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This article analyses female labour in Spanish mines during the golden age of the sector in Spain between 1860 and 1936. Although they were a small percentage of total employment, women accounted for a significant share of the workforce in certain Spanish districts. On the one hand, the study quantifies work performed directly by women, who were mostly engaged in preparation and concentration of the minerals, as well as the extent of female child labour. This has been done by using official statistics, analysing the share of women employed for each type of mineral extracted, the mining area where this activity took place, and other variables. In the article, the authors seek to identify possible causes of such a heterogeneous distribution of female labour in the mining industry in Spain. This situation was common in the sector throughout the world. On the other hand, the article analyses attitudes of institutions, unions, and the like that limited employment opportunities for women in mining (banning them from performing underground tasks and other activities) and even proposed excluding them altogether, responding to workers’ demands in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. We examine the objectives pursued by these institutions, which in some cases related to protection (physical and moral) of female workers but overall aimed mainly to preserve the social role of women (particularly reproduction) and exclude them from the workforce. The pressure on female workers was the most pronounced in the workplace. These factors gave rise to a global setback in female employment, especially among the youngest workers. Given this situation, the quantitative data used, together with information drawn from different sources, reveal that women resisted giving up these jobs, particularly in the districts with a larger share of female workers.
The Murcia Twin Registry (MTR) is the only population-based registry in Spain. Created in 2006, the registry has been growing more than a decade to become one of the references for twin research in the Mediterranean region. The MTR database currently comprises 3545 adult participants born between 1940 and 1977. It also holds a recently launched satellite registry of university students (N = 204). Along five waves of data collection, the registry has gathered questionnaire and anthropometric data, as well as biological samples. The MTR keeps its main research focus on health and health-related behaviors from a public health perspective. This includes lifestyle, health promotion, quality of life or environmental conditions. Future short-term development points to the expansion of the biobank and the continuation of the collection of longitudinal data.
Variants in the human genes of fatty acid (FA) desaturase 1 (FADS1), 2 (FADS2) and 3 (FADS3) are associated with PUFA blood levels. We explored if maternal prenatal supplementation and children’s genetic variation in seventeen SNP of the FADS1, FADS2 and FADS3 gene cluster influence twenty-one of the most relevant cheek cells’ derived FA in glycerophospholipids (GPL-FA). The study was conducted in 147 Spanish and German mother–children pairs participating in the Nutraceuticals for a Healthier Life (NUHEAL) study at 8, 9 and 9·5 years. Linear and mixed model longitudinal regression analyses were performed. Maternal fish-oil (FO) or FO+5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) supplementation during pregnancy was associated with a significant decrease of arachidonic acid (AA) concentrations in cheek cell GPL in the offspring, from 8 to 9·5 years; furthermore, maternal FO+5-MTHF supplementation was associated with higher n-6 docosapentaenoic acid concentrations in their children at age 8 years. FADS1 rs174556 polymorphism and different FADS2 genotypes were associated with higher concentrations of linoleic and α-linolenic acids in children; moreover, some FADS2 genotypes determined lower AA concentrations in children’s cheek cells. It is suggested an interaction between type of prenatal supplementation and the offspring genetic background driving GPL-FA levels at school age. Prenatal FO supplementation, and/or with 5-MTHF, seems to stimulate n-3 and n-6 FA desaturation in the offspring, increasing long-chain PUFA concentrations at school age, but depending on children’s FADS1 and FADS2 genotypes. These findings suggest potential early nutrition programming of FA metabolic pathways, but interacting with children’s FADS polymorphisms.
The aim of the study was to determine the main factors (sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health status) associated with high Na excretion in a representative population of Chile.
Na excretion (g/d), a valid marker of Na intake, was determined by urine analysis and Tanaka’s formulas. Blood pressure was measured by trained staff and derived from the mean of three readings recorded after 15 min rest. The associations of Na excretion with blood pressure and the primary correlates of high Na excretion were determined using logistic regression.
Chileans aged ≥15 years.
Participants (n 2913) from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010.
