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Chloris spp. are warm-season grasses that outcompete crops for scarce resources throughout Australia. In Queensland, mild winters and increased adoption of conservation tillage practices have led to an increase of this warm-season grass family in winter crops. The objective of this study is to understand whether droplet size (nozzle type) effects herbicide efficacy of summer perennial grasses, as previous research found no effect of droplet size (nozzle type) on herbicide efficacy of winter annual grasses. A study to compare droplet-size (nozzle type) effects on control of windmillgrass and its domesticated relative, rhodesgrass, was conducted at the University of Queensland in Gatton, QLD, Australia. Results showed little difference in dry weight reductions for windmillgrass or rhodesgrass across droplet size (nozzle type). Paraquat applications with the TTI nozzle resulted in significantly lower dry weight reductions compared with other droplet-size sprays (nozzle types) for rhodesgrass. Glyphosate, imazamox plus imazapyr, and clodinafop resulted in commercially acceptable control for both species, regardless of the droplet size (nozzle type) selected, indicating droplet size (nozzle type) has relatively little impact on the efficacy of these herbicides. Proper nozzle selection can result in control of Chloris spp., a hard to control weed species, while reducing the occurrence of spray drift to nearby sensitive areas.
There is clear evidence that the mother's stress, anxiety, or depression during pregnancy can alter the development of her fetus and her child, with an increased risk for later psychopathology. We are starting to understand some of the underlying mechanisms including the role of the placenta, gene–environment interactions, epigenetics, and specific systems including the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and cytokines. In this review we also consider how these effects may be different, and potentially exacerbated, in different parts of the world. There can be many reasons for elevated prenatal stress, as in communities at war. There may be raised pregnancy-specific anxiety with high levels of maternal and infant death. There can be raised interpersonal violence (in Afghanistan 90.2% of women thought that “wife beating” was justified compared with 2.0% in Argentina). There may be interactions with nutritional deficiencies or with extremes of temperature. Prenatal stress alters the microbiome, and this can differ in different countries. Genetic differences in different ethnic groups may make some more vulnerable or more resilient to the effects of prenatal stress on child neurodevelopment. Most research on these questions has been in predominantly Caucasian samples from high-income countries. It is now time to understand more about prenatal stress and psychopathology, and the role of both social and biological differences, in the rest of the world.
Prolonged separation from parental support is a risk factor for psychopathology. This study assessed the impact of brief separation from parents during childhood trauma on adult attachment tendencies and post-traumatic stress.
Children (n = 806) exposed to a major Australian bushfire disaster in 1983 and matched controls (n = 725) were assessed in the aftermath of the fires (mean age 7–8 years) via parent reports of trauma exposure and separation from parents during the fires. Participants (n = 500) were subsequently assessed 28 years after initial assessment on the Experiences in Close Relationships scale to assess attachment security, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was assessed using the PTSD checklist.
Being separated from parents was significantly related to having an avoidant attachment style as an adult (B = −3.69, s.e. = 1.48, β = −0.23, p = 0.013). Avoidant attachment was associated with re-experiencing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.31, p = 0.045), avoidance (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.30, p = 0.001) and numbing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.30, p < 0.001) symptoms. Anxious attachment was associated with re-experiencing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.18, p = 0.001), numbing (B = 0.03, β = 0.30, s.e. = 0.01, p < 0.001) and arousal (B = 0.04, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.43, p < 0.001) symptoms.
These findings demonstrate that brief separation from attachments during childhood trauma can have long-lasting effects on one's attachment security, and that this can be associated with adult post-traumatic psychopathology.
Over the past decades, Indigenous communities around the world have become more vocal and mobilized to address the health inequities they experience. Many Indigenous communities we work with in Canada, Australia, Latin America, the USA, New Zealand and to a lesser extent Scandinavia have developed their own culturally-informed services, focusing on the needs of their own community members. This paper discusses Indigenous healthcare innovations from an international perspective, and showcases Indigenous health system innovations that emerged in Canada (the First Nation Health Authority) and Colombia (Anas Wayúu). These case studies serve as examples of Indigenous-led innovations that might serve as models to other communities. The analysis we present suggests that when opportunities arise, Indigenous communities can and will mobilize to develop Indigenous-led primary healthcare services that are well managed and effective at addressing health inequities. Sustainable funding and supportive policy frameworks that are harmonized across international, national and local levels are required for these organizations to achieve their full potential. In conclusion, this paper demonstrates the value of supporting Indigenous health system innovations.
