The properties of a turbulent boundary layer were investigated as they relate to the form drag on a two-dimensional fence. Detailed measurements were performed at zero pressure gradient of velocity profiles along smooth, rough and transitional flat plates. Upon comparison with other published data, these measurements resulted in simple formulae for the displacement thickness and the local shear coefficient and in a modification to the universal velocity defect law for equilibrium boundary layers.
With these boundary layers, experiments were performed to determine the drag on a two-dimensional fence. These data were analysed along with data from previous investigations. It was found that after suitable blockage corrections all form-drag coefficients for two-dimensional fences collapsed on a single curve if they were calculated with the shear velocity as the reference velocity and plotted against the ratio of the fence height to the characteristic roughness parameter of the approaching flow.