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What does the love between British imperialists and their Asian male partners reveal about orientalism's social origins? To answer this question, Humberto Garcia focuses on westward-bound Central and South Asian travel writers who have long been forgotten or dismissed by scholars. This bias has obscured how Joseph Emin, Sake Dean Mahomet, Shaykh I'tesamuddin, Abu Talib Khan, Abul Hassan Khan, Yusuf Khan Kambalposh, and Lutfullah Khan found in their conviviality with Englishwomen and men a strategy for inhabiting a critical agency that appropriated various media to make Europe commensurate with Asia. Drama, dance, masquerades, visual art, museum exhibits, music, postal letters, and newsprint inspired these genteel men to recalibrate Persianate ways of behaving and knowing. Their cosmopolitanisms offer a unique window on an enchanted third space between empires in which Europe was peripheral to Islamic Indo-Eurasia. Encrypted in their mediated homosocial intimacies is a queer history of orientalist mimic men under the spell of a powerful Persian manhood.
We evaluated the host suitability and related traits of Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Chrysodeixis chalcites Esper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is nonnative in North America, for the native parasitoids Campoletis sonorensis Cameron (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and Copidosoma floridanum Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and the nonnative parasitoid Cotesia vanessae Reinhard (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). For the larval parasitoid C. sonorensis and C. vanessae trials, three-day-old larvae of both hosts were used, whereas one-day-old eggs of both hosts were used for the egg–larval parasitoid C. floridanum trial. For suitability parameters on each host exposed separately to each of the three parasitoid species, we measured parasitoid emergence (parasitoid success), parasitoids that did not emerge (parasitoid cocoon mortality), the proportion of male offspring (parasitoid sex ratio), hosts that developed into moths (host success), hosts that died without developing into moths or producing a parasitoid (host mortality), parasitoids emerging from cocoon masses (brood size), and the developmental times of parasitoids and hosts. For C. sonorensis, the native host and the nonnative host were found to be similarly suitable. For C. vanessae, the native host was more suitable than the nonnative host. For C. floridanum, the native host was suitable, whereas the nonnative host was not; however, sublethal effects on both the native and nonnative hosts were observed. The differential suitability of the hosts observed in this study contributes to the understanding of this measure as a dynamic factor in the expansion of parasitoids into novel host species.
A catalyst layer of Pt-Sn/C (Pt:Sn 1:1 atomic ratio) was deposited on commercial carbon cloth electrodes by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The Pt-Sn/C nanocatalyst was synthesized by the polyol method. Three current signals were applied: i) continuous direct current (CDC); ii) positive pulsed current (PPC); and iii) asymmetric alternating current (AAC). The chemical composition analysis showed the effect of the applied signal on species transferred onto the carbon cloth to form the catalyst layers. Evaluation by SEM confirmed the effect of deposition-signal on the morphology of the catalyst layer. The CDC signal formed spherical agglomerates with irregular distribution along with carbon fibers over the electrode, showing some cracks. A cross-cut view of the electrode showed that the catalyst penetrated the carbon cloth. Meanwhile, the PPC signal promoted a better deposition of the catalyst layer over the carbon cloth surface, with a thicker and more homogeneous rough layer than CDC. In contrast, the layer developed by the AAC signal showed a morphology similar to that by CDC, suggesting the formation of a layer with low metal loading. The cross-cut view of the AAC electrode showed the formation of a highly rough layer having large areas with limited contact with the carbon cloth fibers. The electro-catalytic activity of the electrodes for the Ethanol Oxidation Reaction (EOR) was studied in acid media. The CDC electrode showed an enhanced performance for the EOR by delivering the highest current density (272 mA mg-1Pt) with the more negative onset potential (341 mV) relative to the PPC and AAC electrodes.