Individuals aged 25 years or over, those who were obese and those who had hypertension, diabetes or metabolic syndrome were more likely to have higher Na excretion. The odds for hypertension increased by 10·2 % per 0·4 g/d increment in Na excretion (OR=1·10; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14; P < 0·0001). These findings were independent of major confounding factors.
Age, sex, adiposity, sitting behaviours and existing co-morbidities such as diabetes were associated with higher Na excretion levels in the Chilean population. These findings could help policy makers to implement public health strategies tailored towards individuals who are more likely to consume high levels of dietary salt.
Recently, low-density steels have received increased attention as promising alternatives for automotive applications of the next generation of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS), considering that vehicle´s weight decrease has been the subject of intense interest. It is well-known that the addition of rare earth metals (REM) has a remarkable effect on shape control and the modification of inclusions. Also, REM additions affect the grain size refinement as well as the tendency to form oxides and sulfides. The aim of this research work was to determine the effect of REM (Ce, La) addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Fe-30Mn-8Al-1.8C low-density steel in as-cast condition. In order to clarify the REM effect on the Fe-Mn-Al-C system, non-microalloyed (LD-NM) and REM microalloyed (LD-REM) specimens were examined in detail by means of light optical and scanning electron microscopy for microstructural characterization. In the same way, the primary and secondary phases founded in the studied steels were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Meanwhile, in order to evaluate the mechanical properties, ten microhardness measurements were carried out on the overall bulk by the Vickers hardness testing. In general, the results showed a dendritic refinement effect due to the addition of REM to low-density steel. REM acted as effective inoculants agents which reduced the primary and secondary arm spacing. Also, the strong segregation tendency at the grain boundaries in the liquid phase was limited. XRD profiles revealed the presence of austenite, ferrite, κ and DO3 phases. Low density steel microalloyed with REM showed a moderate increase in hardness compared to the non-microalloyed steel in the as-cast condition.
Hydrogels made of sodium 2-acrylamide-2-methypropanesulfonate were synthesized with the goal of creating a polymer for tissue engineering applications. The hydrogels were doped with silver nanoparticles to create hydrogel/Ag with possible antibacterial properties. We varied the weight/volume percentage of Laponite from 3 to 10 w/v% to alter the rheological properties of the hydrogels. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the progress of the chemical reaction at different polymerization times under ultraviolet radiation. By comparing the changes in the intensities of the Raman bands corresponding to C=C and C–C bonds with reaction time, we found that the optimal polymerization time to obtain chains of poly(2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonate) was 3 to 4 h. Characterization of the hydrogels with scanning electron microscopy indicated pore sizes of 1 to 6 µm.
Composites from carbon nanotubes and polymers have been synthesized and studied. The composites were obtained joining carbon nanotubes with polymethyl methacrylate, nylon-6 and polystyrene. The materials were observed through scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the carbon nanotubes dispersion in the polymeric matrices. FTIR and Raman spectroscopies were used to analyze the interactions among functionalized and non-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polymers, demonstrating affinity and peculiar spectra behaviors for each composite with different carbon nanotubes loads.
The continual rise of anthropogenic disturbance of ecosystems has been associated with an increasing incidence of emerging diseases. The largest amount of data on emerging diseases relates to bacterial and viral pathogens, but there is a lack of parasite data, especially from wildlife. Monitoring wildlife parasitic diseases should be considered a priority, especially in high biodiversity regions with strong anthropogenic impacts, like Mexico, where the wildlife/livestock/human interface is associated with increased risk of disease transmission. Mexico belongs to the top-ten megadiverse countries and is located between two biogeographic regions. This situation makes Mexico a favourable region for the spillover of animal pathogens to human beings, causing pandemics, such as the one recently caused by influenza virus A (H1N1). The current state of knowledge of Mexican wildlife parasites is scarce and focuses mainly in Neotropical fauna. Moreover, this knowledge is heterogeneous for different parasite groups, especially concerning their pathologic effects and epidemiology. The goals of this review are to compile information on Mexican wildlife parasites and to identify knowledge gaps in order to stimulate research on pending epidemiological, public health, ecological and pathological areas, and to encourage the creation of more specialized groups from the perspective of the One-Health concept.
