To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A quick search on antonyms for “creative” yields obvious results such as “uncreative,” “unimaginative,” and “uninspired,” but also terms such as “dull,” “derivative,” and “stodgy.” In the world of cultural resources and mitigation of adverse effects, “creative” is most often opposed to “standard.” That sounds like a good thing, right? Good old, reliable, dependable, predictable standard mitigation. But as we will see from the articles in this special issue, remarkable things can happen when those designing mitigation programs replace or augment “standard” approaches. What is it about a mitigation measure or program that leads us to term it “creative”? How can we expand those defining qualities of creative mitigation measures and programs to enhance the quality of standard mitigation approaches? How can we make the standard approaches, if not creative, at least not stodgy?
Firefighting service is known to involve high rates of exposure to potentially traumatic situations, and research on mental health in firefighting populations is of critical importance in understanding the impact of occupational exposure. To date, the literature concerning prevalence of trauma-related mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has not distinguished between symptomology associated routine duty-related exposure and exposure to large-scale disaster. The present systematic review synthesizes a heterogeneous cross-national literature on large-scale disaster exposure in firefighters and provides support for the hypothesis that the prevalence of PTSD, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders are elevated in firefighters compared with rates observed in the general population. In addition, we conducted narrative synthesis concerning several commonly assessed predictive factors for disorder and found that sociodemographic factors appear to bear a weak relationship to mental disorder, while incident-related factors, such as severity and duration of disaster exposure, bear a stronger and more consistent relationship to the development of PTSD and depression in cross-national samples. Future work should expand on these preliminary findings to better understand the impact of disaster exposure in firefighting personnel.
Oxleas NHS Foundation Trust has run a Court Diversion Service in South East London since 1991. It provides services for people within the earlier stages of the Criminal Justice System.
This evaluation aims to combine data from across the 25-year period since the introduction of the diversion scheme. It seeks to provide a longitudinal picture to elucidate the impact of service changes during this time.
The evaluation uses data obtained from a variety of sources for four points in time: 2015/2016, 2011, 1999 and 1991. Data across domains was collated to allow longitudinal analysis.
After the initial introduction of the scheme in 1991, the total mean time on remand was noted to drop from 67.1 days to 49.5 days (P < 0.001). There were 280 referrals over 18 months in 1991, 210 per year in 1999, 190 in 2011 and 174 between April 2015 and March 2016. Violent crimes increased from 29% in 1991 to 47% in 2011. The proportion with schizophrenia decreased from 31% in 1991 to 18% in 1999, before increasing again to 25% in 2011. The use of Section 37 hospital order disposal decreased from 15% in 1991 to just 4% in 2011.
The court diversion scheme has produced significant benefits since it was introduced in 1991, despite a rise in the proportion of violent alleged offences. Changes to the service have seen decreased use of hospital orders.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Project management expertise is employed across many professional sectors, including clinical research organizations, to ensure that efforts undertaken by the organization are completed on time and according to specifications and are capable of achieving the needed impact. Increasingly, project leaders (PLs) who possess this expertise are being employed in academic settings to support clinical and preclinical translational research team science. Duke University’s clinical and translational science enterprise has been an early adopter of project management to support clinical and preclinical programs. We review the history and evolution of project management and the PL role at Duke, examine case studies that illustrate their growing value to our academic research environment, and address challenges and solutions to employing project management in academia. Furthermore, we describe the critical role project leadership plays in accelerating and increasing the success of translational team science and team approaches frequently required for systems biology and “big data” scientific studies. Finally, we discuss perspectives from Duke project leadership professionals regarding the training needs and requirements for PLs working in academic clinical and translational science research settings.
Analyzing audiovisual communication is challenging because its content is highly symbolic and less rule-governed than verbal material. But audiovisual messages are important to understand: they amplify, enrich, and complicate the meaning of textual information. We describe a fully-reproducible approach to analyzing video content using minimally—but systematically—trained online workers. By aggregating the work of multiple coders, we achieve reliability, validity, and costs that equal those of traditional, intensively trained research assistants, with much greater speed, transparency, and replicability. We argue that measurement strategies relying on the “wisdom of the crowd” provide unique advantages for researchers analyzing complex and intricate audiovisual political content.
Increased post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates have been documented in children exposed to war. However, the contribution of childhood adversities and environmental sensitivity to children's responses to adversities and trauma are still far from settled.
To evaluate the relative roles of war, childhood adversities and sensitivity in the genesis of PTSD.
Data on childhood adversities and sensitivity was collected from 549 Syrian refugee children in Lebanon. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the PTSD Reaction Index.
Although childhood adversities, war events and sensitivity were all significantly related to PTSD in bivariate analyses, multivariate analyses showed that childhood adversities were the most important variable in predicting PTSD. The effect of war on PTSD was found to be dependent on the interplay between childhood adversities and sensitivity, and was most prominent in highly sensitive children with lower levels of adversities; in sensitive children experiencing high levels of adversities, the effects of war exposure on PTSD were less pronounced.