Burnt mounds, or fulachtaí fiadh as they are known in Ireland, are probably the most common prehistoric site type in Ireland and Britain. Typically Middle–Late Bronze Age in age (although both earlier and later examples are known), they are artefact-poor and rarely associated with settlements. The function of these sites has been much debated with the most commonly cited uses being for cooking, as steam baths or saunas, for brewing, tanning, or textile processing. A number of major infrastructural development schemes in Ireland in the years 2002–2007 revealed remarkable numbers of these mounds often associated with wood-lined troughs, many of which were extremely well-preserved. This afforded an opportunity to investigate them as landscape features using environmental techniques – specifically plant macrofossils and charcoal, pollen, beetles, and multi-element analyses. This paper summarises the results from eight sites from Ireland and compares them with burnt mound sites in Great Britain. The fulachtaí fiadh which are generally in clusters, are all groundwater-fed by springs, along floodplains and at the bases of slopes. The sites are associated with the clearance of wet woodland for fuel; most had evidence of nearby agriculture and all revealed low levels of grazing. Multi-element analysis at two sites revealed elevated heavy metal concentrations suggesting that off-site soil, ash or urine had been used in the trough. Overall the evidence suggests that the most likely function for these sites is textile production involving both cleaning and/or dyeing of wool and/or natural plant fibres and as a functionally related activity to hide cleaning and tanning. Whilst further research is clearly needed to confirm if fulachtaí fiadh are part of the ‘textile revolution’ we should also recognise their important role in the rapid deforestation of the wetter parts of primary woodland and the expansion of agriculture into marginal areas during the Irish and British Bronze Ages.
Maternal prenatal stress during pregnancy is associated with fetal growth restriction and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, which may be mediated by impaired placental function. Imprinted genes control fetal growth, placental development, adult behaviour (including maternal behaviour) and placental lactogen production. This study examined whether maternal prenatal depression was associated with aberrant placental expression of the imprinted genes paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3), paternally expressed gene 10 (PEG10), pleckstrin homology-like domain family a member 2 (PHLDA2) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C), and resulting impaired placental human placental lactogen (hPL) expression.
A diagnosis of depression during pregnancy was recorded from Manchester cohort participants’ medical notes (n = 75). Queen Charlotte's (n = 40) and My Baby and Me study (MBAM) (n = 81) cohort participants completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale self-rating psychometric questionnaire. Villous trophoblast tissue samples were analysed for gene expression.
In a pilot study, diagnosed depression during pregnancy was associated with a significant reduction in placental PEG3 expression (41%, p = 0.02). In two further independent cohorts, the Queen Charlotte's and MBAM cohorts, placental PEG3 expression was also inversely associated with maternal depression scores, an association that was significant in male but not female placentas. Finally, hPL expression was significantly decreased in women with clinically diagnosed depression (44%, p < 0.05) and in those with high depression scores (31% and 21%, respectively).
This study provides the first evidence that maternal prenatal depression is associated with changes in the placental expression of PEG3, co-incident with decreased expression of hPL. This aberrant placental gene expression could provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the co-occurrence of maternal depression, fetal growth restriction, impaired maternal behaviour and poorer offspring outcomes.
Céide Fields is a 12 km2 Neolithic field system in North Mayo in the west of Ireland. The fields, enclosed by an integrated system of stone walls, have been preserved intact by a cover of blanket bog that is >4 m deep in places. At many locations within this blanket bog the stumps of ancient pines (Pinus sylvestris) are found in situ. The pine roots in most cases are either on the surface of the mineral soil under the peat or at an intermediate level in the peat itself. The age of the trees in the bog overlying Céide Fields is therefore of great significance for the dating of the fields, as the trees must be younger than the bog in which they are growing, which in turn must be younger than the field system beneath it. We present here the dates (N = 15) for pine trees from the bogs overlying Céide Fields and the dates (N = 29) of pine trees from other areas of the North Mayo blanket bog. We compare these pine dates with published dates of peat associated with a major pollen analytical study from within the fields and with published dates for bog pine from Scotland. The results of the study suggest that the dates for the construction and period of use of Céide Fields and other Neolithic pre-bog field systems in North Mayo are older than anticipated and that the date for initiation of blanket bog in many parts of North Mayo is also older than previously estimated. Further, the range of dates of the pine stumps indicates a synchronic event contemporary with a similar phenomenon observed in Scotland.