To assess the feasibility and acceptability of a beverage intervention in Hispanic adults.
Eligible individuals identified as Hispanic, were 18–64 years old and had BMI 30·0–50·0 kg/m2. Participants were randomized 2:2:1 to one of three beverages: Mediterranean lemonade (ML), green tea (GT) or flavoured water control (FW). After a 2-week washout period, participants were asked to consume 32 oz (946 ml) of study beverage daily for 6 weeks and avoid other sources of tea, citrus, juice and sweetened beverages; water was permissible. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and 8 weeks to assess primary and secondary efficacy outcomes.
Tucson, AZ, USA.
Fifty-two participants were recruited over 6 months; fifty were randomized (twenty-one ML, nineteen GT, ten FW). Study population mean (sd) age 44·6 (sd 10·2) years, BMI 35·9 (4·6) kg/m2; 78 % female.
Forty-four (88 %) completed the 8-week assessment. Self-reported adherence was high. No significant change (95 % CI) in total cholesterol (mg/dl) from baseline was shown −1·7 (−14·2, 10·9), −3·9 (−17·2, 9·4) and −13·2 (−30·2, 3·8) for ML, GT and FW, respectively. Mean change in HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) −2·3 (−5·3, 0·7; ML), −1·0 (−4·2, 2·2; GT), −3·9 (−8·0, 0·2; FW) and LDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 0·2 (−11·3, 11·8; ML), 0·5 (−11·4, 12·4; GT), −9·8 (−25·0, 5·4; FW) were also non-significant. Fasting glucose (mg/dl) increased significantly by 5·2 (2·6, 7·9; ML) and 3·3 (0·58, 6·4; GT). No significant change in HbA1c was demonstrated. Due to the small sample size, potential confounders and effect modifiers were not investigated.
Recruitment and retention figures indicate that a larger-scale trial is feasible; however, favourable changes in cardiometabolic biomarkers were not demonstrated.
In the industry, the titanium nitride (TiN) coating is widely used in cutting tools, decorative and corrosion protection film, but unfortunately, this coating presented a poor performance under some work condition. For that, different studies have been dedicated to improving its properties with the inclusion of a third element that modifies the film structure, chemical and mechanical properties. In this work, TiN layers with/without of Al, B, and Cr inclusion were studied in order to analyze their effect in the film tribological performance. These were deposited using cathodic arc PVD technic on AISI-M2 steel. They were chemical and structural characterized using EDX and XRD, respectively. While the film thickness was determinate using a ball-cratering technique. Their tribological performance was studied using a sliding reciprocating movement in dry conditions, under three loads, at 30 min against Al2O3 ball as counterbody. The resulting wear tracks were studied using optical microscopy in order to study the wear mechanism. Raman spectroscopy was used to determinate the chemical changes produced on wear zones and the lost material was measured with a stylus profilometer. As result, the structure and morphology were modified with the inclusion of the third element. The TiN with the inclusion of Al and B presented a higher friction force and wear rate than TiN films. While the TiN with Cr inclusion film presented the best tribological performance with lower wear rate and friction coefficient. The Raman studies did not showed considerable changes on the damage coted surface areas, except for TiAlN coating that show the M2 tool steel Raman spectra on the areas where the film was removed.
PA6 and PMMA polymers with different MWCNTs addition (5, 7 and 9 wt %) were synthetized through casting solution, resulting in improvement properties in contrast to pristine polymers. SEM images showed the MWCNTs embedded into polymeric matrices. D, G and G´ bands of MWCNTs were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and functional groups observed in both nanocomposites by FTIR demonstrated a strong interaction. A significant increasing in electrical conductivity and microhardness was observed in all the nanocomposites. Major microhardness values were obtained in MWCNTs/PA6 (50 HV) however the MWCNTs/PMMA nanocomposites showed the highest electrical conductivity value (6.4×10-4 S/cm).