When considering the effects of war on PTSD in refugee children, it is important to take account of the presence of other adversities as well as of children's sensitivity. Sensitive children may be more vulnerable to the negative effects of war exposure, but only in contexts that are characterised by low childhood adversities.
Quadrotor-UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) systems are becoming increasingly ubiquitous in archaeological field research for the production of digital elevation models and orthophoto mosaics of sites, monuments, and landscapes. In order to make up for the lack of suitable imagery to use in a larger project on the landscapes surrounding Bronze Age tell sites in the Murghab delta of eastern Turkmenistan, we developed a protocol for the deployment of out-of-the-box UAV systems to document sites and their immediate environs. This article discusses the fundamentals of aerial survey based on our experience deploying a quadrotor UAV, using examples from our case study of the site of Togolok 1. We argue that the approach we developed is particularly useful for mesoscale survey, between 1 and 5 km2, and is particularly useful for producing technical quality outputs, even by relative newcomers to UAV-based aerial survey.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Approximately 25%–45% of veterans are dual users of VA and civilian healthcare. In order to maximize patient outcomes, understanding factors related to dual use is important. This study examined mental and physical health factors related to dual use of VA and civilian healthcare among U.S. National Guard and Reserve (NG/R) soldiers. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: NG/R soldiers and their partners (n=411 couples) participated in an electronic survey assessing health and health behaviors. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between mental health (anxiety, depression, PTSD, anger), general health, and VA disability status at baseline, with usage of both VA and civilian healthcare among male soldiers (n=109) at the second year follow-up, controlling for age and race. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In the final adjusted models, of the mental health conditions, only anxiety was related to dual use (OR: 1.08, 1.01–1.16, p<0.05). Having a VA disability rating (OR: 4.00, 1.22–13.18; p<0.05) was also related to being a dual user. General health was not related to dual use. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: While research has identified demographic characteristics (e.g., rurality, race, income) related to dual healthcare use, our results indicate that mental health, particularly anxiety, may also be related to dual use. Further study is needed to tease out the prime drivers of dual use to identify future care delivery mechanisms that will maximize treatment outcomes and minimize duplicative care.
Background:ATP8A2 mutations have only recently been associated with human disease. We present the clinical features from the largest cohort of patients with this disorder reported to date. Methods: An observational study of 9 unreported and 2 previously reported patients with biallelic ATP8A2 mutations was carried out at multiple centres. Results: The mean age of the cohort was 9.4 years old (range: 2.5-28 yrs). All patients demonstrated developmental delay, severe hypotonia and movement disorders: chorea/choreoathetosis (100%), dystonia (27%) or facial dyskinesia (18%). Hypotonia was apparent at birth (70%) or before 6 months old (100%). Optic atrophy was observed in 75% of patients who had a funduscopic examination. MRI of the brain was normal for most patients with a small proportion showing mild cortical atrophy (30%), delayed myelination (20%) and/or hypoplastic optic nerves (20%). Epilepsy was seen in two older patients. Conclusions:ATP8A2 gene mutations have emerged as a cause of a novel phenotype characterized by developmental delay, severe hypotonia and hyperkinetic movement disorders. Optic atrophy is common and may only become apparent in the first few years of life, necessitating repeat ophthalmologic evaluation. Early recognition of the cardinal features of this condition will facilitate diagnosis of this disorder.
The patient portal may be an effective method for administering surveys regarding participant research experiences but has not been systematically studied.
We evaluated 4 methods of delivering a research participant perception survey: mailing, phone, email, and patient portal. Participants of research studies were identified (n=4013) and 800 were randomly selected to receive a survey, 200 for each method. Outcomes included response rate, survey completeness, and cost.
Among those aged <65 years, response rates did not differ between mail, phone, and patient portal (22%, 29%, 30%, p>0.07). Among these methods, the patient portal was the lowest-cost option. Response rates were significantly lower using email (10%, p<0.01), the lowest-cost option. In contrast, among those aged 65+ years, mail was superior to the electronic methods (p<0.02).
The patient portal was among the most effective ways to reach research participants, and was less expensive than surveys administered by mail or telephone.
Life has been described as information flowing in molecular streams (Dawkins, 1996).Our growing understanding of the impact of horizontal gene transfer on evolutionary dynamics reinforces this fluid-like flow of molecular information (Joyce, 2002). The diversity of nucleic acid sequences, those known and yet to be characterized across Earth's varied environments, along with the vast repertoire of catalytic and structural proteins, presents as more of a dynamic molecular river than a tree of life. These informational biopolymers function as a mutualistic union so universal as to have been termed the Central Dogma (Crick, 1958). It is the distinct folding dynamics-the digital-like base pairing dominating nucleic acids, and the environmentally responsive and diverse range of analog-like interactions dictating protein folding (Goodwin et al., 2012)-that provides the basis for the mutualism. The intertwined functioning of these analog and digital forms of information (Goodwin et al., 2012) unified within diverse chemical networks is heralded as the Darwinian threshold of cellular life (Woese, 2002).