Non-noble metal bifunctional nanocatalysts based on CoFe2O4/C were synthetized by the electrospinning method and evaluated for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) and the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). The effect of annealing at different temperatures (T=300, 600 and 900°C) on their morphological and structural features was characterized by XRD, EDS, Raman, FESEM, HRTEM and XPS. The nanofibers annealed at 300 °C (CoFe2O4-300) showed a cubic spinel structure and an average diameter of 42 nm. The CoFe2O4-300/C nanocatalyst demonstrated the highest catalytic activity towards the OER, outperforming the benchmark commercial 20 wt. % Pt/C. Meanwhile all CoFe2O4-based nanocatalysts showed fair catalytic activity for the ORR (Eonset ≈ 0.801 V/RHE, n≈ 3.56, %HO2- ≈ 21-39). In addition, the CoFe2O4/C nanocatalysts demonstrated a higher electrochemical stability than Pt/C for both the ORR and the OER.
There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation.
We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls.
The impact of PRS-SZ on psychosis showed significant dependence on co-presence of affective dysregulation in NEMESIS-2 [relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 1.01, p = 0.037] and in EUGEI (RERI = 3.39, p = 0.048). This was particularly evident for delusional ideation (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 1.74, p = 0.003; EUGEI: RERI = 4.16, p = 0.019) and not for hallucinatory experiences (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 0.65, p = 0.284; EUGEI: −0.37, p = 0.547). A similar and stronger pattern of results was evident for CA (RERI delusions and hallucinations: NEMESIS-2: 3.02, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 6.44, p < 0.001; RERI delusional ideation: NEMESIS-2: 3.79, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 5.43, p = 0.001; RERI hallucinatory experiences: NEMESIS-2: 2.46, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 0.54, p = 0.465).
The results, and internal replication, suggest that the effects of known genetic and non-genetic risk factors for psychosis are mediated in part through an affective pathway, from which early states of delusional meaning may arise.
Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) tend to lack insight, which is linked to poor outcomes. The effect size of previous treatments on insight changes in SSD has been small. Metacognitive interventions may improve insight in SSD, although this remains unproved.
We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to examine the effects of metacognitive interventions designed for SSD, namely Metacognitive Training (MCT) and Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy (MERIT), on changes in cognitive and clinical insight at post-treatment and at follow-up.
Twelve RCTs, including 10 MCT RCTs (n = 717 participants) and two MERIT trials (n = 90), were selected, totalling N = 807 participants. Regarding cognitive insight six RCTs (n = 443) highlighted a medium effect of MCT on self-reflectiveness at post-treatment, d = 0.46, p < 0.01, and at follow-up, d = 0.30, p < 0.01. There was a small effect of MCT on self-certainty at post-treatment, d = −0.23, p = 0.03, but not at follow-up. MCT was superior to controls on an overall Composite Index of cognitive insight at post-treatment, d = 1.11, p < 0.01, and at follow-up, d = 0.86, p = 0.03, although we found evidence of heterogeneity. Of five MCT trials on clinical insight (n = 244 participants), which could not be meta-analysed, four of them favoured MCT compared v. control. The two MERIT trials reported conflicting results.
Metacognitive interventions, particularly Metacognitive Training, appear to improve insight in patients with SSD, especially cognitive insight shortly after treatment. Further long-term RCTs are needed to establish whether these metacognitive interventions-related insight changes are sustained over a longer time period and result in better outcomes.
This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or ‘jumping to conclusions’(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation.
Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses.
JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46–5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13–6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67–8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94–4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences.
These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.
To manage widespread conservation conflicts, building a shared understanding among the parties involved has been considered key. However, there is little empirical evidence of the role this understanding might play in the context of imposed biosphere reserves. Using semi-structured and in-depth interviews in two communities within the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, we explored whether or not there is a shared understanding of conflicts between local people and reserve managers, and we analysed its contribution to conflict management. We found that a shared understanding is not a determining factor when the conflict solution demands actions that exceed stakeholders’ functions. While a shared understanding helps with the global process of conflict management, there are other challenges: local impairment resulting from the exclusionary creation and the operation of protected areas and the need for action to solve a conflict that exceeds the functions of stakeholders.
