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While the North American archaeological record signals the presence of early humans along the northeastern Pacific coast by the Late Pleistocene, we know little about the technological systems employed by these coastally oriented colonizing groups. We here report the discovery of the earliest unequivocal evidence for the use and manufacture of shell fishhooks in the western hemisphere. Four single-piece shell fishhooks dating to the terminal Pleistocene/early Holocene transition (between ~11,300 and 10,700 cal B.P.) have been excavated on Isla Cedros, Baja California, Mexico. One hook is directly dated at 9495 ± 25 B.P. with a marine reservoir–corrected age of 11,165–9185 cal B.P. Radiocarbon ages associated with three other shell fishhooks range between 8900 ± 25 B.P. and 10,415 ± 25 B.P, while median ages for the earliest contexts confirm occupation of the island by at least 12,600–12,000 cal B.P. The stratigraphic levels from which the fishhooks were recovered contained a diverse assemblage of fish remains, including deepwater species, indicative of boat use. Thus, some of the earliest known inhabitants of the Pacific coast of the Americas employed shell hook and line technology for offshore marine fishing at least by the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, if not earlier.
Substantial healthcare resources are devoted to panic disorder (PD) and coronary heart disease (CHD); however, the association between these conditions remains controversial. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of studies assessing the association between PD, related syndromes, and incident CHD.
Relevant studies were retrieved from Medline, EMBASE, SCOPUS and PsycINFO without restrictions from inception to January 2015 supplemented with hand-searching. We included studies that reported hazard ratios (HR) or sufficient data to calculate the risk ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) which were pooled using a random-effects model. Studies utilizing self-reported CHD were ineligible. Twelve studies were included comprising 1 131 612 persons and 58 111 incident CHD cases.
PD was associated with the primary incident CHD endpoint [adjusted HR (aHR) 1.47, 95% CI 1.24–1.74, p < 0.00001] even after excluding angina (aHR 1.49, 95% CI 1.22–1.81, p < 0.00001). High to moderate quality evidence suggested an association with incident major adverse cardiac events (MACE; aHR 1.40, 95% CI 1.16–1.69, p = 0.0004) and myocardial infarction (aHR 1.36, 95% CI 1.12–1.66, p = 0.002). The risk for CHD was significant after excluding depression (aHR 1.64, 95% CI 1.45–1.85) and after depression adjustment (aHR 1.38, 95% CI 1.03–1.87). Age, sex, length of follow-up, socioeconomic status and diabetes were sources of heterogeneity in the primary endpoint.
Meta-analysis showed that PD was independently associated with incident CHD, myocardial infarction and MACE; however, reverse causality cannot be ruled out and there was evidence of heterogeneity.
Aphid–plant interactions depend on genotypes of both organisms, which determine the two-way molecular exchange that leads to compatible or incompatible outcomes. The underlying genes are mostly unknown, making it difficult to predict likelihood of aphid success or host resistance, and hampering crop genetic improvement. Here we screened eight pea aphid clonal genotypes collected from diverse legume hosts, on a species-wide panel of Medicago truncatula (Mt) genotypes. Aphid virulence was measured by survival, fecundity and growth rate, together with scores for chlorosis and necrosis as host response indicators. Outcomes were highly dependent on the specific aphid–host genotype combinations. Only one Mt line was fully resistant against all clones. Aphid-induced host chlorosis and necrosis varied greatly, but correlated with resistance only in a few combinations. Bi-clustering analysis indicated that all aphid clones could be distinguished by their performance profiles across the host genotypes tested, with each clone being genetically differentiated and potentially representing a distinct biotype. Clones originating from Medicago sativa ranged from highly virulent to almost completely avirulent on both Medicago species, indicating that some were well adapted, whereas others were most likely migrants. Comparisons of closely related pairs of Australian Mt genotypes differing in aphid resistance revealed no enhanced resistance to European pea aphid clones. Based on the extensive variation in pea aphid adaptation even on unfamiliar hosts, most likely reflecting multiple biotype-specific gene-for-gene interactions, we conclude that robust defences require an arsenal of appropriate resistance genes.