Multiple behavioral and health outcomes, including internalizing symptoms, may be predicted from prenatal maternal anxiety, depression, or stress. However, not all children are affected, and those that are can be affected in different ways. Here we test the hypothesis that the effects of prenatal anxiety are moderated by genetic variation in the child's brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children population cohort. Internalizing symptoms were assessed from 4 to 13 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 8,584); a clinical interview with the adolescents was conducted at age 15 years (n = 4,704). Obstetric and psychosocial risk and postnatal maternal symptoms were included as covariates. Results show that prenatal maternal anxiety predicted internalizing symptoms, including with the diagnostic assessment at 15 years. There was a main effect of two BDNF polymorphisms (rs6265 [val66met] and rs11030104) on internalizing symptoms up to age 13. There was also genetic moderation of the prenatal anxiety effect by different BDNF polymorphisms (rs11030121 and rs7124442), although significant effects were limited to preadolescence. The findings suggest a role for BDNF gene–environment interactions in individual vulnerability to the effects of prenatal anxiety on child internalizing symptoms.
Three silicon-doped 3 µm thick GaN epilayers were grown simultaneously by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition on (0001) sapphire substrates misorientated by 0°, 4° and 10° toward the m-plane (100). A comparative study of these epilayers was undertaken using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging, CL spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements. Low temperature PL of the 0° and 4° epilayers shows donor bound exciton (BE) emission between 3.47 and 3.48 eV and a low level of yellow band emission. The peak intensities of both emission bands are a factor of 2 higher for the 4° layer. In the 10° epilayer, the BE band is 3x stronger than in the 0° epilayer but there is no discernible yellow band. However, a number of additional bands appear at 3.459, 3.417, 3.362, 3.345, 3.309, and 3.285 eV. These bands, some of which are acceptor related, may be attributed to the presence of structural defects in this epilayer, pointing to an abrupt degradation of its structural quality compared to the others. This degradation is confirmed by AFM studies. On a 20 µm x 20 µm image the 0° and 4° epilayers exhibit smooth surface morphologies, while the 10° epilayer shows a high density of hexagonal pits. Finally, SEM images reveal the surface of the 10° epilayer to be “streaked” and pitted. Low temperature CL images at 3.48 eV (bound exciton region) show random spotty emission, while those at 3.28 eV and 3.41 eV exhibit a streaky appearance similar to the SEM image. This suggests that these luminescence bands are indeed associated with structural defects.
In this paper we illustrate the application of electron beam techniques to the measurement of strain, defect and alloy concentrations in nitride thin films. We present brief comparative studies of CL spectra of AlGaN and InGaN epilayers and EBSD patterns obtained from two silicon-doped 3 μm thick GaN epilayers grown on an on-axis (0001) sapphire substrate and a sapphire substrate misoriented by 10° toward the m-plane (10 0).
Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectrometry (RBS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to investigate macroscopic and microscopic segregation in MOCVD grown InGaN layers. The PL peak energy and In content (measured by RBS) were mapped at a large number of distinct points on the samples. An indium concentration of 40%, the highest measured in this work, corresponds to a PL peak of 710 nm, strongly suggesting that the light-emitting regions of the sample are very indium-rich compared to the average measured by RBS. Cross-sectional TEM observations show distinctive layering of the InGaN films. The TEM study further reveals that these layers consist of amorphous pyramidal contrast features with sizes of order 10 nm. The composition of these specific contrast features is shown to be In-rich compared to the nitride matrix.
In this paper we examine a series of four GaN epilayers grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates with different AlN buffer layer thicknesses. We examine the effect of the buffer layer thickness on the physical and optical properties of the samples via optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence imaging and photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. While the morphological and optical properties of all the films (excepting that with the thinnest buffer layer of 30 nm) are good, i.e., the films are smooth and the luminescence is dominated by excitonic luminescence, a number of circular island like features are observed in all the films whose density decrease with increasing buffer layer thickness. A large circular island present on the sample with the thinnest buffer layer and surrounded by cracks in the directions, displays some interesting acceptor related luminescence.
In this paper we compare gallium nitride (GaN) films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire (Al2O3), gallium arsenide (GaAs (111)B) and lithium gallate (LiGaO2) substrates. Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence imaging and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy are used to characterise the films. From growth runs carried out to date, GaN films on GaAs substrates exhibit the best surface uniformity and the cleanest luminescence.
