.63%IRI) and euphausiids (56.46%IRI), while larger hake (>300 mm) fed heavily on Dactylopterus volitans (94.80%IRI) and occasionally on a variety of teleosts. Significant correlations between δ13C (P < 0.05), THg (P < 0.001) and hake size occurred, whereas no relationship was observed between δ15N and hake size or δ15N and total mercury. Signatures were lowest in smaller hake with a tendency of increasing with size. Smaller and larger hake were significantly different in δ13C. Differences regarding isotopic niche width were quantified for each size group; trophic diversity and trophic redundancy among them were negligible, but hake >300 mm possibly have a larger feeding plasticity due to the combination of prey from a wide trophic level range.
When a recurrent neural network (RNN) language model is used for caption generation, the image information can be fed to the neural network either by directly incorporating it in the RNN – conditioning the language model by ‘injecting’ image features – or in a layer following the RNN – conditioning the language model by ‘merging’ image features. While both options are attested in the literature, there is as yet no systematic comparison between the two. In this paper, we empirically show that it is not especially detrimental to performance whether one architecture is used or another. The merge architecture does have practical advantages, as conditioning by merging allows the RNN’s hidden state vector to shrink in size by up to four times. Our results suggest that the visual and linguistic modalities for caption generation need not be jointly encoded by the RNN as that yields large, memory-intensive models with few tangible advantages in performance; rather, the multimodal integration should be delayed to a subsequent stage.
This study aimed to describe the ethnoecology of the franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei) using the traditional knowledge of artisanal fishermen in the villages of Peças Island (VPI) and Superagui Island (VSI) in the World Heritage listed Paranaguá Estuarine Complex, Brazil. Between March and September 2012, 90 fishermen were interviewed (VPI – 40; VSI – 50) using a semi-structured questionnaire. Using Fuzzy logic (MATLAB 7.6) it was verified the species is easily recognized by body size, colour and occurrence area (VPI – 87.5%; VSI – 38.0%). Fishermen most frequently identified adults and young franciscanas in groups of two to five individuals (VPI – 40.0%; VSI – 58.0%). Adults were sighted throughout the year, while the young were restricted to summer and winter. Five common behavioural ethno categories were described: ‘eat’ (VPI – N = 15; VSI – N = 1); ‘float/sink/dive’ (VPI – N = 34; VSI – N = 12); ‘breathe’ (VPI – N = 11; VSI – N = 5); ‘mothers surrounding the shoal, play caught up and the youth captures’ (suggesting care parental related with feeding of infant) (VPI – N = 1; VSI – N = 2); and ‘to play’ (VPI – N = 6; VSI – N = 1). The information from the fishermen highlights the use of the area by franciscana for feeding and reproduction and these data are comparable with the literature. These results extend the knowledge about the species in an area of ecological interest and the traditional knowledge, but also illustrate the benefits of engaging fishermen to promote collaboration in scientific and management processes.
The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of Ebstein’s anomaly in Europe and its association with maternal health and medication exposure during pregnancy.
We carried out a descriptive epidemiological analysis of population-based data.
We included data from 15 European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies Congenital Anomaly Registries in 12 European countries, with a population of 5.6 million births during 1982–2011.
Cases included live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly.
Main outcome measures
We estimated total prevalence per 10,000 births. Odds ratios for exposure to maternal illnesses/medications in the first trimester of pregnancy were calculated by comparing Ebstein’s anomaly cases with cardiac and non-cardiac malformed controls, excluding cases with genetic syndromes and adjusting for time period and country.
In total, 264 Ebstein’s anomaly cases were recorded; 81% were live births, 2% of which were diagnosed after the 1st year of life; 54% of cases with Ebstein’s anomaly or a co-existing congenital anomaly were prenatally diagnosed. Total prevalence rose over time from 0.29 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20–0.41) to 0.48 (95% CI 0.40–0.57) (p<0.01). In all, nine cases were exposed to maternal mental health conditions/medications (adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 2.64, 95% CI 1.33–5.21) compared with cardiac controls. Cases were more likely to be exposed to maternal β-thalassemia (adjOR 10.5, 95% CI 3.13–35.3, n=3) and haemorrhage in early pregnancy (adjOR 1.77, 95% CI 0.93–3.38, n=11) compared with cardiac controls.
The increasing prevalence of Ebstein’s anomaly may be related to better and earlier diagnosis. Our data suggest that Ebstein’s anomaly is associated with maternal mental health problems generally rather than lithium or benzodiazepines specifically; therefore, changing or stopping medications may not be preventative. We found new associations requiring confirmation.
Following Edgard Varèse’s influential lectures –
translated and documented in ‘The Liberation of Sound’
– electroacoustic music has spawned many different styles and genres.
His argument was for composers to follow their imagination and not be bound to
the constraints of musical notation. This, arguably, was one of the catalysts
for the emergence of electroacoustic musical works. With past and recent
technological advancement, the varieties of genres and styles within
electroacoustic music have only expanded, challenging the notion of how one
could analyse such works. It is therefore unsurprising that there is no general
consensus on analytical methodologies. But for an art form that celebrates all
musical possibilities should the analysis of such musics be constraint to a set
number of formalised analytical methodologies?
Rather than propose a new all-encompassing methodology, this article will argue
for a universal approach to electroacoustic music analysis and the liberation of
sound analysis. The concept of an analytical community (a community that accepts
multiple analyses whilst encouraging practitioners to find new and innovative
ways to analyse such works) will be raised as a means to address the issues
facing electroacoustic music analysis, using the OREMA (Online Repository for
Electroacoustic Music Analysis) project as an example of such an initiative.