‘Selective transfusion of appropriate blood components is preferable to the routine use of whole blood.’ (American Association of Blood Banks. Physicians' Handbook of Blood Component Therapy, 1969).
The rational use of donor blood in the environment of modern blood transfusion revolves around a series of developments in the field of component therapy. The fractionation of plasma, i.e. the separation of plasma into a series of subdivisions each containing one or other of the constituent proteins in varying degrees of purity and concentration, was one of the first of these developments to become established.
Early fractionation of plasma was applied in various ways to the purification of animal antisera; initially to antipneumococcal serum for therapeutic use. These sera frequently provoked reactions in patients until Sabin showed that absorption with Fullers earth could abolish these side-effects by removing complexed molecules.
Since the late 1940s coastal planning in the Moray Firth, as elsewhere in Britain, has been carried out by appropriate planning authorities within the framework of the statutory development planning and development control system. In the formulation of plans and policies for the coast, regional and district authorities have responded to national policy guidelines and to the advice received from statutory organisations and others. Controversy and differences have been dealt with by consultation and by local public inquiries.
In safeguarding the coastline, particularly in the inner Moray Firth, planning authorities have had environmental management responsibility for oil and gas-related activities, recreational and tourist facilities, pollution protection and beach erosion. Continuing pressures and uncertainties about future prospects for oil and gas developments have also generated an unusual amount of administrative, survey and research activity at national, regional and district levels. However, the expertise and knowledge gained provide a unique and valuable information base upon which to prepare an overall coastal strategy.
A styrene copolymer of 4-vinylbenzyl thiocyanate (PST-co-VBT) was employed as recording material for optical interference patterns with periods ∧ < 1 μm. Using lower intensity laser irradiation (4 mJ cm-2, λ = 266 nm), refractive index gratings were produced in PST-co-VBT by an UV induced photoisomerization SCN - NCS. Subsequent modification of the patterns with gaseous amines yielded surface relief gratings via the formation of derivatives of thiourea. Laser irradiation with higher pulse energies (7 mJ cm-2, λ = 266 nm) directly produced surface relief gratings (modulation depth 30 nm). These gratings were also reactive towards amine reagents and allowed a selective functionalization of the grooves of the relief (“reactive gratings”). Optically inscribed gratings in PST-co-VBT were employed as optical resonators for distributed feedback (DFB) lasing. With a laser dye (DCM) dissolved in PST-co-VBT, optically pumped DFB laser action was observed after inscribing index and relief gratings. The pumping threshold for lasing Ith was 250 nJ cm-2 at λ = 532 nm.
Small liquid germanium (ℓ-Ge) droplets (0.3–0.5mm diameter) have been undercooled in a B2O3 flux a maximum of 415 ± 20°C below Tm before recalescence. Although the droplets undercooled to temperatures well below the temperature expected for metastable equilibrium with amorphous Ge, Taℓ, the solidified structures were always polycrystalline. There was no evidence of a continuous liquid-to-amorphous transition at or below Taℓ. The nucleation frequency was calculated to be ˜8 × 106 /cm 3-sec at the maximum undercooling. This should be an upper limit to the homogeneous nucleation frequency of the crystal phase since we did not establish that the nucleation was homogeneous in our experiments. However, this limiting I for Ge indicates that homogeneous nucleation of the crystal or amorphous phase would not become appreciable in nsec laser pulsing experiments until ℓ-Ge is undercooled to well below Taℓ. The structure of solidified Ge and Ge/Sn alloy droplets indicates that dendritic growth does not occur in Ge until the liquid is undercooled at least 300°C, and in Ge/Sn until the liquid is undercooled at least 250°C. Greater undercoolings lead to increased dendritic breakup, which results in grain refinement in the final structure.