Our purpose was to determine the intensive care units’ (ICUs) medical staff surge capacity during the Covid-19 outbreak in spring 2020 in Spain. Methods: a multicenter retrospective survey addressing the medical specialties present in the ICUs and the increase in bed capacity during this period. Results: Sixty-seven centers (62.04%) answered the questionnaire. The ICU bed capacity during the pandemic outbreak increased by 160% (95%CI 128.97-191.03%). The average number of beds per intensive care medicine (ICM) specialist was 1.5 ± 0.60 and 3.71 ± 2.44 beds/specialist before and during the Covid-19 outbreak, respectively. Non-ICM specialists and residents were present in 50 (74.63%) and 23 (34.3%) ICUs during the outbreak, respectively. The number of physicians (ICM and non-ICM residents and specialists) in the ICU increased by 89.40% (95%CI 64.26 -114.53%). The increase in ICM specialists was, however, of 4.94% (95%CI -1.35 - 11.23%) Most non-ICM physicians were anesthetists, followed by pediatricians and cardiologists. Conclusion: The majority of ICUs in our study were able to rapidly expand critical care capacity by adapting areas outside of the normal ICU to manage critically ill patients, and by extending the critical care staff with noncritical care physicians working as force multipliers.
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have emerged as a promising alternative for energy storage. In this work, it has been synthesized a nanocomposite material of SbxSbySz/Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) using low-cost synthesizing methods. First, CNFs have been obtained by electrospinning method with subsequent carbonation at 700°C. Afterward, a SbxSbySz thin coating is deposited on the CNFs by chemical bath deposition technique to obtain the SbxSbySz/CNFs. In order to obtain the SnSb2S4 crystalline phase, the composite is heated at 300°C in nitrogen atmosphere. The evaluation of this nanocomposite as the anode for SIBs has a reversible discharge capacity of 180 mAh g-1 and a columbic efficiency of 61.4% after 9 cycles. On the other hand, the resistance associated to the charge transfer to the CNFs decreases from 115.03 Ω to 77.86 Ω due to the incorporation of SnxSbySz. Finally, an easy and inexpensive route has been proposed for the synthesis of SbxSbySz/CNFs composite with great potential to be used as anode material for SIBs.
A 4-year-old child of 10 kg weight, with four previous sternotomies, presented a severe right heart failure, due to a severe regurgitation of his bioprosthetic tricuspid valve. A percutaneous tricuspid valve in valve procedure with an Edwards S3 valve was offered for compassionate use, and performed, with no complications, and significant clinical condition improvement.
The study of abnormal movements has been an important topic in neurology since over a century ago. In fact, movement disorders are a rapidly growing subspecialty that receives contributions from different disciplines including adult neurology, child neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, and physical medicine and rehabilitation. The main focus is on normal and abnormal functioning of the motor systems and on possibilities to treat motor dysfunction. The traditional approach to study and treat movement disorders has been largely based on the analysis of the clinical phenomenology that results from the interaction of a number of brain regions that provide motor control under different functional states. Therefore the development of anatomical and physiological studies of the neural circuitry of motor systems, together with the precise description of corresponding clinical signs, has encouraged the study of this broad topic during the last decades. Brain imaging, neurophysiology, and basic research studies in animal models have provided an increasing amount of knowledge.
I argue racial injustice undermines the reliability of news source reports in the information domain of racial injustice. I argue that this in turn undermines subjects’ doxastic justification in inferences they base on these news sources in the racial injustice information domain. I explain that racial injustice does this undermining through the effect of racial prejudice on news organizations’ members and the effect of society's racially unjust structure on non-dominant racial group-controlled news sources.
To estimate the impact of California’s antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) mandate on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) rates in acute-care hospitals.
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)–certified acute-care hospitals in the United States.
2013–2017 data from the CMS Hospital Compare, Provider of Service File and Medicare Cost Reports.
Difference-in-difference model with hospital fixed effects to compare California with all other states before and after the ASP mandate. We considered were standardized infection ratios (SIRs) for MRSA and CDI as the outcomes. We analyzed the following time-variant covariates: medical school affiliation, bed count, quality accreditation, number of changes in ownership, compliance with CMS requirements, % intensive care unit beds, average length of stay, patient safety index, and 30-day readmission rate.
In 2013, California hospitals had an average MRSA SIR of 0.79 versus 0.94 in other states, and an average CDI SIR of 1.01 versus 0.77 in other states. California hospitals had increases (P < .05) of 23%, 30%, and 20% in their MRSA SIRs in 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. California hospitals were associated with a 20% (P < .001) decrease in the CDI SIR only in 2017.