Although Malta is historically linked with the zoonosis brucellosis, there had not been a case of the disease in either the human or livestock population for several years. However, in July 2013 a case of human brucellosis was identified on the island. To determine whether this recent case originated in Malta, four isolates from this case were subjected to molecular analysis. Molecular profiles generated using multilocus sequence analysis and multilocus variable number tandem repeat for the recent human case isolates and 11 Brucella melitensis strains of known Maltese origin were compared with others held on in-house and global databases. While the 11 isolates of Maltese origin formed a distinct cluster, the recent human isolation was not associated with these strains but instead clustered with isolates originating from the Horn of Africa. These data was congruent with epidemiological trace-back showed that the individual had travelled to Malta from Eritrea. This work highlights the potential of using molecular typing data to aid in epidemiological trace-back of Brucella isolations and assist in monitoring of the effectiveness of brucellosis control schemes.
Artificial reefs (ARs) are often used to improve fishing and, consequently, the economy of a region. However, the way in which the species use the reefs may vary between fish assemblages. An assessment was made of the influence of an AR complex on the transient fish population off the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro state and, therefore, two control areas were sampled. Gillnets were used to capture individual fish in six sampling surveys. Cumulative abundance and biomass curves (ABC) were used to assess the possible effects of the reefs on the community's functional structure. In the dry season, during which the influence of the Paraíba do Sul River is smaller, a larger richness of r-strategy species and juveniles of K-strategy species was observed in the reef area compared with the control areas, suggesting that the AR acts as a protective environment for these species. During the lower river discharge period the results indicated a potential disturbance in the functional structure of the AR fish community and, therefore, a less stable environment relative to the control areas. This ‘instability’ warrants a positive connotation, as it indicates that the artificial reefs are harbouring species that are particularly sensitive to predation, making the reef a powerful tool for maintaining these populations on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro.
Twenty years ago, those of us in the allied health field were trained to believe that mature people didn't lodge workers’ compensation claims and mature workers didn't have injuries because they ‘knew their work environment so well’. Only 7 years ago, insurers believed that their book of claims in Workers’ Compensation had no age related correlation to claims costs. We now know that all of these assumptions do not stand up in relation to the current workforce in Australia and we are building a wealth of knowledge about the mature cohort in today's workforce.
This presentation will guide the audience through the process of developing a compelling business case to assist employers understand the cost benefit of proactively engaging with their mature employees and the benefits for both the workers over fifty five years of age and businesses in Australia.
In developing a business case, the first stage of a strategy is being formulated for the care and well-being of mature workers, this leads to preparedness for effective return to work measures in the event of injury and health maintenance strategies for mature workers. The side benefits to a business are vast; from reduced turnover and associated costs, the retention of knowledge to reduced insurance costs and productivity benefits.
Five years of analytical data will be presented to demonstrate the trending, the influences and precautionary tales for those committed to the psychological well-being of the mature workforce in Australia.
The global financial crisis across Europe has created great societal demands. Social inclusion has become one of the main challenges of the millennium with those hit hardest being the most vulnerable people. It is at such times that it becomes crucial to provide positive welfare. This article presents research results from a transnational study, INCLUD-ED, an FP6 project of the European Commission, which focuses on educational practices promoting social cohesion as a form of positive welfare. The research focuses on six successful schools in five countries that have demonstrated that they can transform children's academic performance as well as have an impact on the community itself. A number of positive transformative approaches beyond better academic performance included a spill over of benefits to the schools’ neighbouring communities and an increase in social cohesion and community in health, housing, employment and social and political participation was also identified.
Despite the significant advancements being made in the neurogenetics for mental health, the identification and validation of potential endophenotype markers of risk and resilience remain to be confirmed. The TWIN-E study (The Twin study in Wellbeing using Integrative Neuroscience of Emotion) aims to validate endophenotype markers of mental health across cognitive, brain, and autonomic measures by testing the heritability, clinical plausibility, and reliability of each of these measures in a large adult twin cohort. The specific gene and environmental mechanisms that moderate prospective links between endophenotype-phenotype markers and the final outcome of wellbeing will also be identified. TWIN-E is a national prospective study with three phases: I) baseline testing on a battery of online questionnaires and cognitive tasks, and EEG, MRI, and autonomic testing; II) 12-month follow-up testing on the online assessments; and III) randomized controlled trial of brain training. Minimum target numbers include 1,500 male/female twins (18–65 years) for the online assessments (Phase I and II), 300 twins for the EEG testing component, and 244 twins for the MRI testing component. For Phase III, each twin out of the pair will be randomized to either the treatment or waitlist control group to test the effects of brain training on mental health over a 30-day period, and to confirm the gene–environment and endophenotype contributions to treatment response. Preliminary heritability results are provided for the first 50% of the MRI subgroup (n = 142) for the grey matter volume, thickness, and surface area measures, and white matter diffuse tensor imaging fractional anisotropy.
Routine sources of information on infectious intestinal disease (IID) capture a fraction of the actual disease burden. Population studies are required to measure the burden of illness. A retrospective age-stratified cross-sectional telephone study was carried out in Malta in order to estimate the magnitude and distribution of IID at population level. A random sample of 3504 persons was interviewed by a structured questionnaire between April 2004 and December 2005. The response rate was 99·7%. From the study, the observed standardized monthly prevalence was 3·18% (95% CI 0·7–5·74) with 0·421 (95% CI 0·092–0·771) episodes of IID per person per year. The monthly prevalence was higher in the <5 years age group and in females aged 31–44 years. The mean duration of illness was 6·8 days and a median duration of 3 days. A bimodal seasonal distribution was observed with peaks in June–July and October–November.