We have measured the pressure dependence of the solid phase epitaxial growth (SPEG) rate of self-implanted Si (100) by using the in-situ time-resolved reflectivity technique  in a hightemperature and high-pressure diamond anvil cell (DAC). With fluid argon as the pressure transmission medium, a clean and perfectly hydrostatic pressure environment is achieved around the sample. The external heating geometry employed in the DAC provides a uniform temperature across the sample. At temperatures in the range of 530 – 550 °C and pressure up to 50 kbars (5 GPa), the growth rate is enhanced by up to a factor of ten over that at 1 atmosphere pressure. The results are characterized by a negative activation volume of approximately −3.0 cm3/mole (−27% of the atomic volume). These preliminary results show a significantly weaker pressure dependence than does the previous work of Nygren et al. , who found an activation volume of −8.7 cm3/mole. The implications of these results for the nature of the defect responsible for thermal SPEG and irradiation enhanced SPEG is discussed.
The contrast of misfit dislocations in an InGaAs layer, close to the critical thickness and capped with GaAs grown by MBE on a (001) oriented GaAs substrate has been investigated by double axis synchrotron X-radiation topography. The layer thickness variation as a function of position has been measured to a precision of 1A by matching interference fringes observed in the 004 symmetric reflection double crystal rocking curves with simulations. The misfit dislocation density is highly anisotropic, varying from zero to a high value with increasing thickness. The contrast of the dislocations in the 004, 224 and 044 reflections has been examined in detail. All of the long dislocation segments characterized were 60° in character with ½<110> Burgers vectors inclined to the specimen surface. No dislocations were found which did not appear to be of this type. A surprising difference in contrast of the background in the 224 and 224 reflections is discussed.
Relaxation in a 3μm epitaxial layer of GaAsSb on GaAs, a 1μm layer of InGaAs on InP and an InGaAs superlattice on InP has been investigated by double crystal X-ray diffractometry and double crystal X-ray synchrotron topography and found to be asymmetric. The origins of assymetric relaxation are discussed and the sensitivity of diffractometry and topography to the detection of layer relaxation compared.
We have studied GaN films grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire substrates using different buffer layer structures. Surface morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical properties were measured using photoluminescence (PL), cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy and catho-luminescence wavelength imaging (CLWI) method. It is found that the hexagonal pit-like defects in morphology are associated with the D-A/e-A transition band in the PL and CL spectra. The same correlation of morphology with optical properties is observed for the GaN films grown by selective area epitaxy (SAE). In addition, the possibility of improving optical quality by SAE is investigated. The SAE depth profile is simulated for the first time, and satisfactory results are obtained.
AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with multiple quantum wells were grown by plasmaassisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). Structural and optical properties of the heterostructures were analyzed using x-ray diffraction, cathodoldminescence, and photoluminescence. Interband transitions were clearly observed in the GaN quantum wells at both room- and liquid-helium temperatures. The efficiency of the interband recombination due to the confinement effect was greatly enhanced in the thinner quantum wells. The functional dependence of the interband peaks on the well thickness is shown to be in good agreement with the calculated positions of the quantized levels in the wells.
As part of an effort to develop a spectroscopic structure-property relationship in platinum acetylide oligomers, we have prepared a series of bidentate Pt(PBu3)2L2 compounds. The ligand was the series o-syd-C6H4-CΞC-(C6H4-CΞC)n-H, n = 0,1,2. The terminal oligomer unit consisted of a sydnone group ortho to the acetylene carbon. The compounds were characterized by various methods, including 13C-NMR, ground state absorption, fluorescence, phosphorescence and laser flash photolysis. The acetylenic 13C-NMR resonances showed sydnone influences that decreased with increasing number of monomer units. The ground state absorption spectra were slightly red shifted from those of the baseline oligomers not having a sydnone group. The low temperature emission and excitation spectra showed complex dependence on excitation and emission wavelengths, suggesting the chromphores resided in a distribution of solvent environments and conformations. Finally, broad triplet state absorption spectra were observed, with absorption throughout the visible and near infrared regions.