The discovery of prion diseases (Chien et al., 2004; Jablonka and Raz, 2009; Paravastu et al., 2008) introduced the paradigm of protein templates that propagate conformational information, suggesting a new context for Darwinian evolution. When taking both protein and nucleic acid moelcular evolution into consideration (Cairns- Smith, 1966; Joyce, 2002), the conceptual framework for chemical evolution can be generalized into three orthogonal dimensions as shown in Figure 5.1 (Goodwin et al., 2014). The 1st dimension manifests structural order through covalent polymerization reactions and includes chain length, sequence, and linkage chemistry inherent to a dynamic chemical network. The 2nd dimension extends the order in dynamic conformational networks through noncovalent interactions of the polymers. This dimension includes intramolecular and intermolecular forces, from macromolecular folding to supramolecular assembly to multicomponent quaternary structure. Folding in this 2nd dimension certainly depends on the primary polymer sequence, and the folding/assembly diversity yields an additional set of environmentally constrained supramolecular folding codes. For example, double-stranded DNA assemblies are dominated by the rules of complementary base pairing, while the self-propagating conformations of prions are based on additional noncovalent, environmentally-dependent interactions.
To this date ψ Per is the only classical Be star that was angularly resolved in radio (by the VLA at λ = 2 cm). Gaussian fit to the azimuthally averaged visibility data indicates a disk size (FWHM) of ~500 stellar radii (Dougherty & Taylor 1992). Recently, we obtained new multi-band cm flux density measurements of ψ Per from the enhanced VLA. We modeled the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) covering the interval from ultraviolet to radio using the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code HDUST (Carciofi & Bjorkman 2006). An SED turndown, that occurs between far-IR and radio wavelengths, is explained by a truncated viscous decretion disk (VDD), although the shallow slope of the radio SED suggests that the disk is not simply cut off, as is assumed in our model. The best-fit size of a truncated disk derived from the modeling of the radio SED is 100+5−15 stellar radii, which is in striking contrast with the result of Dougherty & Taylor (1992). The reasons for this discrepancy are under investigation.
Adipose tissue (AT) fatty acid (FA) composition partly reflects habitual dietary intake. Circulating NEFA are mobilised from AT and might act as a minimally invasive surrogate marker of AT FA profile. Agreement between twenty-eight FA in AT and plasma NEFA was assessed using concordance coefficients in 204 male and female participants in a 12-month intervention using supplements to increase the intake of EPA and DHA. Concordance coefficients generally showed very poor agreement between AT FA and plasma NEFA at baseline SFA: 0·07; MUFA: 0·03; n-6 PUFA: 0·28; n-3 PUFA: 0·01). Participants were randomly divided into training (70 %) and validation (30 %) data sets, and models to predict AT and dietary FA were fitted using data from the training set, and their predictive ability was assessed using data from the validation set. AT n-6 PUFA and SFA were predicted from plasma NEFA with moderate accuracy (mean absolute percentage error n-6 PUFA: 11 % and SFA: 8 %), but predicted values were unable to distinguish between low, medium and high FA values, with only 25 % of n-6 PUFA and 33 % of SFA predicted values correctly assigned to the appropriate tertile group. Despite an association between AT and plasma NEFA EPA (P=0·001) and DHA (P=0·01) at baseline, there was no association after the intervention. To conclude, plasma NEFA are not a suitable surrogate for AT FA.
As a relatively new field of scientific study, meeting science continues to generate many questions. For example, what is meeting science? Who are meeting scientists? What distinguishes meeting science from other related fields of inquiry? The purpose of this chapter is to address these commonly asked questions. In this chapter we review what meeting science is, discuss the nascent nature of the field, describe who meeting scientists are and what they do, and disentangle the relationship between meeting science and team science. To close, we outline directions for future research on meetings.
Publications on mental health were collected using PubMed and PsychINFO for 21 Arab countries. The data were then categorised according to the first author's country of affiliation, the year of publication, the topic of research and the type of journal. In 2006–12, the Arab world published 1029 articles (an average of 147 per year). The estimated increase in yearly productivity during this period was about 25% over the 7 preceding years. When considering the research output per million population, Kuwait, Bahrain and Lebanon were the top three producers, as they had been over the preceding four decades. After adjusting for gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, the five top producers were Egypt, Jordan, Tunisia, Lebanon and Morocco. Based on child and adolescent mental health research only, the Arab world's productivity was around one-sixth that of the United States and Europe.