Developmental or fetal programming has emerged as a major model for understanding the early and persisting effects of prenatal exposures on the health and development of the child and adult. We leverage the power of a 14-year prospective study to examine the persisting effects of prenatal anxiety, a key candidate in the developmental programming model, on symptoms of behavioral and emotional problems across five occasions of measurement from age 4 to 13 years. The study is based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort, a prospective, longitudinal study of a large community sample in the west of England (n = 7,944). Potential confounders included psychosocial and obstetric risk, postnatal maternal mood, paternal pre- and postnatal mood, and parenting. Results indicated that maternal prenatal anxiety predicted persistently higher behavioral and emotional symptoms across childhood with no diminishment of effect into adolescence. Elevated prenatal anxiety (top 15%) was associated with a twofold increase in risk of a probable child mental disorder, 12.31% compared with 6.83%, after allowing for confounders. Results were similar with prenatal depression. These analyses provide some of the strongest evidence to date that prenatal maternal mood has a direct and persisting effect on her child's psychiatric symptoms and support an in utero programming hypothesis.
Some studies have found an association between elevated cortisol and
subsequent depression, but findings are inconsistent. The cortisol
awakening response may be a more stable measure of
hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal function and potentially of stress
To investigate whether salivary cortisol, particularly the cortisol
awakening response, is associated with subsequent depression in a large
Young people (aged 15 years, n = 841) from the Avon
Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) collected salivary
cortisol at four time points for 3 school days. Logistic regression was
used to calculate odds ratios for developing depression meeting ICD-10
criteria at 18 years.
We found no evidence for an association between salivary cortisol and
subsequent depression. Odds ratios for the cortisol awakening response
were 1.24 per standard deviation (95% CI 0.93–1.66, P =
0.14) before and 1.12 (95% CI 0.73–1.72, P = 0.61) after
adjustment for confounding factors. There was no evidence that the other
cortisol measures, including cortisol at each time point, diurnal drop
and area under the curve, were associated with subsequent depression.
Our findings do not support the hypothesis that elevated salivary
cortisol increases the short-term risk of subsequent depressive illness.
The results suggest that if an association does exist, it is small and
unlikely to be of clinical significance.
Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectrometry (RBS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to investigate macroscopic and microscopic segregation in MOCVD grown InGaN layers. The PL peak energy and In content (measured by RBS) were mapped at a large numberof distinct points on the samples. An indium concentration of 40%, the highest measured in this work, corresponds to a PL peak of 710 nm, strongly suggesting that the lightemitting regions of the sample are very indium-rich compared to the average measured by RBS. Cross-sectional TEM observations show distinctive layering of the InGaN films. The TEM study further reveals that these layers consist of amorphous pyramidal contrast features with sizes of order 10 nm. The composition of these specific contrast features is shown to be In-rich compared to the nitride matrix.
In this paper we illustrate the application of electron beam techniques to the measurement of strain, defect and alloy concentrations in nitride thin films. We present brief comparative studies of CL spectra of AlGaN and InGaN epilayers and EBSD patterns obtained from two silicon-doped 3 μm thick GaN epilayers grown on an on-axis (0001) sapphire substrate and a sapphire substrate misoriented by 10° toward the m-plane (1010).
We describe a study of the hexagonal growth hillocks commonly present in gallium nitride films. The MOVPE-grown epilayers of the present work exhibit a predominantly smooth morphology but small groups of hexagonal hillocks were found to populate the surface, particularly at the sample edges.
Scanning electron (SE) micrographs were taken of several groups of hillocks. At the maximum beam energy of 25 keV, two types of hexagonal hillock are visible. Hillocks in the first group are terminated by an apex (ie. they are pyramidal in form), while the other, flat-topped, hillocks terminate on (0001)-facets. As one lowers the electron beam energy, thereby reducing beam penetration, some of the flat-topped hillocks disappear from the image. From this we tentatively deduce that these hillocks are buried. The result of further investigations, using an atomic force microscope, are consistent with the presence of sub-surface features.
The relationship between the luminescence and morphological properties of a pyramidal hillock is studied via cathodoluminescence imaging. The band-edge emission originates from the full hexagonal structure, except for the central region, where only the defect-related yellow luminescence is apparent. We suggest this might be explained by defects associated with inversion domain boundaries at the hillock centre.