Site-selective photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy have been carried out at 6K on the ∼1540 nm 4I15/2 → 4I15/2 emissions of Er3+ in Er-implanted GaN. The PLE spectra exhibit several broad, below-gap, defect- or impurity-related absorption bands which excite three distinct site-selective Er + PL spectra. The near-band edge spectral position and lineshape of the PLE spectrum of one of the site-selective PL bands suggest that this Er site forms a trap level within the band gap and an exciton bound at this trap is involved in the excitation mechanism. In addition, high resolution PLE spectra obtained with a tunable laser in the 810 nm spectral range reveal a set of sharp PLE peaks due to the 4I15/2 → 4I9/2 internal Er+ ƒ-band absorption superimposed on the broad defect PLE band. The site-selective PL spectrum excited by the sharp line ∼810 nm Er+ intra-ƒ shell PLE bands is characteristic of a fourth distinct Er+ site. The simple structure of the site-selective PL and PLE spectra associated with direct intra-ƒ shell absorption suggests that the optically active Er site responsible for these spectra is of high symmetry in wurtzite GaN and that it could be attributed to a single Er atom on a Ga site.
A shift in the peak response wavelength and a broadening of the photoresponse spectrum is demonstrated for intersubband absorption in n-doped GaAs/AIGaAs multiple quantum well detectors following intermixing of the well and barrier layers during rapid thermal annealing. In general, a decrease in performance is observed for the RTA QWIPs when compared to the as-grown detectors. The peak absolute response of the annealed QWIPs is lower by almost a factor of four, which results in corresponding decrease in quantum efficiency. In addition, the noise performance results in a detectivity which is five times lower than that of QWIPs fabricated from as-grown structures.
This work describes the feasibility of using a polymer-based tissue equivalent gel for measuring radiation doses in situ. The gel is based on the MAGIC formulation thereby enabling it to be manufactured under normal atmospheric conditions. Its composition has been altered to achieve a similar sensitivity to the more widely used, but technically more difficult to produce, PAG gels. Irradiation of the gel material causes polymerisation of the molecular structure resulting in a shortening of transverse relaxation time (T2), which can be imaged using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This work calibrates the radiation response in terms of transverse relaxation rate (R2) and uses this information to provide absolute dose verification in a separate gel, which has been previously irradiated to a known configuration. Results demonstrate that this technique is able to verify radiation doses to within a few percent of delivered intent in three dimensions and with high spatial resolution. This work may be followed by anyone with an interest in the quality assurance of advanced conformal radiotherapy delivery methods.
To evaluate the impact of the 1998 Australian Measles Control Campaign on immunity to measles and rubella, 4400 opportunistically-collected sera, submitted to diagnostic laboratories across Australia from subjects aged 1–49 years, and 3000 from subjects aged 1–18-years, were tested before and after the campaign, respectively. The proportion of individuals aged 1–18 years who were immune to measles rose from 85% before, to 90% after, the campaign (P < 0·001). The greatest increase was in preschool (7%, P < 0·001) and primary school (10%, P < 0·001) children, who were actively targeted by the campaign. Rubella immunity in 1–18 year-olds rose from 83% to 91% (P < 0·001), again with significant increases in preschool (4%, P = 0·002) and primary school (16%, P < 0·001) children. 94% of individuals aged 19–49 years were immune to rubella. These serosurveys confirm other evidence of the effectiveness of the Australian Measles Control Campaign and demonstrate the value of serosurveillance using opportunistically collected sera.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects are responsible for symptom complexes that are characteristically heterogeneous but are typically represented by muscle weakness and neurological deficits. One common feature of mitochondrial disease is deafness. This report details the assessment and outcome of a patient with a previously undescribed mtDNA rearrangement who underwent cochlear implantation. The patient shows a marked improvement in sentence recognition tests and recognition of environmental sounds. Patients with profound sensorineural hearing loss due to mtDNA defects should be considered as candidates for cochlear implantation when they no longer benefit from conventional hearing aids.
The paper explores the links between changing transport technology, individual mobility and urban form in the British cities of Manchester and Glasgow in the mid-twentieth century. The variability of individual commuting preferences is stressed, and it is argued that decisions about the provision of public transport rarely took into account the views of individual commuters. It is also suggested that factors governing modal choice have remained quite stable from the 1930s to the 1960s.