The mandate was associated with a decrease in CDI SIR and an increase in MRSA SIR.
To develop and implement a community-tailored, food agency-based cooking programme at a community health centre (CHC) and evaluate the effect of the intervention on cooking confidence and food waste.
This study used an exploratory, sequential mixed methods design. Focus groups (n 38) were conducted to inform the development of a cooking intervention, then six cooking classes (n 45) were planned and piloted in the health centre’s teaching kitchen. Changes in cooking confidence and related outcomes were assessed using pre- and post-class surveys. Follow-up interviews (n 12) were conducted 2–4 months post-intervention to assess satisfaction and short-term outcomes.
A CHC in Detroit, MI.
Spanish- and English-speaking adults aged ≥18 years recruited at the CHC.
In the formative focus groups, patients identified multiple barriers to cooking healthy meals, including trade-offs between quality, cost and convenience of food, chronic disease management and lack of time and interest. Each cooking class introduced a variety of cooking techniques and food preservation strategies. Participants demonstrated increased confidence in cooking (P 0·004), experimenting with new ingredients (P 0·006) and knowing how to make use of food before it goes bad (P 0·017). In post-class interviews, participants reported that they valued the social interaction and participatory format and that they had used the recipes and cooking techniques at home.
A community-tailored, hands-on cooking class was an effective way to engage patients at a CHC and resulted in increased cooking confidence.
Engraving sites are rare in mainland and Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) where painted art dominates the prehistoric artistic record. Here we report two new engraving sites from the Tutuala region of Timor-Leste comprising mostly humanoid forms carved into speleothem columns in rock-shelters. Engraved face motifs have previously been reported from Lene Hara Cave in this same region, and one was dated to the Pleistocene–Holocene transition using the Uranium–Thorium method. We discuss the engravings in relation to changes in technology and material culture that took place in the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene archaeological records in this region of Timor as well as neighbouring islands. We suggest that the engravings may have been produced as markers of territorial and social identity within the context of population expansion and greater inter-group contacts at this time.
To explore the association between behavioural characteristics with the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among a population of Southern Brazilian shift working women.
A cross-sectional study was conducted. AO was estimated using waist circumference (WC), and it was used to classify women as having AO (WC ≥ 88 cm). Prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variance.
A large plastic utensils company in Southern Brazil.
450 female shift workers.
The prevalence of the AO in the women shift workers was 44·5 % (95 % CI 40·0, 49·2 %). In night shift workers, the prevalence of AO was 56·1 % compared with 40·9 % among hybrid shift workers. After adjustments for covariates, women who were current smokers had a decrease in the prevalence of AO compared with those who never smoked. Women who had three or fewer meals per day had a 46 % increase in the AO prevalence compared with those eating more frequent meals. Night shift work was associated with increase in AO prevalence compared with hybrid shift (PR 1·33; 95 % CI: 1·08, 1·64).
Our findings indicate that behavioural characteristics are associated with a high prevalence of AO in female shift workers, thus suggesting that behavioural modifications among women working shifts, such as increase in meal frequency and physical activity, may reduce AO.
Hans Kelsen’s interventions in the law of the Nuremberg trials have remained unexplored with the exception of notes in passim or a couple of brief studies. International criminal law, is true, was not Kelsen’s main object of study. However, the events culminating in Nuremberg, both the shocking Nazi policies and that Kelsen was an émigré in the United States were instrumental to precipitate his close engagement with international criminal law during the dawn years between 1942 and 1945. This chapter introduces the man and his ideas, traces elements of the pure theory that relate to the principle of individual criminal responsibility and, with the help of hitherto unknown archival material, describes for the first time Kelsen’s personal participation in the preparations of Nuremberg and the history behind his absence from the International Military Tribunal. The chapter concludes with a selection of two aspects of Kelsen’s activities as a legal advisor for the US War Crimes Commission: first, his insistence on the need for an international treaty as the legal basis of the IMT in order to avoid victors’ justice and problems of jurisdiction; second, his contribution towards the inclusion of individual criminal responsibility in the London Agreement.